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why I had been preserved. Truly, God loves us better than we love ourselves.

"And is there care in heaven? and is
there love,

In heavenly spirits, to these creatures

That may compassion for their evils


There is :-else much more wretched

were the case

Of men, than beasts. But O the ex-
ceeding grace

Of highest God! who loves his crea

tures so,

And all his works with mercy doth

That blessed angels he sends to and fro, To serve to wicked men, to serve his wicked foe.

“I watched the sun sink slowly behind the Jura; the shadows of twilight spread gradually over the water, and deepen in the recesses of the mountains at the head of the lake; and when, still later, the stars had begun to glimmer upon the calm surface and I turned to descend into the village, I could still descry the snows of the Dent du Midi gleaming aloft in the twilight, and tinged with the lingering hues of departed day." pp. 304-307.

We lament that there is not a larger proportion of such reflections, which might have been exalted still higher, even to the highest elevation of Christian doctrine and The scenes despiritual feeling. scribed would well have admitted

How oft do they their silver bowers of this; and if our author or our

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And their bright squadrons round
about us plant :

And all for love, and nothing for re-

O how can gracious God to man have
such regard!

"The outlines of the vast and magnificent scene displayed around the head of the lake of Geneva, are easy to describe; but no pen and no pencil can embody and pourtray the beauty and delicious colouring of the picture, as the hand of God has painted it. Vevay, Clarens, and Chillon, are names, which among thou sands in the surrounding nations, as well as our own, have become inseparably

linked with the idea of beauty: the mere
mention of them seems to bring sun-
the memory.

readers would see how beautifully, how pathetically, how naturally, the blessed promises of Scripture, and the intimacies of the spiritual life, comport with the diary of a Christian traveller, let them read the journal of Henry Martyn, especially that most affecting passage, his last entry in the orchard at Tocat. The charm of such a passage is, that it rises far above religious sentimentalism, into devout fervour and true spirituality. The heart mused; and the lips would have spoken, but that there was none but God to hear; but the pen traced the warm feeling on the tablet, and the fellow-pilgrim who travels on the journey reads the record, and lifts up his head giving glory to God. Thus felt the inspired Psalmist, and his glowing effusions have been handed down for the consolation of future ages.



A PAMPHLET with a gross and offensive title has been sent us, addressed to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, relative to their West-India slave estates. We only allude to it, without specifying its title, for the sake of expressing our extreme concern that any person anxious for the abolition of slavery on the Codrington estates, or elsewhere, should have allowed himself to write after the fashion of this pamphlet.

We feel pained and grieved at such language, in whatever cause employed-whether in an anti-slavery pamphlet; or in the Record calling Mr. O'Connell a fiend incarnate. We think it right, however, to add, that our rebuke to the writer of this pamphlet does not spring from any lukewarmness on the subject of the Codrington estates; for we believe the continuance of slavery one hour on the Society's plantations to be a sin, and a disgrace to every member of the institution


Lit. and Phil. Intell.-Great Britain.

who does not do all that in him lies to
terminate so unjust and unchristian a
system: and the crime will become great-
ly augmented, after the explicit admission
in the late Special Report of the bounden
duty of putting an end to slavery, and the
proofs which we urged-and which no
member of the Society has attempted to
refute of the safety of so doing; and
which are now further corroborated by the
declarations of his Majesty's Government,
who have emancipated the Crown slaves
without a shadow of the alleged bloodshed,
massacre, and other evils, with which
some advocate for slavery has contrived
to terrify some of the Reverend and Right
Reverend friends of the Society. We
adopt from our hearts, in relation to sla-
very, the words of Mr. Pitt, in one of
his speeches on the slave-trade.
ought the slave-trade to be abolished?
Because it is incurable injustice. How much
stronger, then, is the argument for imme-
diate than gradual abolition! By allowing
it to continue even for one hour, do not my
right honourable friends weaken-do not
they desert their own argument of its
injustice? If, on the ground of injustice,
it ought to be abolished at last, why ought
it not now? Why is injustice to be suffered
to remain for a single hour?"-Why in-
deed? The Society, however, give a
reason—namely, to set the planters a
good example of the right management of
slaves. This they have not the power to
do, as a corporation West-Indian estate
must be peculiarly liable to mismanage-
ment. But even allow the plea: what does
it amount to? Setting the planters an
example of a Christian way of perpetu-
ating injustice; retaining the profit of
men-stealers, yet avoiding their guilt and

Miss Joanna Baillie, we lament to state, has published a work in favour of Socinianism, under the inappropriate title of "The Nature and Dignity of Christ." We notice the circumstance lest the name of Miss Baillie, and the misnomer in the title, should lead any reader to purchase the volume expecting better things. The work contains only the common-places of the Unitarian heresy, and does no credit to the talents of the gifted writer; or to the zealous suffrages of the Gentleman's Magazine, which, we lament to say, under a profession of attachment to the Church of England, has of late years strongly countenanced heterodoxy and bitterly opposed Evangelical truth.

