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or to his offspring, through a law; but through the righ14 teousness arising from faith. For if those that are under a law be heirs, faith is made void, and the promise is 15 made of none effect; because law produceth punishment*: 16 for where no law is, there is no transgression. Therefore righteousness is from faith, that it might be through favour; so that the promise might be sure to all the offspring, not to that only which is of the law, but to that also which is of the faith of Abraham, who is the father of 17 us all, (as it is written, I have made thee a father of many nations,') in the sight of that God whom he believed, who giveth life to the dead, and calleth those things 18 that are not as though they were: which man against

hope believed in hope, so that he became the father of many nations; according to that which was spoken, 19 Thus shall thine offspring be:' and because he was not weak in faith, he considered not his own body now dead, when he was about an hundred years old, nor the dead20 ness of Sarah's womb: nor did he stagger at the promise

of God, through unbelief; but was strong in faith, and 21 gave glory to God; and was fully persuaded, that what 22 God had promised, he was able to perform also. Where

fore Abraham's faith was counted to him for righteous23 ness. Yet it was not written for his sake only, that it was 24 counted to him; but for the sake of us also, to whom

faith will be thus counted, if we believe in him that raised 25 from the dead our Lord Jesus; who was delivered up for our offencest, and was raised again for our justification. CH. V. Wherefore, having been justified by faith, we have 2 peace with God, through our Lord Jesus Christ; through whom we have access also by faith into this favour

worketh anger, N.

+ Christ was delivered up for our offences; not to bear the punishment of them, or to appease the anger of God; but to abolish the dispensation by which men were condemned as sinners, and to introduce a new and better dispensation by which they should be justified and treated as righteous. Thus he rose for their justification. See Eph.ii. 4 So N. m. gracious gospel, N. t.


wherein we stand, and boast, in the hope of the glory of 3 God. (And not only so, but we boast also in afflictions; 4 knowing that affliction worketh patience; and patience, 5 experience; and experience, hope. And hope will not make us ashamed; for the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts, by the holy spirit which hath been given us.) 6 For though we were weak, still Christ died in due season 7 for the ungodly. For scarcely for a righteous man will

9 us.

any one die (yet perhaps for a good man some would 8 even dare to die :) but God enhanceth his love toward us, in that, while we were still sinners, Christ died for Much more therefore, having been now justified by his blood, we shall be saved from anger through him. 10 For if, when we were enemies, we were reconciled to God by the death of his son, much more, having been 11 reconciled, we shall be saved by his life. And not only so, but we boast likewise in God, through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have now received the reconciliation.

Concerning this matterf, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and thus death hath passed 13 upon all men, inasmuch as all have sinned: (for until the

law, sin was in the world: but sin is not imputed, when 14 there is no law: nevertheless, death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those that had not sinned after the likeness of Adam's trangression, who is a resemblance of 15 him that was to come :) yet the free gift likewise is not so, as was the offence; for if through the offence of one, many have died; much more the favour of God, and the gift which is through the favour of one man, Jesus 16 Christ, hath abounded unto many¶. Neither is the gift


*Or, magnifieth, or maketh more conspicuous. See ch. iii, 5.

+ δια τέτο. So then, Wakefield.

Gr. type.


oλor, the many, the great body of mankind. See ver. 18. Newcome.

Gr. the many,

so, as it was by one who sinned: for the judgement was of one offence to condemnation, but the free gift is of 17 many offences to justification. For if, by the offence of one, death reigned by one; much more those who receive the abounding of favour and of the gift of justifica18 tion, will reign in life by one, even Jesus Christ. So then as, by the offence of one, judgement came upon all men to condemnation; so likewise, by the righteousness of one, the free gift hath come upon all men to justifica19 tion of life. For as by the disobedience of one many*

were made sinners, so likewise by the obedience of one 20 many* will be made justf. Now the law entered in

privily, so that offences abounded. But where sin abound21 ed, the favour of God hath much more abounded: that,

as sin hath reigned through death, so favour likewise might reign by justification to everlasting life, by Jesus Christ our Lord.

CH. VI. WHAT shall we say then? shall we continue in sin, 2 that the favour of God may abound? By no means.

