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chief object, to expel them as an article of beverage.

One of the steam carriages, at the prize trial on the Liverpool rail-road, rushed over the distance of a mile in one minute, that is ten times the speed of what a few years since was considered good travelling. A similar increase of velocity, were it practicable, would enable a carriage leaving Manchester for Liverpool to outstrip the -sun and stars, and thus see the heavenly bodies move eastward, so that, if the land were continued round the globe, the traveller would at length leave the sun setting in the east and see it rise again in the west, and the same of the stars; or by condescending to abate his speed, or taking a rather lower latitude, where the degrees are longer, he might keep the sun always at noon, or always at morning or evening, as he pleased.

After the fire of London the walls of St. Paul's, eighty feet perpendicular, and five feet thick, and the tower, two hundred feet high, though cracked and tottering, stuck obstinately together, and their removal, stone by stone, was found tedious and dangerous. Sir C. Wren wrought a hole in the foundation of one of the pillars, and with eighteen pounds of gunpowder cracked the whole angle of the tower, with two great arches which rested upon it, and also two adjoining arches of the aisles, and all above them; and this it seemed to do somewhat leisurely, cracking the walls to the top, lifting the whole weight above nine inches, which falling, made a heap of rains without scattering. The powder lifted three thousand tons, and saved the work of a thousand labourers. The fall of so great a weight from an height of two hundred feet gave a concussion to the ground that the inhabitants around took for an earthquake. During Wren's absence, his superintendent having done some mischief with gunpowder, the whole neighbourhood united in petitioning that no more should be used. Wren yielded to their solicitations, and resolved to try the effect of that ancient engine the battering ram. He took a strong mast, armed with iron in two places, which he suspended, and with thirty men vibrated the machine against the wall a whole day. They believed it was to little purpose, but the second day the wall was perceived to tremble, and in a few hours it fell.Family Library. Lives of Architects.

The Monument in London was first used by the members of the Royal Society for astronomical experiments, but was abandoned on account of its vibrations being too great for the nicety required in their observations. This occasioned a report that it was unsafe; but its scientific construction may bid defiance to the attacks of all but earthquakes for centuries. Ibid.

Till lately, to unite the two banks of a stream, so that a waggon might cross CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 350.

safely, was the sole aim of a bridge; but Rennie and Telford have constructed bridges worthy of the days of the Romans. Hoards are formed to keep off the stream; excavations are made deep below the bed of the river, till solid earth for the piers is found; the water is expelled by the steamengine; piles forty feet long are driven by machinery into suitable foundations, plank is laid over, and on the whole are placed squared blocks of granite; and when the pier rises above the water, and another requires to be built, the piles which formed the protecting hoard are extracted by the hydraulic machine of Bramah. Such was the way in which Waterloo Bridge was constructed.

Bishop Sanderson says, in his preface to his once-celebrated prelections on "the "Obligations of Conscience," that he had no intention of printing them; they had lain for many years neglected, scattered in shreds in corners among waste papers; but a bookseller wrote him word, that two fair copies (written out perhaps by some diligent students, to whom the lecturer had lent his MSS. at the time of the delivery) were in his possession, which he was strongly urged to print; but he would make no use of them without the author's consent. "Landavi," says the Bishop, "immo amavi in homine, mihi penitus ignoto, animi candorem; et ex eo genere quibus fere unius lucri studium est, æqui reverentiam." He in consequence wrote to the bookseller to send him one of his copies; which preventing the labour of transcription, he was induced to send the work to press. This anecdote would have delighted honest Isaac Walton, the bishop's biographer and panegyrist, especially as the worthy bookseller was, like himself, a London tradesman.

