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Forbidding, on the contrary, draws the head backwards, and pushes the hand from one with the palm downward, as if going to lay it upon the person, to hold him down immoveable, that he may not do what is forbidden him.

Affirming, especially with a judicial oath, is expressed by lifting the open right hand, and eyes, toward heaven; or, if conscience is appealed to, by laying the right hand upon the breast.

Denying, is expressed by pushing the open right hand from one; and turning the face the contrary way. See Aversion.

Differing, in sentiment, may be expressed as refusing. See Refusing.

Agreeing in opinion, or conviction, as granting. Granting.


Exhorting, as by a general at the head of his army, requires a kind, complacent look; unless matter of offence has passed, as neglect of duty, or the like.

Judging, demands a grave, steady look, with deep attention, the countenance altogether clear from any appearance of either disgust or favour. The accents slow, distinct, emphatical, accompanied with little action, and that very grave.

Reproving, puts on a stern aspect, roughens the voice, and is accompanied with gestures not much different from those of threatening, but not so lively.

Acquitting, is performed with a benevolent, tranquil countenance, and tone of voice; the right hand, if not both, open, waved gently toward the person acquitted, expressing dismission. See Dismissing.

Condemning, assumes a severe look, but mixed with pity. The sentence is to be expressed as with reluctance.

Teaching, explaining, inculcating, or giving orders to an inferior, requires an air of superiority to be assumed. The features are to be composed to an authoritative gravity. The eye steady, and open, the eyebrows a little drawn down over it; but not so much as to look surly or dogmatical. The tone of voice varying according as the emphasis requires, of which a good deal is necessary in expressing matter of this sort. The pitch of the voice to be strong and clear; the articulation distinct; the utterance slow, and the manner peremptory. This is the proper manner of pronouncing the commandments in the communion office. But (1 am sorry to say it) they are too commonly spoken

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in the same manner as the prayers, than which nothing can be more unnatural.

Pardoning, differs from acquitting, in that the latter means clearing a person after a trial of guilt: whereas the former supposes guilt, and signifies merely delivering the guilty person from punishment. Pardoning requires some degree of severity of aspect and tone of voice, because the pardoned person is not an object of entire unmixed approbation, otherwise its expression is much the same as granting. See Granting.

Arguing, requires a cool, sedate, attentive aspect, and a clear, slow, emphatical accent, with much demonstration by the hand. It differs from teaching (see Teaching) in that the look of authority is not wanted in arguing.

Dismissing, with approbation, is done with a kind aspect and tone of voice; the right hand open, gently waved toward the person; with displeasure, besides the look and tone of voice which suit displeasure, the hand is hastily thrown out toward the person dismissed, the back part toward him, the countenance at the same time turned away from him.

Refusing, when accompanied with displeasure, is expressed nearly in the same way. Without displeasure, it is done with a visible reluctance, which occasions the bringing out the words slowly, with such a shake of the head, and shrug of the shoulders, as is natural upon hearing of somewhat, which gives us concern.

Granting, when done with unreserved good will, is accompanied with a benevolent aspect, and tone of voice; the right hand pressed to the left breast, to signify how heartily the favour is granted, and the benefactor's joy in conferring it. Dependence. See Modesty.

Veneration, or worshipping, comprehends several articles, as ascription, confession, remorse, intercession, thanksgiving, deprecation, petition, &c. Ascription of honour and praise to the peerless supreme Majesty of heaven, and confession and deprecation, are to be uttered with all that humility of looks and gesture, which can exhibit the most profound self abasement and annihilation, before One, whose superiority is infinite. The head is a little raised, but with the most apparent timidity and dread; the eye is lifted, but immediately cast down again or closed for a moment; the eyebrows are drawn down in the most respectful manner; the features, and the whole body and limbs, are all compos

ed to the most profound gravity; one posture continuing, without considerable change, during the whole performance of the duty. The knees bended, or the whole body prostrate, or if the posture be standing, which scripture does not disallow, bending forward, as ready to prostrate itself. The arms spread out, but modestly, as high as the breast; the hands open. The tone of the voice will be submissive, timid, equal, trembling, weak, suppliant. The words will be brought out with a visible anxiety and diffidence, approaching to hesitation; few and slow; nothing of vain repetition, harangue, flowers of rhetoric, or affected figures of speech; all simplicity, humility, and lowliness, such as becomes a reptile of the dust, when presuming to addresss Him, whose greatness is tremendous beyond all created conception. In intercession for our fellow creatures which is prescribed in the scriptures, and in thanksgiing, the countenance will naturally assume a small degree of cheerfulness, beyond what it was clothed with in confession of sin, and deprecation of punishment. But all affected ornament of speech or gesture in devotion, deserves the severest censure, as being somewhat much worse than absurd.

Respect, for a superior, puts on the looks and gesture of modesty. See Modesty.

