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(bapto) which is commonly rendered, to dye, is by many immediately supposed to signify, to immerse in a dyer's vat. But this phraseology refers to an advanced state of the art of dying, and to a comparatively modern use of the word βάπτω. "The accidental bruising of fruits or herbs," says the President de Goguet, "the effect of rain upon certain earths and minerals, might suggest the first hint of the art of dying, and of the materials proper for it."* Accordingly, dying, staining, and painting, were originally operations of a similar nature. Nay, staining and painting appear to have been the first efforts of dying. The early ideas of beautiful raiment seem to have led to the making of clothes, not of one colour, but of "many colours," D5, perhaps patchwork, in Gen. xxxvii. 3; but the most ancient kinds of that sort were much more likely to have been marked in spots or clouds, with colouring matter, in imitation of the skins of animals, or other admired objects in nature, than to have been variegated either by patchwork, or by the nicer, more expensive, and less natural decorations of embroidery. This opinion is confirmed by the related word Báuua, (pop-ma,) which signifies, a dye or colour. Thus in Aristophanes, in Pac. v. 1174, and Acharn. v. 112, Báμμa Σαρδιανικὸν is Sardianic dye. And Jud. v. 30. σκῦλα βαμμάτων τῷ Σισάρα, σκύλα βαμμάτων ποικιλίας, βάμα ματα ποικιλτῶν, spoils of dyed or painted clothes for Sisera, spoils of dyed or painted clothes of varied colour,

* Origin of Laws, Arts and Sciences, &c. Book II. Chap. 2. Art. 1.

dyed or painted clothes by the makers of various coloured clothes. I am aware that the Hebrew word in this passage, which is different from that in Gen. xxxvii. 3. is understood of needle-work, and perhaps rightly so understood at this latter period; but, from the use of the word βάμμα, in connection with ποικιλία and oxirns, I think it will be granted by all parties, that the Seventy must have regarded “needle-work” as painting with the needle, according to the Latin phrase for it, "acû pingere."

Agreeably to these ideas is the use of Bárra, in Rev. xix. 13. "And he was clothed with a vesture DIPPED (say our translators) in blood:"-iuárion Ben Baμsvov, (pe-pop-menon, be-pop-ped,) aiuarr-properly, "a vesture BESPATTERED, SPRINKLED, SPOTted, or stained with blood." In this case, evidently, the vesture was not popped into the blood, but the blood was popped upon the garment, and thus it was baptized with blood. Accordingly, the Vulgate very properly renders the passage, "et vestitus erat veste ASPERSA sanguine." The passage is precisely parallel to Isa. lxiii. 2, 3. "Wherefore art thou red in thine apparel, and thy garments like him that treadeth in the wine-fat? I have trodden the wine-press alone; and of the people there was none with me: for I will tread them in mine anger, and trample them in my fury; and their blood shall be SPRINKLED upon my garments, and I will STAIN all my raiment." It is often said that Bárra corresponds to 5, commonly rendered, to dip, or ya to sink: I conceive that the above is a clear instance of its corresponding to ia,

to sprinkle. What is called sprinkling, in the one clause, is called staining in the other; from which we learn that the staining is not, in this instance, the effect of immersion, but of sprinkling, or as Bates (quoted by Parkhurst) explains it," he should be daubed with the slaughter." The Septuagint omits the two last clauses. The Vulgate gives them thus : "et ASPERSUS est sanguis eorum SUPER vestimenta mea, et omnia indumenta mea INQUINAVI."