What a terrific picture does the following passage (from Lardner's Cyclopædia, History of France,) exhibit of the death-bed of a man devoted to the pomps and vanities of the world, and who is "at ease in his possessions." "A fatal malady had seized on Cardinal Mazarin, whilst engaged in the conferences of the treaty, and worn by mental fatigue. He consulted Guenaud, the physician, who told him that he had but two months to live. Some days after, Brienne perceived the cardinal in his nightcap and dressing-gown tottering along his gallery, pointing to his pictures, and exclaiming, Must I quit all these?' He saw Brienne, and seized him: Look at that Correggio! this Venus of Titian! that incomparable Deluge of Caracci! Ah! my friend, I must quit all these. Farewell, dear pictures, that I loved so dearly, and that cost me so much!' A few days before his death, he caused himself to be dressed, shaved, rouged, and painted. In this state he was carried in his chair to the promenade, where the envious courtiers paid him ironical compliments on his appearance. Cards were the amusement of R

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his death-bed, his hand being held by others; and they were only interrupted by the papal nuncio, who came to give the cardinal that plenary indulgence to which the prelates of the sacred college are officially entitled." Mazarin expired on the 9th of March, 1661.-Lardner's Cyclopædia, History of France.

An air, which the regiment of General Szembek played on entering Warsaw, was forbidden by the Grand Duke Constantine, on pain of a penalty of four hundred florins, lest it should awaken Polish patriotism. National airs and music have ever been popular means of excitement; for instance, the English God Save the King, the Scotch bagpipe, the Swss Ranz des Vaches, and the Marseilles March and la Parisienne in France and the Netherlands. During Mr. Pitt's administration an organ grinder was committed to Newgate for playing Ah, ça ira! the war-whoop of the savages who were at that time deluging France with blood.

The newspapers state that such has been the ignorance of the mobs which have desolated so many parts of the country, that, in one instance, it was with difficulty they were prevented destroying a valuable barrel-organ in a parish church, alleging that it was worked by machinery.

A music-seller in Dublin has taken advantage of party feeling, by publishing Orange and Green Quadrilles, respectfully dedicated to Mr. O'Connell; and AntiUnion Quadrilles, and Anti-Union Waltz, most respectfully dedicated to the King! GENEVA.

In no point was the universal voice of the Protestant Reformation more unanimous than in the rejection of penance, with its concomitant of auricular confession, from its usurped rank of a sacrament. In most, however, if not all, of the Reformed

churches, voluntary confession for the unburdening of the conscience and the advantage of spiritual advice has ever been recommended; but in the church of Geneva, Calvin's own church, a solemn injunction is laid upon ministers at their ordination, not to divulge any secret committed to them in confession, except in the instance of treason.


In the operations for that gigantic undertaking, the Erie canal, it was first ascertained that the waters of Delaware Bay are two feet higher than those of Chesapeake Bay. Scientific men are inquiring the cause, and also what difference of elevation there may be between the waters of the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean across the isthmus of Darien.

A prize essay by Mr. Stuart is being published, to prove that neither the use of distilled liquors, nor traffic in them, is compatible with a true profession of Christianity. We are fearful that this ultraism in the friends of temperance may lead to a recoil. The distillation of spirits, and traffic in them, are necessary for many of the useful arts, and other purposes, and spirits are, in some cases, used with advan tage in medicine.

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The United States papers copy from the Montreal official gazette an advertisement of two lots of land, "To be sold by authority of law, on Sunday, the 28th day of November next ensuing, at the church door of the parish of Montreal, after Divine service in the morning.' They ask, what does this mean in a British colony? It would, say they, be a striking incongruity to read the King's proclamation against the "profanation of the Lord's day" in the house of worship, and immediately after have a sale of land at the door.




WE rejoice to state, that the society which we alluded to in our last Number, for lessening the great evil of Sabbath breaking, and restoring, under the blessing of God, a due reverence for the Divine authority and practical duties of the Lord's day, has been formed, and upon principles which directly recognise the Divine and permanent obligation of this solen institute of revealed religion. For the plan and objects of the society we must refer our readers to the resolutions, which it is intended to circulate very widely. In the mean time communications may be addressed to the secretary, Joseph Wilson,