Hope, brightens the countenance; arches the eyebrows; gives the eyes an eager, wishful look; opens the mouth to a half smile; bends the body a little forward, the feet equal; spreads the arms, with the hands open, as to receive the object of its longings. The tone of the voice is eager, and unevenly inclining to that of joy; but curbed by a degree of doubt and anxiety. Desire differs from hope as to expression, in this particular, that there is more appearance of doubt and anxiety in the former, than in the latter. For it is one thing to desire what is agreeable, and another to have a prospect of actually obtaining it.

Desire, expresses itself by bending the body forward, and stretching the arms toward the object as to grasp it. The countenance smiling, but eager and wishful; the eye wide open, and eyebrows raised; the mouth open, tone of voice suppliant, but lively and cheerful, unless there be distress as well as desire; the expression fluent and copious; if no words are used, sighs instead of them; but this is chiefly in distress.

Love, (successful) lights up the countenance into smiles. The forehead is smoothed and enlarged; the eyebrows are

arched; the mouth a little open, and smiling; the eyes languishing and half shut, doat upon the beloved object, The countenance assumes the eager and wishful look of desire; (see Desire) but mixed with an air of satisfaction and repose. The accents are soft and winning; the tone of voice persuasive, flattering, pathetic, various, musical, rapturous, as in joy. (See Joy.) The attitude much the same with that of desire. Sometimes both hands pressed eagerly to the bosom. Love unsuccessful, adds an air of anxiety and melancholy. See Perplexity and Melancholy.

Giving, inviting, soliciting, and such like actions, which suppose some degree of affection, real or pretended, are accompanied with much the same looks and gestures as express love; but more moderate.

Wonder, or amazement, (without any other interesting passion, as love, esteem, &c.) opens the eyes, and makes them appear very prominent; sometimes raises them to the skies; but oftener, and more expressively, fixes them on the object; if the cause of the passion be a present and visible object, with the look, all except the wildness, of fear. (See Fear.) If the hands hold any thing, at the time when the object of wonder appears, they immediately let it drop, unconscious; and the whole body fixes in the contracted, stooping posture of amazement; the mouth open; the hands held up open, nearly in the attitude of Fear. (See Fear.) The first excess of this passion stops all utterance. But it makes amends afterwards by a copious flow of words and exclamations.

Admiration, a mixed passion, consisting of wonder, with love or esteem, takes away the familiar gesture, and expression of simple love. (See Love.) Keeps the respectful look and attitude. (See Modesty and Veneration.) The eyes are open wide, and now and then raised toward heaven. The mouth is opened. The hands are lifted up. The tone of the voice rapturous. This passion expresses itself copiously, making great use of the figure hyperbole!

Gratitude, puts on an aspect full of complacency. (See Love.) If the object of it is a character greatly superior, it expresses much submission. (See Modesty.) The right hand pressed upon the breast accompanies very properly, the expression of a sincere and hearty sensibility of obligation.

Curiosity, as of a busy body, opens the eyes and mouth, lengthens the neck, bends the body forward, and fixes it in

one posture, with the hands nearly in that of admiration. (See Admiration. See also Desire, Attention, Hope, Inquiry, and Perplexity.)

Persuasion, puts on the looks of moderate love. (See Love.) Its accents are soft, flattering, emphatical, and articulate.

Tempting, or wheedling, expresses itself much in the same way; only carrying the fawning part to excess.

Promising, is expressed with benevolent looks, the nod of consent, and the open hands gently moved towards the person, to whom the promise is made: the palms upwards. The sincerity of the promiser may be expressed by laying the right hand gently on the breast.

Affectation, displays itself in a thousand different gestures, motions, airs, and looks, according to the character which the person affects. Affectation of learning gives a stiff formality to the whole person. The words come stalking out with the pace of a funeral procession; and every sentence has the solemnity of an oracle. Affectation of piety turns up the goggling whites of the eyes to heaven, as if the person were in a trance, and fixes them in that posture so long that the brain of the beholder grows giddy. Then comes up deep grumbling, a holy groan from the lower parts of the thorax; but so tremendous in sound, and so long protracted, that you expect to see a goblin rise, like an exhalation through the solid earth. Then he begins to rock from side to side, or backward and forward, like an aged pine on the side of a hill, when a brisk wind blows. The hands are clasped together, and often lifted, and the head often shaken with foolish vehemence. The tone of the voice is canting, or sing song lullaby, not much distant from an Irish howl; and the words godly doggerel. Affectation of beauty, and killing, puts a fine woman by turns into all sorts of forms, appearances, and attitudes, but amiable ones. She undoes by art, or rather by awkwardness, (for true art conceals itself) all that nature had done for her. Nature formed her almost an angel, and she, with infinite pains, makes herself a monkey. Therefore, this species of affectation is easily imitated, or taken off. Make as many, and as ugly grimaces, motions, and gestures as can be made; and take care that nature never peep out; and you represent coquetish affectation to the life.

Sloth, appears by yawning, dozing, snoring, the head dangling sometimes to one side, sometimes to the other,

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