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I have done. My sloth and pride are indeed great. They need just such a trial as this before me to crucify them. O! my God, correct me but with judgment, not in thine anger, lest thou bring me to nothing.' Whilst thou sufferest me to feel the effects of my folly, O! do not leave me wholly to myself, for then I shall assuredly sink,-both soul, and intellect, and body will fail, and I shall be quite overset. I seem like Peter to have ventured to walk on the sea at thy call; my perilous situation now appears to me; the waves run high; I am beginning to sink, and cry out, 'Lord, save or I perish.' In no other way can I go on than by keeping my eye constantly fixed upon thee. Thou didst say to thy people of old, when the ocean was immediately before them, 'Go forward, and whilst they obeyed thy call, thou didst make a wondrous way for them through the deep. O! do so for me, whilst I ven

ture to undertake what is too much for

me; at thy command, and as in compliance with thy providential will. Pardon, pardon my past sloth, and from this time loose the bands of it, that I may tempt thee no more. Enable me to set my face like a flint, and not to care for the reproaches of men. Only let them not through me, extend to thy Gospel, and thy great name. Rather cut me off at once, than suffer me to be here to the detriment of thy cause. Amen."


"Jan. 23, 1791. Here I raise Ebenezer '-hitherto the Lord hath help ed me, so that I have been carried through

the lectures of one week out of thirteen. Yesterday, indeed, I was not able to give any lecture, because much indisposed, and not prepared in the Greek Testament; and also weighed down with the news of dear Mrs. R.'s death. O! my God, forgive the omission, and so help me, that it may not be necessary for me soon to repeat it; make me to be of a right mind with respect to the manner in which I shall give my Greek Testament Lectures; shew me how far thou wouldst have them be literary, and how far spiritual. Enable me to make a proper estimate of what should be done or undertaken, in my circumstances, (i. e. considering my debility both of mind and body, and the very short time I shall be able to devote to these Lectures,) and let not pride cause any anxious endeavours in me to make them more respectable, than they otherwise will be, at the expense of my health, or to the neglect of other duties; for this would be opposite to thy will. O! let thy peculiar blessing be on this branch of my Lectures, and let me have thy peculiar direction in the management of it. Grant that my declaration of thy precious truth may be faithful, yet wise, both in the pupil-room, and at St. Mary's, when thou shalt summon me into that pulpit; give me to see in what sense 1 am to understand those words of the Apostle, not with wisdom of words,

lest the cross of Christ should be made of none effect;' and how far they are applicable to my preaching before such an audience, and may nothing in my spirit prevent my following the dictates of my judgment, but what shall seem to me the proper mode, whilst I consider the matter as in dependance on thy teaching, may I adopt without hesitation, and pursue invariably. Amen." pp. 15–28.

It is particularly interesting to us, throughout the whole of these papers to see how completely this excellent man views all his studies and attainments, not as ends, but only as means; not as delightful recreations, but only as instruments of utility, to be followed up just so far, and in just such a spirit, as might most conduce, not to his own gratification or honour, but to the glory of God; and the constant watch which he keeps over his own spirit, lest they should aspire beyond this their true place, and become a

snare to his soul. We must add a few lines further of illustration under this head, because we are most anxious to press the subject upon academical readers; both upon those who would make religion a pretext for literary indolence, and upon those who addict themselves to literature to the neglect of religion.

"I wish, and have long wished, to make literary attainments, for I am shamefully deficient in them. But I should think myself out of my duty to apply closely to them as a minister; as a tutor I may, and ought to do so, so that the tutorship will answer this good end, amongst others, to myself.

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Before I came here my difficulty was for some time, to know the will of God respecting me, and now it is, to do his will, now that it is known. Thus when old difficulties are removed new ones arise, and so on through this world.'

