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He that practiseth humanity is humane, or the subject of humanity. And as there can be no humanity without such a person, so neither such a person without humanity. All who have not this principle of humanity are inhuman, or subjects of inhumanity: which is the case of a being that we do not call human, but rather the enemy or opposite of humankind, as it existed originally; and every confirmed subject of inhumanity is not to be called human either, but rather after that frightful being of which he partakes, and whose name it is needless to mention. On the other hand it may be considered by a parity of reason, that every humane person, every one habitually humane, or every confirmed subject of humanity, must be so far one with man in perfection, and identified with the divine likeness in which man was created; when God created man two persons in one divine image, even in his own, and said unto them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth." (Gen. i. 27, 28.) Thus we may conceive, both positively and negatively, the subject of humanity; or who is a piece of it, in other words-a sound man, and who is not-being a piece of a traitor, as before signified. But
2. To understand the nature and meaning of Humanity, according to its present rather strict or limited application, we should also be aware of the Object now intended: which is rather, but not entirely, an object out of the species, than any within; objects of the same principle or feeling within the species belonging rather to philanthropy; while charity or benevolence will include them both, that is the objects both of philanthropy and humanity-one principle in two forms or species. Therefore, considering the object of humanity to be every thing that is meet or suitable for such a principle as charity, besides man, we have to enquire what that every thing
may be and this we may also find in scripture, without going far for it beyond our last citation. For we read in the next chapter how "the Lord God said, It is not good, that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him. And out of the ground the Lord God. formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam, to see what he would call them; and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof. And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field." Then had he beasts for burden, and birds for song, and fishes for amusement. "But (still) for Adam there was not found an help meet for him. And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof: and the rib which the Lord God had taken from man made he a woman, and brought her unto the man." (Ib ii. 18-22.)
Thus it would seem as if the numerous, I had almost said NUMBERLESS, objects in nature, which are properly the object of our humanity, required something extra, something at its head, to make it meet or worthy of this divine principle. And that of course could not be something out of the species: it was one example, and the only one, of an object for humanity within. At least, I apprehend, that I do not strain the meaning of the expression, when I apply it in this manner, having, as I conceive, the sanction of custom for this application; as we consider inhuman any ill treatment of our own kind in the second person, that is the ill treatment of a woman; and it is by no means uncommon to hear such ill treatment designated as inhuman; while if one man should use another ill, we must rather think of some other expression, as tyranny, cruelty, atrocity and the like. But whether the distinction be correct, or whether my ear deceive me in this matter, is unimportant, the subjects that we now consider as the common object of humanity,
being those out of our species, and inferior creatures; not those within, who are therefore properly, or by right, our equals.
3. From what has been advanced it may also appear, what is the Foundation, as well as the subject; and the object of humanity. Humanity is founded on the power of doing good, and the divine right or privilege of protection, with which the Supreme Being was pleased to honour our species in creation, through the superior light and intelligence by which--more than by brute force or physical strength-man is enabled to maintain the authority that was given him over all creatures, and to execute his commission of subduing the earth. And therefore
4. Only from the donation of such superiority and capacity to man, will also be inferred certain Duties, which are as honourable and meritorious in themselves as their neglect is disgraceful and sure to be punished.
For there are three sorts of duties distinguished by their object; namely, to God, ourselves, and others, whether of our own or of these inferior species; and the duty that we owe to these will appear to hinge on those we owe the former; as to their Author in the first place, and next to their owners, whether they be the subjects of such duties or their employers. He who does nothing in vain, has enabled us to do much for his inferior creatures, and made it our interest so to do; as for example, to multiply among us the sorts that are most convenient, whether as cattle, or as beasts of burden, to bring them up and improve their breed, to protect them against their enemies as well as ours, and generally to enhance their value by all means, as we should our own, if we rightly considered its foundation:-so much therefore being possible, by that possibility connected with the other motives, will become our duty. And thus it becomes a duty with us to respect the degrees of consanguinity in framing or concocting brute families, as much as in framing our own,-also to exercise the same prudence, tenderness and industry for
their maintenance as for our own, which often depends upon that, not to breed inward, as they say, or toward one stock continually; not to overtask those which carry and drudge for us, not to deny them the wholesome subsistence and kind consideration to which they are entitled for their good services; not to slaughter those which help to clothe and maintain us--profusely, or to waste. Let the calves learn to ruminate, and let the pretty lambs frolic till they grow sober, if we breed the less for it; and nature will reward us for sparing them in our own constitutions. We may be consequently doomed to a more limited consumption of butter and of immature food; but we shall not be the worse for it in any respect: on the contrary, by making a liberal allowance of keep for our stock, we may experience the good effect that Solomon anticipates as the usual reward of liberality, when he says, "The liberal soul shall be made fat, and he that watereth shall be watered also himself." (Prov. xi. 25.)
These duties relate chiefly to such subjects of humanity as have a property in its objects, or some of them: but there seems to be another class, and one equally numerous, at least with the preceding, who have no property nor immediate interest in the objects which Providence has confided to their humanity; though such objects are highly interested in their good qualities, and more highly sometimes in them than in those of their proprietors. Such are the hinds, the shepherds, the ploughmen, carters, grooms; and sometimes in smaller concerns or establishments, such as combine several of these parts, if not all. But what an important trust is confided to each of them in this instance, and to the shepherd especially! It seldom occurs to the mutton-eaters, and those whom he clothes as well as feeds, to consider the magnanimity, the vigilance, the patient endurance of the shepherd, of that double-cased insulated object that one shall see sometimes in the country plodding along with his shaggy follower toward the distant outpost, over pathless downs,
in the worst of weather, and sometimes up to his ancles, yet with a most impressive step, as if he was treading in seeds or roots:-you may be sure he never learned to dance. And you may not feel much for the man, because he does not seem over-polished, nor yet to feel much for himself, with his coat of many colours. To your mind he may not seem to think either, any more than to feel; because he is not thinking so much of you perhaps, as he is of his sheep. Had you two or three hundred of them, as he has, to change and provide for continually,—to guard against the fly in summer, against wintry chills, and the disasters incidental to the lambing season before it can be called spring, against the foot rot, the scour, the scab, and other simple cases not irremediable, but worst of all, to wrestle, as he may by chance, with violent and often irremediable epidemics,—and to remedy if he can the derangement in his flock that may also be occasioned by violence, whether of dogs, or of nightly marauders— had you such an opportunity for learning, you might know a little of the man, and enough to convince you, that of all our landmen there is not a better than he: and if the seaman's part be more trying sometimes, it cannot be more useful upon the whole.
What a training is here for manly and angelic qualities! There is nothing like it in the same humble sphere. For if the shepherd have not an equal interest with their owner in the peace and prosperity of the flock one way, he has the greater another; and there is One who will make it his interest, as he makes it other people's, to discharge their duty, namely, in the way of preparation for a higher employment to which I have just alluded. It is much if the shepherd ever think however of duty or interest so much as of the dear creatures under his care. A genuine, a real, a seasoned shepherd can hardly help doing every thing in his power for the sheep, even to the laying down his life for them if necessary; as one says, "I am the good shepherd: the good shepherd giveth his life for the