We rejoice to witness the rapid progress of Temperance Societies, from which we augur great benefit to the present and succeeding generations. A cen tral one has recently been formed in London, under the patronage of the Bishop of the diocese; and associations, we trust, will speedily be instituted in every parish and village of the kingdom, The evils of drunkenness, and especially


of spirit-drinking, are appalling beyond
conception; and the only way, we are per-
suaded, in which it is practicable to stem
the torrent, is by rightly instructing all
classes of society, and particularly the
poor, upon the subject; shewing them the
guilt and folly of the practice; convincing
them that ardent spirits, instead of in-
creasing strength, are as injurious to the
health as to the morals of the victim;
and enlisting them, from conscience, con-
viction, and habit, on the side of total ab-
stinence from them. It appears to us
that all other means such as imposing
higher taxes, and preventing the facilities
of sale-are of comparatively little use.
The poor have too long been treated as chil-
dren, to be coerced into sobriety; not led
to govern themselves as men and as Chris-
tians. If a poor man can buy beer cheaply
next door, we do not think that a legis-
lature has any right to force him to buy
Under such a sys-
it dearly further off.
tem self-controul is not exercised; and
the man's abstinence from intoxication is
not a moral virtue, but only a physical
necessity, for which he revenges himself
by getting drunk whenever he has an op-

We see this exemplified in the excesses which have followed throwing open the trade in beer. The poor had not been taught to govern themselves, and hence, like ill-managed children let loose, they have rushed into mischief. The proper corrective of this evil is the course pursued by temperance societies; not locking up beer and spirits, and irritating men's minds by unnecessary taxes and restrictions, but inducing them, upon rational and religious principles, to use their liberty without injury to themselves or others. This is the course which has been taken in the United States of America, with such powerful effect that thousands of drunkards have been reclaimed, numerous distilleries are closed, many taverns refuse to supply ardent spirits, and not a few vessels put to sea for long voyages without any distilled liquor on board, except in the medicine chest. The American temperance societies strongly deprecate legislative interference; convinced that were the slightest legal restriction interposed the evil would revive in all its force.

The temperance societies do not interfere with moderate wine-drinking; but if any of their members are prepared to follow up truth to the fountain-head, we recommend them to turn their attention to this section of the subject. Every medical man, we believe, without exception, who has written or spoken on the subject of temperance societies, either in America or Great Britain, has declared that the difference between wine and spirit drinking is only a question of degree; that a gentleman who takes regularly only what is considered a moderate quantity of the strong wines ordi

narily used in this country, consumes more alcohol than a poor man who resorts two or three times a-day to the dramshop; and that very rarely does a case occur in which the health and spirits would not be permanently benefited by a total abstinence from all alcoholized beverages and stimulants. If any of our

readers doubt it in their own case, let them consult an honest and well-informed physician, who will not administer a placebo for a fee. They may also read with advantage a pamphlet just published on "The Wine System of Great Britain," and the publications of the Temperance




THE Company of Pastors has published the discussion between themselves and M. Gaussen. Though it professes to relate only to a point of ecclesiastical discipline, it bears on its front the ominous character of the prevailing theology of Geneva, and which is the more to be deplored, on account of the great number of ministers, French as well as natives, who receive their education at that university. Alas! what will Professor Cheneviere, in particular, have to account for, in relation to those young men whose initiation into the antichristian mysteries of Neologism has been conducted under his auspices! The Company, in this official document, speak of the doctrines "called orthodox," and declare that it is probable that" the immense majority of the pastors have renounced, in a great number of points, the doctrine and discipline of Calvin." Under this vague expression, it must be borne in mind, are included the sinfulness and condemnation of mankind; justification only through faith in the sacrifice of Christ; regeneration by the Holy Spirit; and the doctrine of the Trinity. These doctrines, the Pastors expressly state, are not now to be found in their Catechism, and they think that they ought not to be there. Thus we have now their own admission of their having renounced several of the fundamental and essential articles of the faith. There is now no room for the plea of ambiguity; there is no necessity to collate their modernised catechism in proof of heresy; they acknowledge that the doctrines" called orthodox" are not there! What, then, remains, but to arise and do their first works, and to endeavour, by the grace of God, to restore their church to that purity from which it has fallen?