"A real concern for the honour of God, as connected with the manner of my filling up my present office, will shew itself by producing in me as diligent an use of the means as my health will admit of, and then it will enable me calmly to leave the event, and not be solicitous about the consequences: for has not the Lord as much regard to his own honour as I have? Does he not know what, upon the whole, will most promote it? and is he not able to secure the promotion of it in whatever way he sees best? this should satisfy me But when intenseness of study, anxiety of mind, and looking to man are the effects of my supposed concern for God's honour,

I may then be assured, that pride is at the bottom; that my own honour lies too near my heart, and, therefore, instead of encouraging such a concern, I should strive in my Lord's strength to suppress and keep it down, as being only, or principally, the working of my evil nature, the manifestation of my vile corruptions. This is a good criterion to go by. Whatever principle causes within distrust, disquietude, and turbulence of mind, let it pretend what it will, is either wholly, or in great part, of the old Adam; for all the genuine fruits of grace tend to peace, and rest, and composure of mind. This is the case with even repentance and humiliation, as far as they are pure and evangelical. What if I foresaw that I should miscarry in my present office, and had reason to fear that the honour of the Gospel would partake of my disgrace on account of insufficiency, the effect, if right, would be of this

kind. I should lie low before him for all those neglects of duty which may have contributed to such insufficiency, and be quite willing that my character should sink into the dust, and grow very cheap in the eyes of men; whilst, at the same time, I am begging of him to secure his own somehow or other, that it may not suffer any blemish from the blot of mine. In this spirit I should go on quietly and firmly and without any inward commotion, though expecting, perhaps, every step I take, to bring upon me the shame that I see cause to apprehend. Thus I suppose I should feel, even on that trying occasion, if my principles were what they ought to be, unmixed with those of my evil nature. O! my Saviour, make them such, and if thou seest good to lay such a trial upon me, O! pray for me that my faith fail not, and carry me well through it. Amen.'" pp. 31-33.

That Mr. Lloyd was not an idler, though he so often accuses himself of the sin of indolence, would appear from his numerous manuscripts; among which are the substance of his college lectures, upon Aristotle, Longinus, Locke on the Human Understanding, Butler's Analogy, and upon some parts of the New Testament, commencing at St. John's Gospel, and extending to the end of the Acts of the Apostles; besides eight large manuscripts upon Aristotle's Rhetoric, and about the same number upon his Ethics, and three of similar size upon Longinus. Many of these manuscripts are stated to be very valuable; but none of them are in a state sufficiently finished for pubCHRIST. OBSERV. No. 351.

lication. It was the constant wish of Mr. Lloyd to render his lectures subservient to higher purposes than merely literary instruction. In lecturing upon the classics, he exhibited with great force the powerful arguments which they incidentally furnish for the necessity of a Divine Revelation. In lecturing upon Locke, we find him guarding his pupils against some mischievous remarks of that philosopher on "enthusiasm ;" by which, in exposing the unwarrantable pretensions of fanatics to extraordinary revelations, he adopts such general terms as seem to reflect upon the doctrine of the enlightening, sanctifying, and comforting influences of the Holy Spirit. Mr. Lloyd dilates upon the same topic in an able discourse preached before the University, and which his brother has introduced, with several others, into the present volume. We shall copy some passages, which deserve the serious consideration of Chrisevery tian student they will be equally of service to those who disparage the just and proper use of reason, and to those who exalt reason to an office not her own. ent, in a former page of this Number, has remarked, that our Lord himself, instead of a direct declaration to John the Baptist, did not disdain to refer him to actual facts, which must carry conviction to every honest mind that he who wrought such deeds must be the predicted Messiah. Yet, when Simon Peter expressed his belief in this very doctrine, our Lord said that it was not flesh and blood that had revealed it to him; and an Apostle also declares, "Ye have an unction from the Holy One, and ye know all things, with numerous similar passages. The link that connects these two truths, and which is alluded to in the following extracts, is, not that the proper exercise of the understanding is to be discarded, or that the work of the Holy Spirit is superfluous; but that one of the modes in which that Sacred Agent is pleased to ope2 A

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rate is by opening the eyes of the understanding, which had been darkened by reason of sin, and impress ing it with divine truth.

