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be found sinners, is Christ the minister of sin? By no 18 means. For if I build again the things which I have 19 destroyed, I make myself a transgressor. For I, through

the law, have died to the law, that I might live to God. 20 I have been crucified with Christ: nevertheless I live; yet not I, but Christ liveth in me and the life which I now live in the flesh, I live by faith in the Son of God, 21 who loved me, and delivered up himself for me. I do not make void the favour of God: for if justification come by the law, then Christ died in vain." CH. III.

*

O unwise Galatians, who hath bewitched you, t before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been heretofore 2 clearly set forth [among you] as crucified t? This only I

desire to learn from you: Received ye the spirit by the 3 works of the law, or by the hearing of faith? Are ye so unwise? having begun with the spirit, are ye now made 4 perfect by the flesh? Have ye suffered so many things in 5 vain if indeed it must be even in vain. He therefore who ministered to you the spirit, and wrought miracles. among you, did he thus by the works of the law, or by the 6 hearing of faith? even as "Abraham believed God, and 7 it was counted to him for righteousness." Know therefore, that those who are of faith are the sons of Abraham. 8 And the scripture, having foreseen that God would justify the gentiles by faith, proclaimed before glad tidings to Abraham, saying, "Through thee all nations shall be 9 blessed." So those that are of faith are blessed with faith10 ful Abraham; (for as many as are of the works of the

law, are under a curse: for it is written, "Cursed is every one who continueth not in all the things which are writ11 ten in the book of the law, to do them." But that no man is justified by the law in the sight of God, is evident : 12 for "the just shall live by faith." Now the law is not of

acquittal. Wakefield.
† that
ye should not obey the truth, R. T.
Jesus Christ crucified was set forth among you. Chandler.

faith but "he* who doeth them, shall live by them." 13 Christ hath redeemed† us from the curse of the law, having been made a curset for us: for it is written, " Cursed is 14 every one that hangeth on a tree :") that the blessing of Abraham might come on the gentiles through Jesus Christ; that we might receive the promise of the spirit by faith.

Brethren, (I speak according to the manner of men,) though it be but a man's covenant, yet, if it be confirmed, 16 no man disannulleth it or addeth to it. Now to Abra

15

ham and to his seed the promises were made. (It is not said, "And to seeds," as of many; but, as of one ; " And 17 to thy seed," which one person || is Christ.) And this I say, that the covenant which God confirmed before [concerning Christ,] the law, which was four hundred and thirty years after, doth not disannul, so as to make the 18 promise of none effect. For if the inheritance be of the

law, it is no more of promise: but God freely gave it to 19 Abraham by promise. To what purpose then was the law?

It was added because of transgressions ¶, till the seed should come to whom the promise was made; and it was ministered by messengers†† through the hand of a media20 tor. Now a mediator is not a mediator of one; but God

The man, R. T.

By abolishing the law, and dying to establish a better covenant." Newcome. "That is, as it were accursed; treated by men as if he had committed a crime worthy of death, and of the divine wrath." Deut. xxi. 23. Newcome.

which is Christ. N. See Chandler.

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¶ Or, What then? The law was added because of transgressions. Chandler.

+ Angels, N. with the public version. The meaning probably is, that the law was promulgated to, or rather enjoined upon (see Schleusner and Phavorinus apud Schleus.) the Israelites by the proper officers, viz. priests and Levites, under the direction of Moses; who was the medium of divine communication, and who received it immediately from God.

# Abp. Newcome, with Michaelis and others, suspects this verse to be a gloss. But it seems necessary to the apostle's argument. Moses was a mediator, not between God and the promised seed, but between God and the Israelites. The covenant therefore which he introduced, could not annul that which had been made before with the promised seed. For though God, one of the parties, was present and joined in the Mosaic covenant, the other party, the promised seed, had no concern in it. See Locke.

21 is one. Is the law then against the promises of God? By no means for if a law had been given, which could have bestowed life, then truly justification would have 22 been by the law. But the scripture hath included all together under sin, that the promise by faith in Jesus 23 Christ might be given to those who believe. But before faith came, we were kept under the-law, included together to the faith which was afterward to be revealed. 24 So that the law was our conductor* to Christ, that we 25 might be justified by faith. But now faith is come, we 26 are no longer under a conductor*. For ye are all the 27 sons of God by faith in Christ Jesus. For as many of

you as have been baptized into Christ, have put on Christ. 28 There is neither Jew nor gentile, there is neither slave

nor free, there is neither male nor female: for ye all are 29 one in Christ Jesus. But if ye be Christ's, then ye are the seed of Abraham, [and] heirs according to the promise.