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company of pastors had directed M. Gaussen to use the catechism in his schools and in his personal instructions. In his reply he agreed to the former, and refused the latter, for the reasons which he specified. The company gave him permission to take this course; but directed him to withdraw his letter, which he declined, probably considering it would be construed into a disavowal of the sentiments expressed in it. Much subsequent discussion has occurred; the result of which has been, that, after a protracted debate of some hours, the company have passed a sentence, that M. Gaussen shall be excluded its sittings for a year; that his general conduct in the affair, without touching upon his religious sentiments, shall be recorded as ecclesiastically censurable; and that his parish shall remain under the supervision of the company. More serious measures were proposed, but were at length negatived. The company have determined to publish the proceedings, which will, no doubt, be canvassed in print on both sides. In the absence of these necessary documents, we merely state the above facts, without comment. It is quite clear, how ever, that the conduct of the company was ill judged, even upon their own principles, in issuing an injunction which they could not sustain; and the result, sooner or later, we trust, will be, that the light eli cited by the discussion will lead to the rejection of the unscriptural catechism to which M. Gaussen so justly objects.

the neighbourhood), leaving me only forty pounds per annum for the support of my family. I have no other income; added to which, my health, for the last three years, has been so exceedingly bad as to confine me to my house for weeks together. I have therefore often, as you may easily imagine, been thrown into considerable difficulties; so pressed indeed, that I have been obliged by degrees to part with articles which I may never have it in my power to replace, especially a watch, which was left me by my dear father."

"The total income of my curacies, including surplice fees, has never exceeded sixty-four pounds per annum, a part of which I have great difficulty to obtain; yet on this I depend entirely for support. Finding the parishes, when I first came to them, destitute of all means of religious instruction, except the duties done in each church once a fortnight, and sometimes not so often, I have spent annually a considerable portion of the stipend in providing for the spiritual wants of my people, who are very poor. I am afflicted with a complaint which frequently obliges me to have recourse to medical aid; in consequence of which my income is scarcely sufficient to procure the common necessaries of life. I am at this time suffering for want of articles of wearing apparel, which the inclemency of the season and my debilitated frame absolutely require. Opportunities have been afforded me, since my residence here, of removing to much more advantageous situations; but it having pleased God to honour my feeble la

share of his blessing, I dare not hastily abandon such a station of usefulness."

POOR PIOUS CLERGY SOCIETY. It is afflicting that cases like the follow-bours here with more than an ordinary ing should be found in a church like ours, and often without any fault of the individuals. Indeed, no person who takes holy orders can be sure that he may not be condemned to poverty for life, unless he have private fortune or personal expectations, by means of patronage or otherwise. To expect, as a matter of course, to live comfortably by his profession, is out of the question.

"I have a wife and three young children. I have had four, and am every day expecting an increase of my family. The stipend of my curacy, which I have held for some years, is sixty pounds per annum, out of which I am obliged to pay twenty pounds per annum for the rent of my house (the only one to be obtained in

"I am still resident incumbent of My perpetual curacy has produced this year seventy-six pounds fourteen shillings. In consequence of low wages and partial want of employ, families here are so distressed as to be unable to pay pews'-rents. My family consists of a wife and eight children."

We have taken the above cases as they occur, and might add many others to them. What objections any person can urge against an institution which attempts to relieve necessities like these, we cannot understand. It seems to us a work of Christian mercy which cannot but bless him that gives as well as him that receives.


THE aspect of European affairs continues clouded and unsettled. In Poland the Russians are following up the ferocious manifestoes of the emperor by hostile incursions upon that much-suffering land,

and the ruthless Cossack has already entered its borders. A spirit worthy of Koziusko has diffused itself among the Poles; a national council has been appointed, troops are organized, and preparations