AMERICAN CHRISTIAN SABBATH UNION. The third Report of this much-needed Society is a most valuable document, and contains much useful information relative to the efforts in progress for the due observance of the Lord's-day. The committee have found the work committed to them arduous difficulties have multiplied on every side and they call upon the members of the society to humble themselves

before God, on account of the apathy prevailing in the churches and throughout the nation on a subject of such transcendant importance. Still they cherish sanguine hopes, that both in their own country and in Europe, by the blessing of God, much good will be effected. They allude with great pleasure to the society recently established in London; particularly as that institution is founded strictly on: Scriptural principles, viewing the Lord'sday as of Divine obligation, and not a mere matter of expediency. The committee lament that law of the United States which provides that all the postoffices in the country shall be opened every Sabbath, and trust that the people may be brought to see that the stability of the laws of the state essentially depends upon a solemn recognition and devout observance of the laws of God.

The Report next states the results of several inquiries proposed to clerical and lay gentlemen in various parts of the United States, soliciting information and asking advice. The replies shew that far too little has been done by the professed friends of the Sabbath, but that beneficial results have been produced, both upon friends and enemies, by the formation and publications of the Union. The discipline in the churches for the offence of Sabbath-breaking is stated to be very lax; and it is added, that the exceptionable example of persons professing religion greatly emboldens others to still grosser violations. The committee are fully convinced that a great work remains to be done by the friends of their country and of religion. The anniversaries and publications of the society, and the discussions of the Sabbath question, have drawn public attention to the awful delinquencies that prevail, and shewn the necessity of continual efforts to rescue the Lord's-day from obliteration, They add;

"Pursuing their steady march, with prayer and dependence upon God, it is yet in the power of the friends of the Redeemer to rally around them all the friends of good order, of rational freedom, and of enlightened piety, for sustaining the Christian Sabbath, and thus sustaining all our civil and religious institutions. Let it be said, then, with affectionate

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View of Public Affairs.

earnestness, to professing Christians :
People of the living God! you who have
been redeemed by the blood of Christ!
awake, repent, and entirely reform; for
without your consistent example, vain
will it be to attempt the reformation of
others. The desecration of the Sabbath
will go on and increase, until you manifest
to the world that the Sabbath is to you &
delight, holy of the Lord, and honourable,
and that you prize it infinitely more than
gain, or any secular enjoyment. Like a
band of brethren, then, stand forth for
the preservation of this sacred day, on
the right observance of which God has
suspended the temporal and eternal welfare
of our country and the world."

Earnestly do we echo from this side of the Atlantic the warnings and exhortations of our Western friends. We would respectfully recommend the Institution lately formed in London, to follow the example of the American society in issuing a list of inquiries, with a view both to obtain information and to concentrate the efforts of all the friends to the cause throughout the empire. The Society is yet scarcely known: otherwise we are convinced that it would already have obtained wide and ample support throughout the country, especially on the part of those of the clergy who are really anxious for the glory of God and the spiritual welfare of mankind.





THE Reform Bill proceeds deliberately.
Its chief provisions have already been
agreed to by the House of Commons-
namely, the disfranchisement of the small-
er boroughs; the limitation of the next
class to a single member; the appointment
of the new places to be represented; and
the intended qualifications for the elective
franchise, and, in particular, throwing it
open, for the towns, to all 10. household-


The subordinate details are complicated, and some may still be altered: it will be time enough to give an abstract of the whole should it pass into a law. Two of its provisions have caused much dissatisfaction among many of the friends of reform: the one, the division of counties, urged by ministers; and the other, the gift of a vote for counties to 50l. agricultural tenants at will, forced upon them by a majority against their wish.


these provisions, it is urged, tend to defeat
one main object of the bill, and to give
to large land owners the power of com-
manding the local constituency. Now it
appears to us that there is no valid ob-
jection-quite the contrary-to property
finding its natural influence. If a tenantry,
for whatever reason, choose to vote for
their landlord or his friend, the public
have no right to interfere between the
parties all that can in justice be done is
to extend the right of voting somewhat
largely, as is now to be effected: the in-
justice was not in allowing A. or B. to
use his local weight in the decayed bo-
rough of C. or D., but in giving C. or
D. the privilege of returning members,
and denying it to Birmingham, Man-
chester, and other populous places. Let
our great land-owners enjoy the influence
their estates confer; they have a stake in
the country equal to their amount of pro-
perty: but let them not wish to make
their privilege exclusive. It is by one
class of a community shutting out others,
and not by each using its own natural

power in its own sphere, that a representation becomes unfair.

The admirable Church-building Bill introduced by the Bishop of London embodies almost every thing that, under The all the circumstances, is desirable. chief difficulty is the irresponsible veto afforded to each individual bishop. It is argued, that, in the present state of public opinion, and with the right of petition to Parliament in case of grievance, this is We hope not; not likely to be abused. but, to guard against such a possible contingency, we think that the bishop should be obliged to state his reasons for refusal; and if the parties are not satisfied with them, that they should be allowed an appeal to the archbishop. We see no possible objection to this provision; for if a bishop has not a reason for his veto that will bear putting into writing, he ought not to be allowed to act upon it. We defer our outline of the bill till it has received its final amendments.


