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CHAP. with him in the holy mountain. ¡ of trial and condemnation of un- CHAP. And we find confirmed by this the godly men.





19 words of the prophets relating to Now let not this one thing, be- 8
Christ; to which ye do well to at-loved! escape your notice; that one Delay of
tend, as to a lamp burning in a dark day is with the Lord as a thousand is owing to
place, 'until the day shine through, years, and a thousand years as one the divine
and the morning-star be risen in day. The Lord is not slow with patience
20 your hearts; considering this espe-his promise, as some men account and for
cially, that no prophecy is the ex- it slowness; but is patient for your
planation of a man's own mind; sakes, not willing that any should 9
21 for prophecy was not uttered of perish, but willing that all should
old by the will of man, but holy come to repentance.
men of God spake by the influence
of a holy spirit.


Caution against scoffers.


But the day of the Lord will 10 come as a thief in the night; when Christ's I am now writing, beloved! the the heavens will pass away with a coming is second of my epistles to you; in loud noise, and the ' éleménts will both which I endeavour to stir up be destroyed, so as to lose their preyour uncorrupted thoughts to re- sent texture, by fire, and the earthmembrance, that ye should call to together with the works on it, will 2 mind the words formerly spoken be burnt up. Since, therefore, all ri by the holy prophets, and the com- these things are to be so destroyed, mandment of our Lord and Saviour, what sort of persons ought ye to 12 3 delivered by the apostles; attend- be? Ye ought, in a holy and pious ing to this especially, that in the course of life, earnestly to expect the last days scoffers will come, walk-coming of this day of God, in which ing after their own wills, and say-the heavens will be destroyed by fire, 4 ing, "Where is the promise of his and the elements will melt away coming? for since the fathers fell with heat. But we, according to his 13 asleep, all things continue just the promise, look for new heavens, same as they were from the be-and a new earth, in which righte 5 ginning of the creation;" for this ousness will dwell. they purposely overlook, that in Wherefore, beloved, under this which the days of their fathers the hea-expectation endeavour to bé found should ex vens formed by the appointment of by him in peace without spot, and tians to all God, and the earth which standeth unreproveable: and account the holiness of out of the water and in the water, patience of our Lord to be salvation life. 6 had continued from old time; and to you, since it gives full time for See epistles yet this world as it then was pe-preparation, as our beloved brother sians,Colos 7 rished by a flood of waters. So the Paul also, according to the wisdom sians and present heavens and earth are trea-given him, wrote unto you. sured, up by the same appointment, for fire, and reserved against a day

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Do ye then, beloved! who are 17 thus forwarned, keep a guard upon

Until there is sufficient reason to be-
lieve that the prophecies have received their
full accomplishment.

Under the Christian dispensation.
To reward the righteous, and punish
the wicked.

The time of Christ's coming to the last
and general judgment.

The rudiments or constituent principles of things.

6 Because though the coming of Christ be certain, the precise time of it is known only to God.

Promise of Christ of a happy and glorious immortality.

A new and improved state of this world.

CHAP. yourselves, that ye be not led away of our Lord and saviour Jesus CHAP. 'III by the error of the wicked, and fall Christ. To him be glory both III. rom your own stedfastness. now and for ever! Amen. conclusion. grow in the favour and knowledge


tion and





HAT which was at first, which THA we heard, which we saw with Description our eyes, which we observed, and of Jesus our hands handled, as concerning the Revealer of the word of life 2 (for this Revealer of the word of life was manifested, and we have seen him, and bear testimony, and declare unto you this Revealer of that eternal life which was comparatively concealed with the Father, and was manifested unto us); 3 that which we saw and heard, we declare unto you, that ye also may have fellowship with us; for we have fellowship with the Father and 4 with his son Jesus Christ. And these things we write unto you that your joy may be complete." 5 Now this is the declaration which What he we heard from him, and make taught of known unto you, that God is light, and in him is no darkness at all. 6 If we say that we have fellowship with him, and walk in darkness, 7 we deceive ourselves, and conform not to the truth: but if we walk in the light, as he is in the light,




God and we have fellowship with CHAP. each other, and the blood of Jesus Christ cleanseth us from all sin. If we say we have no sin, we de- 8 ceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us; but if we confess our sins, God is so faithful and just to his promise, as to forgive us our 9 sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. If we say we have 10 not sinned, we make him 3 mistaken, and his doctrine is not in




tianity use

My dear children! I write these CHAP. things unto you, that ye may not sin; and if any one should sin, we Profession have a righteous advocate with the of ChrisFather, even Jesus Christ; and he less with is a propitiation, assuring us upon out obethe authority of God, that by true dience. repentance pardon may be ob- Mark, tained for our sins, and not for 15 our's only, but also for the sins of the whole world. And by this 3 we know, that we have a knowledge of Christ, if we keep his commandments. Whoso saith I 4 know him, and keepeth not his




ther. Thirdly, how certain a fact it is, that Jesus of Nazareth was the Christ or son of God, and no other person, whatever his claims or pretensions might be.