"The doctrine which we select for our present consideration is, that of internal illumination by the Holy Ghost, a doctrine of prime importance, clearly and fully set forth in Scripture, which has also the suffrage of the Fathers, the Reformers, and of our most approved and excellent divines in these later times.


"Now to this doctrine, thus pressed upon us by God himself, and thus surrounded with a cloud of witnesses, literary men have, nevertheless, shewn a peculiar reluctance to submit; where they have not gone the awful length of openly denying all Divine influences, they are apt to limit them to the will and affections, as though the intellect had suffered nothing from the fall, and the Holy Ghost had, at least in one point, undertaken a very unnecessary office. Hence, in their theological studies, they look not to him open their understandings, that they may understand the Scriptures.' Such is the deep spirit of self-sufliciency, which but too naturally attaches itself to the mental acquisitions of fallen creatures! It is very much on this account that knowledge and wisdom, though in themselves very valuable, and worthy of our sincerest respect, have too often eventually proved an hindrance and a snare to their possessors; for what is man, in his best and most cultivated state, that he should undertake by means of his own natural discernment to apprehend the true worth and excellence of the things revealed? Scripture assures us that he cannot so know them, 'because they are spiritually discerned; besides, there is a veil upon his heart, which must be taken away; the light indeed shineth,' but in darkness, and the darkness comprehendeth it not.' To this effect are numerous inspired declarations.

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"Where Christian faith then is supposed to be nothing more than that mode of intellectual assent called belief, and to have no other than the evidence of reason to rest upon, what wonder is it that the acutest and most able enquirers have grievously erred, that setting off on a principle so false, they are led into equally false conclusions, at variance with the revealed statements!-Among these are to be classed the objections very generally urged against the doctrine of justification by faith only.

"We fear that the authority of Mr. Locke contributed very greatly to propagate this erroneous notion of faith. His chapter on faith and reason has been already adverted to. In the following chapter on enthusiasm he more directly disclaims all other internal light or evidence but that of our own natural under

standings......Faith is set forth by this eminent man as an intellectual assent that he considered no other light to be founded upon probable proofs. It is plain concerned in the believing reception of Christianity. The office of the Holy Ghost in illuminating the understanding he restricted to cases of plenary inspiration; and, therefore, throughout this chapter he represents the ordinary influences of the Spirit as extraordinary, and the proper Christian expectation of illumination as a pretence to immediate and original revelation-at least, he includes Christian experience in his notion of enthusiasm; and it must be confessed with sorrow, that the weak judgment and wild extravagances of some religionists would serve to confirm him in the error. Hence, when describing enthusiasts, he states them to make pretensions to no other blessings than (if taken in a sober sense) every real Christian actually enjoys. His words are,


Men, whose conceit of themselves has raised them into an opinion of a greater familiarity with God and a nearer admit

tance to his favour than is afforded to others, have oft flattered themselves with a persuasion of an immediate intercourse with the Deity and frequent communications from the Divine Spirit. God, I own, cannot be denied to be able to enlighten the understanding by a ray darted into the mind immediately from the Fountain of Light. This they understand he has promised to do; and who then has so good a title to expect it as those who are his peculiar people, chosen by him, and depending on him.'


"This passage scarcely needs any comment; for are enthusiasts the only persons who have the persuasion of au immediate intercourse with the Deity, and frequent communications with the Divine Spirit? What then (to use the words of one of our present prelates- Horsley), what is that mysterious commerce between the soul of the believer and the Holy Spirit, but an intercourse with the Deity, consisting, on his part, in the continual communication, and on the believer's, in the continual reception of those sacred influences which are essential to. the Christian life.' Is not this the object of the Apostle's general petition for the church of Christ, when he desires that the fellowship of the Holy Ghost may be with them all! Again, as to God's conveying light into the mind, Mr. Locke barely admits it here to be possible, on the ground of the Divine omnipotence, instead of readily acknowledging fallen man's need of it, and the assurance of obtaining it, which, in consequence of God's gracious engagements and promises, may and ought to be felt by all who seriously apply. He insinuates too that the expectation of this light is irrational and enthusiastic; ; yet do none but fanatics so understand the matter? Does not the whole