made for resistance, either to victory or death. Of the final result we doubt not; Poland will, and must be free; but whether to-day or to-morrow, whether by a successful expulsion of the present invaders, or only after new submissions, new humiliations, and new revolutions, who shall conjecture? One thing only appears fearfully clear; that this much enduring nation will have to work her way to her rights through much of suffering, privation, and bloodshed. Already, we fear, may the work of spoliation, [conflagration, and massacre, have commenced. May God in his infinite mercy avert the threatened horrors! The cabinets of England and France have doubtless interposed their mediating offices; but they cannot, either in justice or policy, interfere with arms; and the neighbouring states, Austria and Prussia, though constrained to apparent neutrality, are in favour of the oppressor against the oppressed. These states have, however, work enough on their own hands in preventing revolutions nearer home. Germany is unsettled; insurgent Belgium is admitted into the European family of nations; Italy is rising in arms to achieve its liberties; and France forbids the hostile intervention of Austria for restraining the augmenting current, which will probably, before long, burst its banks even in Spain and Portugal, nay, Russia itself. Under these circumstances, if Poland is true to herself, she cannot but ultimately secure her great object; but we fear not without dreadful sacrifices, at which humanity shudders.

France also is in a feverish condition. The King of the French has been obliged, by the concurrent voice of Europe, to decline the crown of Belgium for his second son, which would amount to a virtual union of the two countries, and might in the end affect the repose of other nations. Paris has been in a ferment in consequence of an ostentatious Catholic ceremonial at the commemoration of the Duke de Berri, at the church of St. Germain, which the populace considered connected with political views, and indicative of the wish of the priests to restore the Bourbons, and reestablish the Gallican church. They in consequence proceeded to sack the archbishop's palace, to tear down the crosses and crucifixes, and to ridicule the ceremonies of the Catholic worship, amidst yells of "Down with the priests, down with the Jesuits." The government have endeavoured to appease the popular exasperation by erasing the fleur-de-lis from the national buildings; and have affected to attribute the late excesses, with whatever truth, to the secret machinations of the friends of the exiled family. Govern ment has been induced to dissolve the chamber of deputies, and appeal to the public feeling. Much will depend upon the character of the new chamber, as to

whether France is to enjoy rational liberty,, or to rush into the excesses which all true lovers of their country would wish to avoid.

The displeasure of the populace against the superstitions of Popery may seem on the surface to bear some resemblance to those which marked the Reformation in Protestant countries; but with one portentous difference, that the multitudes who tore down popish altars and crosses, and destroyed crucifixes, and superstitious pictures and images, in the great struggle between Protestantism and Popery, were not Atheists and Deists, and had no intention of rejecting Christianity, while they exclaimed against the superstitions which deformed it. But in France the mass of the people know no distinction between religion and priestcraft, between Popery and Christianity in expelling Jesuitism, they leave a void which is not filled up by a purer faith; and every execration against superstitition becomes a virtual outcry against Divine revelation. This void must. be filled, the legislature will not attempt to fill it, for there is no established church; but private efforts, we trust, may, by the blessing of God, even yet do much; and we rejoice to see that our Protestant brethren are not insensible of the solemn responsibility which devolves upon them at this critical juncture. Their brethren in England might greatly assist their efforts, and we trust that plans, prudent and unostentatious, but liberal, extended, and efficient, will be devised for this purpose. The juncture is the more important from the circumstance that large bodies of the Roman-Catholic clergy and laity are renouncing the errors of Popery and forming themselves into a Frotestant church; we trust in the main on conscientious and intelligent grounds, or at least under circumstances as hopeful as those which accompanied the early stages of the Reformation. It is much that serious inquiry has commenced; that the minds of thousands and tens of thousands are becoming open to conviction; that the Protestant churches are crowded with attentive auditors; that the Bible and religious publications are extensively and earnestly demanded; and that the necessity for the religious education of the rising generation apart from popish superstitions is beginning to be acknowledged. These are so far favourable indications: they are indeed very remote from being universal; we dare not even say they are general; but they are so far extended, that we venture to look forward amidst the surrounding desolations with favourable hopes, knowing that the word of God can, and will in the end, prevail, and that the predicted fall of "the man of sin" will be succeeded by the pure Gospel of Jesus Christ.