This epistle, which was written from
Ephesus about A.D. 80, is directed to all
Christians without exception, showing, first
how necessary it is to walk in the light of
the gospel, and preserve themselves from
fleshly lusts, in order to partake of the hap-
piness of heaven. Secondly, how strong
the obligations which they are under to keep
the new commandment of loving one ano-may be forgiven.

By ratifying the covenant of pardon to the sincerely penitent.

3 Because he had acted towards all men as sinners, in providing a way by which all

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Love is an



commandments, he speaketh false- I ther is not in him; for every thing CHAP
that is in the world, the desire of
the flesh, and the desire of the 16
eyes, and the pomp of life, is not
of the Father, but of the world.
Now the world is passing away, 17
and the desire thereof; but he that
doeth the will of God will remain
for ever.

ly, and the truth is not in him; 5 but whoso keepeth his word, in him is the love of God truly made complete by this we know that 6 we are in him. Whoso professeth to continue in him ought also to conduct himself even as Christ conducted himself.

against se

Brethren! I am not writing a essential new commandinent unto you, but duty in all Christians, an old commandment, which ye had from the first: this old commandment is the doctrine which ye 8 heard. On the other hand, I am writing to you a new command-insincere in their professions, for ment, which is realized and exem- had they been of us, they would plified in Christ, and in you also; have continued with us: but this for the darkness is passed away, hath happened to make it manifest and the true light now shineth. that all are not of us, whatever 9 He who professeth to be in the they may pretend; but ye have an 20 light, and hateth his brother, is in unction, even a communication of 10 darkness even until now. He who spiritual gifts from Jesus Christ loveth his brother continueth in the holy, and know all things rethe light, and no cause of stum-lating to his gospel. I have not 21 11 bling will be unto him. But he who written unto you, because ye know hateth his brother is in darkness, not the truth, but because ye do and walketh in darkness, and know- know it, and that no false teacher eth not whither he is going; for is of the truth. Who speaketh false- 22 the darkness hath blinded his eyes. ly, but he who denieth that Jesus is 12 I write unto you, dear children! the Christ? this is the antichrist, because your sins are forgiven on who denieth the Father and the for writing account of your professing his son. of different name. I write unto you, fathers, because ye have known Christ 13 from the first. I write unto you, young men because ye are strong, and the word of God abideth in you, and ye have overcome the wicked person.

My children! it is the last time, 18 and as ye heard that antichrist is Caution coming, even now there are many of antichrists, by which ye know that antichrists. it is the last time. They went out 19 from us, but were not of us, being


to persons


Worldlymindedness condemn



of the

Whosoever denieth the son, by 23 denying Jesus to be the Christ, Denying hath not the Father, but he who the truth acknowledeth the son, hath the Christian Father also. Let that doctrine, religion is therefore, which ye heard at first in effect denying remain in you. If what ye heard the vera. at first remain in you, then will ye city of remain in the son and in the Fa- God.

Love not the world, nor the
things in the world. If any one
love the world, the love of the Father.

1 Meaning the duty of love, which was
called new, from the new obligations by
which it was enforced, and the new extent
given to it.

• Unlawful sensual indulgences.
3 Avarice.

• Undue splendour, pomp and ambition.
5 The time meant by the expressions, the
latter days, the last days, &c, in which enc-

Now this is the promise 25

mies of Christ and his religion, or anti-
christs, were to be expected, 1 Tim. iv. 1.
2 Tim. iii. 2 Pet. iii. 3.

• Whoever denies Jesus to be the Mes-
siah, when the evidence is fairly laid before
him, in effect denies the Father, because he
rejects the ample testimony which he has
given of his son.

CHAP. which he gave us, even everlast-
III. ing life.

to steadi.



sin is of the devil; for the devil CHAP. sinneth from the first; and for 26 These things I write to you with this end did the son of God Exhortation a view to those who would deceive that he might destroy the works of ness in the you. But the unction which ye the devil. No son of God com- 9 true faith. received from him remaineth in mitteth sin; for he keepeth to his 27 you, and ye have no need of an parentage, and cannot sin, because instructor. As then this same unc- he is a son of God. By this are 10 tion teacheth you concerning all discovered the children of God, and things, and is true without any the children of the devil; he who mixture of falsehood; so, as it doth not practise righteousness is taught you, remain therein. Even not of God; nor he who loveth 28 now, dear children! remain there- not his brother. For this is the 11 in, that when Christ shall appear, charge which ye heard from the we may have confidence, and may first, "That ye love one another." not be ashamed before him at his Not as Cain who was of an evil 12 29 coming. If ye be convinced that disposition, and slew his own brohe is righteous, be assured that ther. And why did he slay him? every one who practiseth righteous-because his own deeds were wicked, CHAP. ness is born of him. Behold! and his brother's righteous. what great love the Father hath shown in our being called children of God. The world, therefore, knoweth us not, because it hath not known him.