There are two Irish mitres vacant, in consequence of the deaths of the Bishop of Derry and the Archbishop of Dublin. Had we been aware of the probability of this last event, we might have omitted or postponed, as inopportune, some remarks by one of our correspondents, in a former page of this number, on his Grace's highly valuable work on the Atonement. Grace was pleased to say in that treatise, that "the Christian Observer is a work distinguished for the uprightness and talent with which it is conducted ;" and we have no reason to think, that, had he seen our correspondent's remarks, they would have induced him to retract his testimonial. We may have another occasion of referring to this learned, active, and much-lamented prelate.

We have no space at present for Foreign Intelligence; otherwise the events in France, Belgium, Holland, Portugal, and elsewhere, offer an ample field for serious

remark. President Monro died on the fourth of last July, the anniversary of the United States' independence. It is a remarkable coincidence, and may furnish

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a solemn lesson, that three out of the four deceased presidents have expired on that anniversary of their glory.



We are much obliged to several friendly advisers, and hope to profit by their suggestions.


Having received from CAPTAIN GORDON a note, stating that we have made upon him "a most unprovoked, wanton, and insidious attack," and demanding space in the present Number for "a full and particular reply," we wrote to him, expressing our willingness at all times to insert a correction of any mistake which can be shewn to have been made in our pages," and have, at considerable inconvenience, kept open our Number to the latest moment for that purpose, but have not received the promised communication. We state this to prevent misrepresentation, and in justice both to Captain Gordon and ourselves. He has, however, found a volunteer defender in the Record newspaper, whose "attack" upon us in this and other instances we are not careful to answer. We are quite content to bear, with wiser and better men, our share of the reproaches of the Record; whose promised labours we rejoiced to recommend to our readers, but whose subsequent course, much to our grief, has prevented our repeating that recommendation; though we still kept silence, hoping even yet that a better mind might be infused into its columns, and that it might become an instrument of great good, instead of contention and evil. We shall still pursue the same course. Indeed it were vain to remonstrate with the conductors of a publication so wedded to partizanship as, on the one hand, to allow Captain Gordon to state in their columns that the members of the Bible Society seem to be labouring under Satanic influence, and to aver, with him, that the annual public meeting, including hundreds of well-known Clergymen and Dissenting ministers, and the vast body, male and female, of the usual attendants on our religious anniversaries, was a "packed" assembly; and yet, on the other, because we happened to express our regret at the unhappy spirit which so often arises when Captain Gordon comes forward in public proceedings, assails us in a tone of reckless injustice, of which we shall only say that we mourn to witness it in a newspaper professing to be devoted to the cause of God and his truth. We, however, grieve to add, that this spirit runs too much throughout the whole file of its folios; so that, opening at almost any part, we might write, “ Si monumentum quæris circumspice." Do the conductors of the Record really believe what they affirm, when, not only falsifying facts, but unjustly attributing corrupt motives, they aver that the Christian Observer has written as it has done respecting some of Captain Gordon's public proceedings (for we have not breathed a line in disparagement of his private life, character, or religious sentiments), "because the fair fame of the Observer in the eyes of Mr. O'Connell, Mr. William Smith, Mr. Long Pole Wellesley, who was brought into parliament through the energetic exertions of the Observer's Dissenting allies, and of Friends, we are sorry to say, among others, would be tarnished; or possibly in the eyes of Lord Brougham, and that cabinet which has recently met on seven Lord's-days in succession for the dispatch of business. It is well, we dare say, for the Observer to maintain its character in such quarters for good judgment and prudence." We ask, do the conductors of this newspaper, professing to be religious, and therefore to bridle their tongues and pens, believe one word of this? They cannot; for the whole of it, from first to last, is mere fiction; its assertion is wholly gratuitous; it has not a peg for such a tale to hang upon; we know not even so much as to what it purports to allude. The Christian Observer fears, says the Record, lest its fair fame should be tarnished with Mr. O'Connell, Mr. William Smith, and Mr. Wellesley. The extravagance of such a declaration would have prevented any other journal than the Record affirming it; for we have not the slightest acquaintance, even to touching our hats, with any one of those individuals; nor are we aware that any one of them ever read or saw a single page of our work. So, also, what the editor of the Record would insinuate in saying that some allies of ours brought Mr. Wellesley into parliament, we cannot so much as conjecture; for we know absolutely nothing of these supposed allies, or of Mr. Wellesley's election, or the name of any one of his voters, or that any one of them had ever seen or heard of our work. So, again, we never spoke even casually to Lord Brougham, or to any one member of the present

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