CH. IV. Now I say that the heir, as long as he is a child,

differeth nothing from a servant, though he be master of 2 all; but is under tutors and guardians, until the time ap3 pointed by his father. So we likewise, when we were

children, were in servitude under the elements of the 4 worldt: but when the fulness of the time was come, God sent forth his son‡, born of a woman, born under the 5 law, to redeem those that were under the law¶, that we might receive the adoption of sons.

* So Wakefield. guide, N.

+"Under an introductory and ritual law, which occupied us about the things of this world." Observe Col. ii. 8, 20; Heb. ix. 1. Newcome.

↑ "God sent forth his son," gave him a divine commission. John i. 6; xvii. 18. "St. Paul then says here, that at his appointed time the Almighty gave a commission to Jesus, the son of Mary, of a Jewish family, subject to the law of Moses." Lindsey's Second Address, p. 282.

The phrase, born of a woman,' bears no allusion to the supposed miraculous conception of Christ. It is a common Jewish phrase to express a proper human being. See Job. xiv. 1; xv. 14; xxv. 4. Matt. xi. 11. Luke vii. 28.

To deliver us from the bondage of the Mosaic institute, and to introduce a new and more liberal dispensation. See ch. iii, 13, 14.

6

And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the spirit of his Son into our hearts*, crying out†, “Abba,” that is, 7 Father. Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir [of God] through Christ. 8 At that time, however, when ye knew not God, ye were 9 slaves to those who by nature are not gods: but now, after ye have known God, or rather have been known by Him, how turn ye again to the weak and beggarly|| eleO ments to which ye desire to be again in servitude? Ye 11 observe days, and months, and seasons, and years. I fear concerning you, lest I have bestowed on you labour in vain.

12

Brethren, I beseech you, be as I am; for I also was 13 as ye are¶. Ye have not wronged me in any thing: but

ye know that in weakness of the flesh I preached the gos14 pel to you at first: and [my] trial which was in my flesh

ye did not set at nought nor scorn: but ye received me 15 as a messenger** of God, or even as Christ Jesus. What therefore [were] your congratulations of yourselves? for I bear you witness that, if it had been possible, ye would have plucked out your own eyes, and have given them 16 to me. Am I therefore become your enemy, when I tell 17 you the truth? Some zealously affect you, but not well:

yea, they desire to exclude youff, that ye may zealously 18 affect them. But it is good to be always zealously af

fected to a good man‡‡; and not only when I am pre19 sent with you, my children, of whom I travail in birth|||| 20 again, until Christ be formed in you. But I could wish

to be present with you now, and to change my voice: for I doubt concerning you.

21

Tell me, ye who desire to be under the law, do ye not 22 hear the law? For it is written, that Abraham had two

sons; one by a bond-woman, and another by a free-wo23 man. But he that was of the bond-woman, was born

your hearts, R. T.

† Or, which spirit crieth out.

So the public version, and Wakefield. poor, N.
** So Wakefield, an angel, Newcome, with the public version.
+ to exclude us, R. T.
it in a good thing, N. See Locke.
whom I am bearing again, Wakefield.

#

ye served, N.

am as ye are. N.

gorically

according to the flesh; whereas he of the free-woman 24 was by promise. Which things are spoken by me allefor these women signify the two covenants* ; the one from mount Sinai, bearing children to servitude, 25 which is Agar: (for this Agart is mount Sinai in Arabia, and answereth to the Jerusalem which now is for she is 26 in servitude with her children :) but the Jerusalem from 27 above is the free-woman, who is our mother‡. For it is written, "Rejoice, thou barren, who bearest not; break forth and shout, thou who travailest not; for the desolate hath many more children than she that hath an husband." 28 Now we, brethren, like|| Isaac, are the children of pro29 mise. But as then he that was born according to the flesh

persecuted him that was born according to the spirit, even 30 so it is now. Nevertheless, what saith the scripture ? "Send forth the bond-woman and her son for the son of the bond-woman shall not be heir with the son of the free-woman."

31

Сн.

v.

So then, brethren, we are not children of the bondwoman, but of the free. Stand firmly therefore in the freedom with which Christ hath made us free¶, and be not again putt† under the yoke of servitude.

2

Behold, I Paul say unto you that, if ye be circumcised, 3 Christ will profit you nothing. Yea, I testify again to every man who is circumcised, that he is a debtor to do 4 the whole law. Christ is become of none effect to you,

whosoever of you seek to be justified** by the law; ye 5 are fallen from the covenant of favour. For we by the 6 spirit look for the hope of justification through faith. For

*So Wakefield. these are the two covenants, N.

the mother of us all. R. T.

+ Or, encumbered with, N. m.

* Gr.are justified, N, m.

+ this character Agar. Wakefield.

according to the manner of, N.

¶ Some copies read, "we are not children of the bond-woman but of the free, with which liberty Christ has made us free. Stand firmly, therefore, and be not," ete. See Griesbach.

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