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cution of his plans, and marching towards Jerusalem, laid Aristobulus in chains, who had now advanced against him, and leading his army to the walls, besieged, and in a short time was admitted within the City.1 In this he was assisted by Hyrcanus and his adherents, while those of the opposite party retreated to the Temple, which from its fortifications and situation was calculated to afford them the greatest security. After three months, however, it yielded to the besiegers, who would have found it difficult to have effected an entrance in double that space of time, had they not availed themselves of the superstitious rigour with which the Jews observed their Sabbaths, when no inducement whatever could prevail upon them to become assailants, and as such, to oppose their operations: accordingly the enemy employed themselves undisturbed in raising their mounds and bringing up those machines which they were to use on the morrow, while the Priests, though in the midst of the horrours of a city taken by storm, did not suspend their ministry.
1 This took place A. C. 63.
2 Antiq. 14, v. 4.
"Eam (Palæstinam) regebant Hyrcanus et Aristobulus fratres: ac tum forte propter Pontificatum (regi enim nomen summi Pontificis apud eos est) sui Dei (quicunque is tandem est) dissidentes urbes seditionibus agitabant. Hyrcanum igitur Pompeius sine prælio (neque enim is copias quibus resisteret habebat) statim in potestatem suam redegit. Aristobulum autem in arce quadam circumcessum ad conditiones pacis accipiendas compulit, quumque is neque pecunias neque arcem traderet, in vincula conjecit: itaque etiam reliquos haud difficulter subegit. Hierosylymorum autem oppugnatio haud parvo ei labore stetit. Urbem quidem ipsam a fautoribus Hyrcani receptus, facile obtinuit: templum autem, quod alterius partis homines præoccupaverant, haud absque labore cepit. Situm erat loco edito. suis mænibus munitum: nec si ex equo omnibus diebus id defendissent expugnatum esset: verum, quod Saturni, quos vocant, diebus, propugnationem intermittentes (et his quidem ab omni opere vacant) Romanis eo libero spatio occasionem muri
As soon as the Romans had made themselves masters of the place, Pompey, attended by several of his Officers, went up to survey the sacred recesses of the Temple; an indignity considered by the Jews of so gross a nature, as brought upon him their bitter resentment. 1 Here were deposited money to a vast amount, and utensils of the richest and most costly description; but both were left by the Conqueror entire and untouched for the sacred purposes to which they were devoted. 2 "Not," says Cicero, who was Consul at that time, "that "he held in veneration the God adored in that Temple, for, in his opinion, no religion was more contempti❝ble, more unworthy the greatness of the Romans, or more opposite to their Institutions, than that of the
subruendi dederunt. Quippe ubi hunc hostium morem animadverterunt, nihil serio egerunt reliquis diebus: quum vero circumacta septimana Saturni dies rediisset, denuo aggræssi summa vi templum oppugnarunt. Atque ita tandem Judæi, nihil quicquam propugnantes, in potestatem hostium venerunt." Dio Cassius. Lib. xxxvi. p. 36. Ed. Hanoviæ, a. D. 1606.
Mattathias after the siege of Antiochus represented to the Jews the necessity of no longer adhering to that rigid observance of the Sabbath, which prohibited their engaging in offensive warfare from a scrupulous fear of breaking it (for it should be understood that though they held it unlawful to oppose the operations of their enemies, on this day in common with others, yet they considered it justifiable to fight if attacked themselves), upon which they came to a resolution of making it obligatory upon the people to stand up in arms and to fight in defence of themselves, their city, and their religion upon that, as upon any other day. Vide Antiq. 12, vi. 2. Their Saturday is entirely devoted to religion, and on this day they rest from all labour and business.
Diem, quæ Saturni vocatur, religioni habent, eamque ab omni opere actioneque seria vacantes ducunt.
Dio. Cass. xxvi.
1 Romanorum primus Cn. Pompeius Judæos domuit templumque jure victoriæ ingressus est.
Tacit. Hist. v. 9.
2 The walls of the city were levelled to the ground, but the temple was left entire.-Muri Hierosolymorum diruti, delubrum mansit.
Ibid. v. &
"Jews; but he was actuated to this disinterestedness
by his wish to put it beyond the reach of either "malice or calumny to attack his reputation." 1 Having gratified the curiosity with which the report of the awful magnificence and beauty of the Temple had inspired him, he proceeded to demolish the walls of the City, and to restore Hyrcanus to the Office of High Priest; after which, carrying Aristobulus, with his two sons and daughters, as captives to grace his Triumph, he pursued his way to the Roman Capital. In this manner, and from this time it was, that the Kingdom of the Jews became tributary to the Romans.