How shall we, that have died to sin, live any longer in 3 it? Know ye not that as many of us as have been baptized into Jesus Christ, have been baptized into his death? 4 We were therefore buried with him by baptism into death; that, as Christ was raised from the dead by the glorious power of the Father, so we also should walk in 5 newness of life. For if we have been planted together in

Gr, the many.

+ Though the construction of this paragraph is intricate and obscure, nothing can be more obvious than this, that it is the apostle's intention to represent all mankind, without exception, as deriving greater benefit from the mission of Christ, than they suffered injury from the fall of Adam. The universality of the apostle's expressions is very remarkable. The same "many," who were made sinners by the disobedience of

one, are made righteous by the obedience of the other. If all men are condemned by the offence of one, the same all are justified by the righteousness of the other. These universal terms, so frequently repeated, and so variously diversified, cannot be reconciled to the limitation of the blessings of the gospel to the elect alone, or to a part only of the human race. Compare 1 Cor. xv. 22, 23. See Chauncy on Universal Salvation, Prop. iv.p. 22, etc.

the likeness of his death, we shall be planted together in the likeness of his resurrection also knowing this, 6 that our old man hath been crucified with him, that the body of sin might be destroyed, that we should no 7 longer be servants to sin. For he that is dead, is set free 8 from sin. But, I say, if we have died with Christ, we believe that we shall live also with him knowing that 9 Christ, having been raised from the dead, dieth no more; 10 death hath no more dominion over him. For in that he died, he died with regard to sin once but in that he 11 liveth, he liveth with regard to God. In like manner, reckon ye also yourselves to be dead indeed, with regard to sin, but alive, with regard to God, through Jesus Christ*.


Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal body, that 13 ye should obey itt: nor yield your members to sin, as instruments of unrighteousness; but yield yourselves to God, as those that are alive from the dead, and yield your 14 members to God, as instruments of righteousness. For sin shall not have dominion over you for ye are not under law, but under a covenant of favour.


What then? shall we sin because we are not under 16 law, but under a covenant of favour? By no means. Know ye not, that to whom ye yield yourselves servants to obey, his servants ye are whom ye obey; whether of sin [unto 17 death], or of obedience unto justification? But thanks be

to God, that though ye were the servants of sin, yet ye have obeyed from the heart that form of doctrine to which 18 ye were delivered over; and, having been made free from 19 sin, are become the servants of righteousness (I speak familiarly, because of the weakness of your flesh) for as ye have yielded your members servants to uncleanness, and to iniquity, unto iniquity; so now yield your mem20 bers servants to righteousness, unto holiness. For when 21 ye were the servants of sin, ye were free with regard to

*Jesus Christ our Lord. R. T.

Tobey it in the lusts thereof. R. T. Wakefield. Av@gwπivov λyw, "I speak according to a human manner," N.

righteousness. What fruit therefore had ye at that time in the things of which ye are now ashamed? for the end 22 of those things is death. But now, having been made free from sin, and become servants to God, ye have your fruit unto holiness; and the end, everlasting life. For the 23 wages of sin are* death: but the free gift of God is* everlasting life, through Jesus Christ our Lord.

CH. VII. Know ye not, brethren, (for I speak to those who

know the law,) that the law hath dominion over a person 2 as long as it subsisteth? For the woman that hath an husband is bound by the law to her husband as long as he liveth; but if the husband die, she is delivered from 3 the law of her husband. So then if, while her husband liveth, she be married to another man, she will be called an adultress: but if her husband die, she is free from that law; so that she is no adultress, though she be mar4 ried to another man. Wherefore, my brethren, ye also have been made dead to the law by the body of Christ; that ye might be married to another, even to him who hath been raised from the dead, that we might bring forth 5 fruit unto God. For, when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions, which were under the law, wrought in 6 our members, to bring forth fruit unto death: but now we are delivered from the law, having died to that by which we were holden; so that we serve in the newness of the spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter.


What shall we say then? Is the law sin? By no means: nay, I had not known sin, but by the law for I had not known the guilt of desire, unless the law had 8 said, "Thou shalt not desire." But sin took occasion by the commandment, and wrought in me all manner of 9 desire; for, without law, sin is dead. Now I was alive without law once but, when the commandment came, 10 sin revived, and I died: and the commandment, which

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