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"We maintain then, upon the authority of Scripture, as interpreted by our own church, and by the reformed churches in the general, that there is an evidence of the things of God imparted to every real Christian, over and above any rational evidence which he may possess:-that the author of this internal evidence is the Holy Ghost, who himself, by his own Divine light, does actually impress his truths on the heart, through the medium of the understanding, whence results a conformity to them in the whole man,-in his dispositions and affections as well as views:that faith is necessary on his part to receive this spiritual light, not merely an assent to the word of God, but such an affecting sense of its heavenly declarations as determines the soul to turn from sin to God, and renouncing all confidence in itself, to lay hold upon the hope of the Gospel as its sole refuge:-that this Divine evidence is moreover essential to the sav

ing knowledge of the truth, on account of the blindness and perversion which sin has occasioned in the reason of fallen man." pp. 386, 387.

"The internal evidence vouchsafed by the Holy Spirit is the most satisfactory evidence of Christianity, which of itself, and without the other probable evidence, ascertains to the soul God's truths, both as to their original, and as to their nature and import in the general. Hence the poor, who have Christian faith, are at no loss to discern the proper objects of it, though they may be strangers to the external proofs of revelation. The position may appear to need confirmation. Let us then set before us the man who has committed himself in faith to the guidance of the Divine word and Spirit! When he has thus come under the practical influence of what is declared in Scripture respecting his own character as a sinner, and the character of God as it is revealed in Christ, respecting the claims of the Law on the one hand, and the blessings of the Gospel on the other, the truths of revelation will then become most powerful testimonies to its authenticity. They will form, as he is acting upon them, a system of internal evidence, which will be growing and increasing in proportion to the progressive experience he has of their reality, and of their consonance to what he both finds in himself, and observes with regard to others around him; and this experimental evidence may

amount to as high a certainty as accompanies our clearest natural knowledge, though it be a certainty of a different kind. Whoever, therefore, has been happy enough to obtain it (though he should be without the other), has solid grounds for a most firm and fixed persuasion of the truth of God's word, and of all its leading doctrines. It is a persuasion of which a consistent reasonable account can be given, though cases may and do occur of weak and illiterate Christians who are not able to give such an account of it, whilst yet its influence upon their dispositions and practice proves it to be possessed by them.

"Such is the fruit and effect of that spiritual evidence, upon which, however, some learned men have laid so little stress, that they magnify beyond all just bounds the importance of the other evidences, as though they were the sole, or at least principal, foundation of faith.

"But what, then, is the right estimate of them? They have their value. They are, indeed, principally of use to literary inquirers, and this prior to their acquisition of Divine faith. Yet no intelligent Christian will ever set at nought or underrate them, for they are the credentials of Christianity, and its proper weapons of defence against its adversaries; and there are times when the most confirmed believer needs their support. In collecting also the mind of God as it is revealed, learning, on many accounts, besides that of the grammatical and critical knowledge it implies, is confessedly the natural antidote against much error and extravagance, into which the pious interpreter of Scripture may otherwise run.

"Let not, then, the doctrine we are contending for be charged with superseding the use and exercise of reason. It has been certainly abused to such an end; yet is it really designed to enable us to act the part of rational beings in our highest concerns. To effect this, we are required to renounce our reason only as far as it usurps the place of the Divine Spirit, and is perverted by sin; but when reformed as it were by him, and rendered submissive to his will, it is to be used with all diligence throughout the Christian life, as in other respects, so especially in examining ourselves, and comparing cur state with the word of God, that we may not be deceived by our own imaginations." pp. 388-391.