Hyrcanus being now established in his sacred office, adopted Antipater as his friend and adviser in all matters relative to his Government; to this he was led from, motives of gratitude as well as personal regard; for Antipater, educated in the Courts of Alexander Jannæus and of Alexandra, had gained the good opinion of the High Priest, and acquired such an ascendancy over him as compelled him to resist the claims of
1 Cn. Pompeius, captis Hierosolymis, victor ex illo faxo nihil attigit. In primis hoc, ut multa alia sapienter, quod in tam suspiciosa ac maledica civitate locum sermoni obstrectatorem non reliquit. Non enim credo religionem et Judæorum et hostium impedimento præstantissimo imperatori, sed pudorem fuisse istorum religio sacrorum a splendore hujus imperii, gravitate nominis vestri, majorum institutis abhorrebat.
Cicero pro Flacco.
Cn. Pompeius Judæos subegit fanum eorum Hierosolymæ inviolatum ante id tempus cepit.
Compare this with Jos. Antiq. 14, iv. 3.
Livy Epit. lib. cii.
2 Forthwith the treasures were seized, the kingdom given to Hyrcanus, and Aristobulus carried away.
Ibi tum pecuniis direptis, regnum Hyrcano datum, Aristobulus abductus
Dio. Cass. Lib. xxxvi.
Aristobulus, although a mutual accommodation respecting the succession to the Crown had been previously arranged. The first step to power which Antipater had now gained, was the appointment to the command of the forces of all Idumæa, of which place he was a Native, though by religion a Jew: in this situation he was placed by Julius Cæsar, who had received great personal assistance from him in his Syrian expeditions, particularly when fighting against Pompey. Afterwards, when Hyrcanus was deposed by Antigonus, the Son of Aristobulus, and re-instated by Cæsar; Antipater was appointed Procurator of Judea, his eldest Son Phasælus to the Government of Jerusalem, as the Roman Representative; and his second Son Herod, afterwards Herod the Great, to that of Galilee. 1
It was from rendering the Syrians essential services in ridding the country of robbers and banditti, with which Judea was at that time grievously infested, that Herod gained popularity among the people; these benefits to the community were reported to Cæsar, who in consideration of them elected him President of Cælesyria. Phasælus, stimulated by such an example, exerted his activity to obtain the approbation of the Jews; and in consequence of these mutual endeavours for the public good, Antipater and his two Sons became the favourites of the people and nation. Hyrcanus, however, being naturally of a weak and complying disposition, and little qualified to direct the State, suffered too much to devolve on Antipater, who after à time assumed a power of some considerable extent, though not ostensibly superior to that of Hyrcanus; whilst
1 Herod at this time was twenty-five years of age, and not fifteen, as mentioned by Josephus.-Vide Priddeaux's Connexion. lib. vii,
whilst that of Herod broke out into acts of open defiance. It was at this period that Cæsar was murdered in the Roman Senate, an event shortly followed by the death of Antipater by poison, when Anthony, invested with higher powers than he had hitherto exercised, marched into Egypt, and finding himself occasionally supported by Herod with pecuniary aid in his projects, appointed him and his Brother Tetrarchs of Judea; soon after this Pacorus, Son of the King of Parthia, entering Syria with a powerful army, sent a detachment to place Antigonus upon the Throne of Judea. Herod, though suddenly surprised, effected his escape, while Hyrcanus and Phasælus fell into the hands of the enemy, and were carried away captives; the former, though his life was spared, was disfigured to disqualify him for the Priesthood. 1 The latter destroyed himself in prison, Herod now pursued his way to Rome, where gaining an increased degree of favour with Anthony, he was by Cæsar and the Senate deputed King of Judea; upon
If any further proof of the divine origin of the Mosaic Law were wanting, it may be observed that Aaron was first appointed Priest; then Eleazer his son, and Phineas his grandson: to this last God promised by Moses that the Priesthood (as long as that law continued) should be retained in Aaron's family (Numb. xxv. 11.) that is, to the male branches of that family. Now had Moses been an impostor, how could he have divined that this family should ALWAYS have had a male heir? Why should it not at length become extinct like many others, particularly as it appears that two of Aaron's sons when consecrated were cut off in one day, and an express law of God's prohibited even the sons of Aaron from becoming Priests had they ever so small a blemish, or were in any way deformed. (Levit. xxi. 18.) How could he have thus confined the Priesthood, and how could that Priesthood have been carried on as it was in this manner for ages, unless Moses had been really inspired?
2 Regnum ab Antonio Herodi datum, victor Augustus sanxit.
Tacit. Hist. v. 9.
He was thus raised to the throne A. U. C. 714, and the decree passed the Senate three years afterwards.