In turning homeward, we cannot but commence with expressing our gratitude to God for the increased tranquillity of

the country. The acts of outrage which lately disgraced and appalled the land, have nearly ceased; and this result, we rejoice to say, has been attained without exasperating severity; for though the legislature has rejected Mr. Hunt's preposterous motion for pardoning all the offenders in a mass, justice has in general been accompanied by moderation, and in particular, very few lives have been sacrificed; we could wish that our penal code were such, that even these might have been spared. We also rejoice to say that a spirit of intercession with God on behalf of the nation has prevailed widely among all classes of religious persons; and to this, may we not, in part at least, scripturally attribute it, that God has been pleased to look with favour upon us? Many of the clergy and laity have been earnest with the legislature and government for the appointment of a day of national fasting and humiliation: and the subject has heen brought before the House of Commons by Mr. Perceval, in a speech remarkable in that assembly for its Christian faithfulness and scriptural tone of piety; and though the house thought it better to pass over the proposal, and the majority even of the religious part of our clergy and laity have not considered it desirable, under all the peculiar circumstances of the case to urge the point, yet the respectful attention paid to Mr. Perceval's statements, and the way in which the subject has been generally treated throughout the land, we feel pleasure in saying, has been such as became its solemnity; and we would hope is an indication that the judgments of God for bringing us to repentance have not been inflicted upon us wholly in vain. There is still ample room for humiliation; but this general seriousness of spirit on so serious a subject, is, we trust, a hopeful


The condition of the Church of England has been urged upon parliament in a variety of forms; and by one individual in particular, Lord King, in a spirit of exaggeration and sarcasm which is much more likely to impede than promote the cause of reformation. We trust that the real friends of the church will neither, on the one hand, be goaded into unsafe measures, nor, on the other, be irritated into an obstinate opposition to all improvement by the violent and unfounded statements which are daily proffered on this subject: but will pursue their path calmly, wisely, and conscientiously, as if nothing had happened. In this view we heard with much satisfaction that the Bishop of London was bringing in a bill for facilitating the building of churches, and the Archbishop of Canterbury two bills for the composition of tithes and promoting the residence of the clergy. Whether those bills will embrace all that is desirable on these momentous points we cannot conjecture, not being yet acquainted with

their provisions. We fear that for some little time to come we must be content rather with what is immediately practicable, than what is abstractedly desirable; what parliament will grant and existing claims will allow; than what every good man earnestly wishes, and hopes before long to see accomplished. We are however thankful for every progressive step towards a better state of ecclesiastical regimen; and in this light we trust that the projected measures will be found beneficial. The great point to be aimed at is, that every parish in the land (or such a district or portion of population as for ecclesiastical purposes may be consi dered a parish) shall have a fairly remunerated resident non-pluralist incum bent, and the people enjoy the advantages of adequate pastoral superintendence. By the approach to this standard, would we measure every proposed regulation; and if we cannot attain to it at once, we shall at least be thankful for every approach to it, and never cease pressing the matter, even after many partial improvements, till the end is fully attained. Of the difficulties interposed by the existing regulations in reference to patronage and the tithe system, we have sometimes thought till we almost despaired of adequate amendment: but our views, we must say, as we more closely examine the subject, enlarge in a nearer proportion to our wishes; and in particular with respect to the encroachments, for so we must call them, of patronage, we have arrived clearly at one conclusion ;-not that injustice is to be inflicted upon any man for the benefit of his neighbour, but that there is not a shadow of injustice in not recognizing the right of any private claim in ecclesiastical matters to interfere with the due discharge of the ordinances of religion, and the spiritual instruction of the people. Even if a man in former days built a church and endowed it with the tithes of his manor, and gave his suc Gessors the right of presentation, we see not what abstract right any patron, either by inheritance or purchase, can plead to prevent the building a new church, or even the allotment to it of the fees and offerings which accrue from the worshippers within the walls. This alleged authority is usurpation; it is not a vested right but a vested wrong the patron has a right only to what he has inherited or purchased, and though compensation is due to an actual incumbent who by long usage enjoys certain benefits on his being deprived of them, there is no reason to acknowledge his right, or the rights of the patron, to say that there shall be no church and no preaching but at their volition. Some general court of reference or appeal is, indeed, necessary to prevent irregularity and manifold evils; but the abstract claim of a veto is a monstrous anomaly which could never have been tolerated for a mo

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