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In vain, did you make it death by your code to introduce any but the Roman Catholic Religion into Spain! Your Priests did not want the religion, but the influence and profit arising therefrom. You were heretics, the moment you began to apply the church-property to the national wants. All your professions of respect for the Roman Catholic Religion availed you nothing: you were denounced as Atheists, and justly so denouncd; for you ought to have known, that the Priest knows no God but his profit and power, of which you sought to deprive him. His private gospel is his rent and tithe roll, which you did not respect; and he properly proclaimed you to be heretics.
If you can again set your feet on the Spanish soil, you are intreated to think of nothing before the annihilation of priestcraft. The lands and dwellings of the Priests you should share among those who are likely to be made instruments for your overthrow; by so doing, you will secure their support, whilst the humbled priest will crouch to your influence.
Your next revolution in Spain must end in an avowed Republic; for you have had experience, that Monarchy and Freedom are words and principles not to be associated. A constitutional monarchy is a system that is at war with itself: it contains the germ of civil war, which will incessantly be bursting forth, until monarchy or freedom triumphs.
Adversity is the best school in which to acquire knowledge; in that school you are now placed; and it is hoped, that the discussions carrying on by the Press of this Island will not be lost upon you. Your attention is particularly called to the first number of this volume, in which you may learn, that you erred in making your constitution, verbose as it was, a fixture for a period of years. You will there see that all a people can possibly want in the way of Government is, wholesome laws and wholesome magistrates; and that, it is the height of absurdity to say, that the one or the other shall be placed above a periodical election and not be changed for a number of years. Such an error in your constitution appears to me, to have been a main cause of its speedy overthrow.
The fate of Riego may teach you the impropriety of having made a truce with monarchy, and with such a monarch as Ferdinand. It may show you the hollowness of such expedients as force from the mouth of such a man sentiments at variance with those which all the people of Europe and America knew him to entertain. It may show you that nothing which has its basis in deception can work for the benefit of a people, and that morality
is as essential to the well working of a Government, as to the happiness of an individual. The monarchical part of your constitution was deception throughout and a baser mind than Ferdinand's, if such could have been found, might have spurned the idea of being its instrument.
The political part of this volume clearly shews you, that monarchy, upon its plain and present construction, cannot be mixed up with popular liberty: it clearly shews you, that it is not necessary to Government; but that it is an obstruction to good Government: it clearly shews you that a people, insurgent against bad Government, should never respect it in any part of its existence; but that they should look upon themselves, as a society about to begin a new association, and calculate on what is best for the future, instead of adhering to the form of what is past. Laws and ministers of law are all that is wanted to perfect the happi-, ness of an intelligent people, provided that those laws and their ministers are the offspring of popular representation.
The theological part of this volume exhibits, in my opinion, most clearly, that there is no supernatural power, no designing power beyond the animal world and that the almighty power, or the combined powers of the universe, are not intellectual. An un derstanding of this matter strikes at the root of all religion, by shewing you, that all is idolatry: that there can be no such thing as religion separable from idolatry: that religion and idolatry are synonymous terms: that he who worships, under whatever sect or denomination, is an idolator: and that this conclusion is not so much atheism as idolism.
But the most important feature in this volume I take to be, that which shews morality uncontaminated with religion to be the great essential in all human affairs to generate human happiness. This you will find to be a leading feature in all the volumes of "The Republican," but more particularly in this eighth volume. Though they exhibit great literary defects, jointly owing to my inability and situation, as soon as you can read the English Language, I feel convinced, that you can read nothing more useful to you as individuals, or as exiled patriots, than the cight volumes of "The Republican," paying more attention to the matter than to the stile or correctness of printing.
With these recommendations, I take my leave, assuring you, that my freedom springs from a desire to see you well employed during the time of your exile, and that you may obtain a clear understanding of the best political principles for the future benefit of yourselves and your countrymen in general. I certainly do consider, that you have exhibited some defect, while the helm of affairs in Spain was in your hands; though I am not blind to the power of the priests, to the character and state of ignorance of the people among whom you dwelt, and to the many and great excuses to which you are entitled on that account.
No. 1, To the Republicans of the Island of Albion, being a review
No. 2, An Address, &c.-Letters by James Hall on the Bishop
No. 3, An Address, &c.-On the conquest of the moral world,
No. 4, An Address to the Vice Society, or to the animals who
No. 5, Letter to William Carver, of New York-Blue Laws of
No. 6, An Address to the Republicans of the Island of Albion
No. 7, An Address, &c.-Letter from Harmodious on organi-
No. 8, Letter to George Harris-Letter by N. Dralloc-Letters
No. 9, Letter to Samuel Thompson --From and to Joseph Nich-
the 5th chapter of Paul's Epistle to the Romans, by Thomas Paine
No. 10, A Leader-Letter Third from James Watson-On Li-
No. 11, Materialism versus Methodism, a Letter to Joseph But-
No. 12. Letter to William Wait of Bristol -From and to Dr.
No. 13, Letter from Humphrey Boyle to his brother James
No. 14, An Address to the Inhabitants of the county of Dorset,
No. 15, An Address to the Republicans of the Island of Albion
No. 16, Letter to Mrs. Fry---Notice of a visit from Mr. Rich-
No. 17, An Address to the Christian Reformers of Leeds, by
No. 18, Letters to Chief Justice Abbott, to the Vice Society, by
a wise man!---Letter from Allan Mac Fadyen, with comments on
the case of the child said to be born with his father's name on his
eyes, &c.---From Richard Hassell--From a Lover of Truth at
Hull, concerning the Reverend G. C. Smith---From and to John
Thompson, of Wakefield---To Galpin, of the Phoenix Inn, Dor-
chester---To James Watson, by an Enemy to Persecution---To
No. 19, Letter to the Inhabitants of the County of Dorset---
To William Morton Pitt, of Kingston House, near Dorchester---
To a Friend, by Edward Henman---From J. E. C., with notes and
extracts---Lamentation for Spain---Anecdote of Galileo, with note
by Anti-Christ---Correspondence between Mr. Carlile and the
Lawyers---Letters to Chief Justice Abbot---From Pere Dealtry---
No. 20, Letter to Robert Hindmarsh, Priest of the sect of Swe-
denborgians---Liberation of Mary Ann Carlile, with a copy of her
discharge warrant---Observations on the instructions given by
Jesus Christ, chap. 1---On the importance of plain dealing and
sincerity---Letter to Humphrey Boyle by an Enemy to Persecu-
tion---From Examinator---To the Republicans of the Island of
Albion, by John Harper, on behalf of the Miles Platting Reading
No. 21. Letter to the Vicar of Cerne on Predestination---To
Ditto, by Richard Hassell, Jun.---Letter Fourth by James Watson.
No. 22, Letter to the Inhabitants of the County of Dorset, in-
cluding notes to Visiting Magistrates, to Gaoler, and to Chaplain,
Petition of the Saucepans and Hand-brush, and letters from a
No. 23, Correspondence with Isaac Carter, of Portsea---Letter
from Robert Affleck, with chaps. 2 and 3 of the Observations on
No. 24, Further controversy on the question of attributing in-
telligence to Deity, or almighty power, in letters from and to
No. 25, Philosophical institutions for the improvement of me-