Some may think the usual translation of Rev. xix. 13. is defensible, on the supposition that it is a bold hyperbole, and an expression parallel to that in Isa. ix. 5. where we read of "garments ROLLED IN blood, which shall be for burning, even fuel for the fire.' We should have no objection to the idea of hyperbole, were not the expression "a vesture dipped in blood," unnatural, that is, unlike the thing signified, (namely, the blood-stained garb of a conqueror,) which is never the case with the figures of scripture. The " garments rolled in blood," of Isa. ix. 5. are quite a different thing. They They are the garments, not of the vanquisher, but of the vanquished. They have been cast away in flight, or taken as spoil from the slain. They have been tossed about with pieces of broken, abandoned, and scattered armour, in the bloody field, and are, at the end of the battle, collected by the victors for the purpose of triumphant conflagration. See Josh. xi. 6. Ps. xlvi. 9. Nah. ii. 13. Ezek. xxxix. 8-10.*

* Our translators are really great dippers. They have thus trans

The meaning of Barra may be further seen by a phrase which occurs in Dan. iv. 33. and v. 21. nai ἀπὸ τῆς δρόσου τοῦ οὐρανοῦ τὸ σῶμα αὐτοῦ ἐβάφη, “ and his body was wetted with the dew of heaven;" it was popped upon, not even so much as by effusion, but (though the dews are comparatively heavy in those countries,) by the gentlest distillation that is known in nature.


Some seem to think they have proved that ẞázsw signifies, to dye by dipping, because it is frequently translated, tingo. But tingo, although by no means derived from the same root, has much the same extent of meaning with ßázrw, and the one word may illustrate the other. It will be found that both signify superfusion, superinduction, and superinjection, no less than immersion. Tingo in Latin is the Greek reyyw, which is very properly rendered in the Lexicons, madefacio, humecto, mollio, I moisten, wet, soften, or mollify. Now, all the world knows that this may be done by effusion, or by sprinkling, as well as by immersion; and accordingly we have the following phrases. Tí χλωροῖς δακρύοις τέγγεις κόρας; why dost thou sUFFUSE the girl's face with fresh tears? Eur. Med. 927. Poíviai δ ̓ ὁμοῦ γλῆναι γένει ἔτεγγον· οὐδ ̓ ἀνίεσαν φόνου μυδώσας.

lated, rendered by the Seventy, iμóλvvæv, in Gen. xxxvii. 31. where it evidently signifies to stain, by aspersion, or affusion, or daubing.・ “And taking the coat of Joseph, they killed a kid of the goats, a nɔnɔn na 1ba0'), (xai iμóλvvav tòv XITāva tậ aluar,) and stained the coat with its blood." Had they dipped it, even ever so partially, it would have been a bad imitation of the appearance of a person's garment, who had been torn by a wild beast.

σταγόνας· ἀλλ ̓ ὁμοῦ μέλας ὄμβρος χαλάζης αἵματος ἐτέγγετο. And the bloody eye-balls at the same time OVERFLOWED the cheeks; nor ceased to pour drops of blood; but at once a black shower of blood like hail FLOWED down. Soph. (Ed. Tyr. 1287. Κείμαι δ ̓ ἀμέριμνος οὕτως, ἀεὶ πυκιναῖς δρόσοις τεγγόμενος κόμας. But I lie careless thus, having my hair always wET with heavy dews. Soph. Aj. 1207. Compare this last passage with Dan. iv. 33. quoted above, where the very same use is made of βάπτω.* Precisely in the same acceptation is the word used in Latin, when Ovid


“Nuda SUPERFUSIS TINGAMUS Corpora lymphis."

"Let us WASH our naked bodies with STREAMS POURED UPON them." Metamorph. II. 459.

"Tum vero gemitus (neque enim cœlestia TINGI
"Ora decet LACRYMIS) alto de corde petitos

"Then indeed he uttered groans (for it becomes not celestial faces to be WET WITH TEARS) drawn from the bottom of his heart."

Metamorph. II. 621, 623.

"Dew, DEAGA, moisture, dipping, is from DAG or DEAG, nearly allied to TIG, and TINGO." (Murray's Hist. of Europ. Languages, Vol. I. page 408.) But we may add, not at all allied to BAP, BUB, BOP, or POP.

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