We have noticed the more particularly the above remarks in reference to the statements of Mr. Locke, as they exhibit the valuable religious instructions which an academical lecturer, who is really anxious for the spiritual welfare of his pupils, will know how to derive from studies not directly theological in their na

ture. Mr. Lloyd was, however, still more in his congenial element in his Lectures, critical, historical, and doctrinal, on the Greek Testament. Their general character may be gathered from his own summary.—

"We have already had the principal truths of revelation laid before us,-such as the Divinity of our Saviour; the doctrine of original sin, or the total corruption of man's nature,-and those others consequent upon it,-justification by faith, the necessity of regeneration, and of the Spirit's influence to produce it; and all these essential parts of the Christian system I have not only endeavoured myself to explain to you with what caution and accuracy I could, but I have also made it my invariable practice to shew you that such explanations were in perfect consistence with the sense put upon the same truths by our Reformers. The Articles have served as a kind of comment to, and confirmation of, what has been advanced on these subjects; and their authority, I would hope, has at least with us such weight that we are none of us disposed to call it in question. The best, doubtless, of human interpreters are not infallible; and therefore it would be wrong to follow them blindly and implicitly, and to profess our belief in such and such doctrines only because they have asserted them. Much as I wish each of you to be sincerely attached to the church of which you profess yourselves members, I would nevertheless have your faith stand in the power of God, and not in the word of man barely. I would have your zeal for the Establishment be a zeal according to knowledge,such as you can give a rational account of when called to do so, and of which you need not in any circumstances be ashamed. For my own part, being fully persuaded, after a long course of serious and dispassionate enquiry, that the truths of God's word are faithfully represented in our own Articles and Homilies, I am the more forward to commend these to your regards, and to propose them to you as very useful guides in the prosecution of your religious studies." pp. 72-74.

Happy those students who continue to exhibit in mature life the blessed effects of such truly judicious and Christian training! Mr. Lloyd especially directed his attention to those who were likely to become candidates for the sacred ministry, ever reminding them, that

"The great aim and end of one who enters into that office as he ought to do, is to glorify God in the salvation of his fellow-creatures, and do all he can to bring men to receive Christ's truths. It is his delight to use all proper means for this

end, and the main employment of his life to be diligent in the discharge of his arduous commission. Whether it be given him or not to reap much fruit of his labours, he continues sowing the good seed, in hopes that it will not all be lost. Now to act on such principles as these is not what any man of himself can attain to, but it is the effect of grace." pp. 71, 72.

The deephumility with which Mr. Lloyd addressed himself to his academical duties affords a lovely exhibition of Christian deportment. In reading such passages as the following, in his addresses to his pupils, we might think we were perusing the college prelections of Leighton.


"It is not, I confess, without some trembling of mind that I have underthis part of my work [his Greek-Testament lectures], for it is sacred ground; and therefore not to be trodden upon without much caution and reverence. The truths to be considered are the most weighty in the world, and therefore not to be set forth but with much care, exactness, and fidelity. Whilst, then, I endeavour to do my part, you will I hope do yours; let me beg of you, that in your shew peculiar seriousness of mind. Reattendance on these lectures you would member that it is not a mere literary business which employs us here (though it doubtless be partly such), but we should be as those who are approaching to the best fountain of knowledge, in order to be instructed in the will of our Creator." pp. 69, 70.

In a similar spirit, on closing his college engagements we find the following memorandum :

"Here on Monday morning, December 15th, 1806, do I bring to a final close my lectures, and resign my office as tutor.God forgive my unworthy discharge of it, and blot out in thy mercy and truth, all the guilt which I have contracted in this sphere, from which thou art now about to that ministerial sphere, to which I am lookremove me, before thou puttest me into ing forward." p. 60.

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The cause of his retiring from Cambridge was his acceptance of a college living, Lois-Weedon, in Northamptonshire. He shortly after married; and found, says his biographer, in the object of his choice, lady well qualified, by her suavity of temper, unaffected piety, and many other excellent qualities, to promote his domestic happiness." affectionate assiduities, under the By her blessing of God, his life, which appeared at this time held by a very

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