God will

Wonder not, my brethren! if 13 the world hate you. We know that The love of we have passed over from death produce a unto life, because we love the bre- love of our thren; he who loveth not his bro- fellowther is still in death. Whosoever creatures. hateth his brother is in disposition 15 a murderer; and ye know that no nurderer hath everlasting life, or any just hope of it, abiding in him. Hereby we know what love is, 16 since Christ laid down his life for us, and we ought also to lay down our lives for the brethren. But 17 whosoever hath the good things of this world, and seeth his brother in want, but shutteth up his compassionate affections from him, how can the love of God remain in him?

Beloved! now are we the chilThe hopes dren of God, but it hath not yet of Chris- been declared what we shall be: should pre- we know, however, that when serve them Christ shall appear we shall be from sin. like him, and that we shall see him 3 as he is. And every one that hath this hope in him purifieth himself 4 even as he is pure. Every one who committeth sin, breaketh thereby 5 the law; for sin is the breach of the law. Now we know that Christ was manifested to take away our sins: 6 and in him is no sin. Whosoever continueth in him 'sinneth not: but no sinner hath seen him or known My dear children! love not in Conscious him, except in vain. word and tongue only, but in deed integrity is 7 Dear children! let no one de-and in truth, and by this we know ground of Good prac- ceive you; he that practiseth righte- that we are of the truth, and shall confidence tice makes ousness is righteous, even as Christ assure our hearts before him. For if towards is righteous; he who committeth our hearts condemn us, God is great

good men.

the best


1 Wilfully, or through carelessness; so in verses 9, and 18.

Referring to the murder of Abel by Cain, as mentioned in verse 12. Cain was a false accuser and slanderer of his brother,

and therefore might, in the true sense of the
word, be called the devil.

3 Satisfy ourselves that we shall receive
God's final approbation.



CHAP. er than our heart, and knoweth all
things. Beloved! if our heart con-
21 demn us not, we have confidence
towards God; and whatsoever we
22 ask, we receive from him, because
we keep his commandments, and
do what is pleasing in his sight.
26 And this is his commandment, that
we believe in the name of his son
Jesus Christ, and love each other,
24 as he commanded us. And who-dwelleth in us, and his love is com-
soever keepeth his commandments
abideth in God, and God in him,
and by this we know that he abideth
in us, by the spirit which he hath
given us.

much beloved son into the world, CHAP
that we might live through him.
In this consisted the love of God; 10
that though we loved not God, he
loved us, and sent his son to be
a propitiation for our sins. Be- 11
loved, if God so loved us, we ought
also to love one another. Though 12
no one hath seen God at any time,
yet if we love each other, God


true and

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CHAP. Beloved, believe not every spirit, IV. but try the spirits of men whether Distinction they be of God; for many false teachers are gone out into the false teach- world. By this we know the 'spirit of God: every spirit which alloweth that Jesus Christ came inthe 3 flesh, is of God: but every spirit which alloweth not that Jesus Christ came in the flesh is not of God; and this is that spirit of antichrist, of whose coming ye have heard; and indeed he is already in the world. 4 Ye are of God, dear children, and have overcome them (antichrists); for he who is in you is greater than 5 he who is in the world. They are of the world, therefore they speak suitably to the world, and the world listeneth to them. We are of God; he who knoweth God listeneth to us; he who is not of God listeneth not to us: by this we know the spirit of truth from the spirit of error.

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Beloved! let us love one another; for love is of God, and every one love who hath this love is born of God, and knoweth God; for God is love. 9 Herein was the love of God shown towards us in that God sent his

strongly insisted upon.

1 The spirit or mind which he approves. • Whom the bent of his social nature and mutual intercourse induce him to love.

3 By the voice uttered when he came out of the water at his baptism, Matt. iii. 16, 17.

plete in us. There is no servile 18
fear in love, but perfect love casteth
out such fear; for fear hath punish-
ment, and he who feareth is not
complete in love. Let us love him, 19
for he first loved us. If any one 20
say, I love God, though he hate
his brother, he speaketh falsely;
for how can he who loveth not his
brother, whom he 'seeth, love God,
whom he doth not see. And this 21
very commandment we have from
him, that he who loveth God, love
his brother also.


the divine

mission of


Whosoever believeth that Jesus CHAP. is the Christ, is born of God, and every one who loveth the Father, Believing loveth his children also.. By this we know that we love the children Jesus leads of God, when we love God, and to the love keep his commandments; for this of God and is the love of God, that wekeep his commandments, and his commandments are not grievous. Every son 4 of God overcometh the world, and that by which we victoriously overcome the world, is our faith. Who is he that overcometh the 5 world, but he who believeth that Jesus is the son of God?

This is that Jesus who came, and 6 is proved to be the Christ, by 3water Evidences and 'blood, and 'spirit, not by water of the dionly, but by water and blood and sion of spirit is the testimony given; for Jesus.

4 The miracles which took place at his death.

5 Spiritual gifts bestowed upon the first teachers of Christianity.

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