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exhort by wholesome instruction, CHAP
and confute those who contra-

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For there are many unruly peo- 10

tion of the

AUL, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, as Address to to the faith of the chosen of God, and the acknowledgement of the truth which is according to godli-ple, vain talkers and deceivers, Descrip 2 ness, in hope of everlasting life, especially they of the circumcision; people of which God who cannot lie pro-whose mouths must be stopped, for Crete. 3 mised before the ages; and hath they subvert whole families, teach- 11 displayed this promise in its season, ing what they ought not, for the by that preaching which hath sake of base gain. One of their 12 been committed unto me, accord- own teachers hath said, "Cretans ing to the appointment of God our are very often false, fierce, and 4 Saviour, to Titus, my own son as brutish, lazy, and gluttonous." to the common faith; favour, This testimony is true; wherefore 13 mercy and peace be to thee, from reprove them sharply, that they God our Father, and the Lord may be sound in the faith, not giv- 14 Jesus Christ our Saviour. ing heed to Jewish fables and commandments of men, who turn away from the truth. To the pure all 15 things are pure, but to the defiled and unbelieving, nothing is pure; for both their mind and conscience are defiled. They profess a know- 16 be-ledge of God, but deny him in their actions, being abominable and disobedient, and approving themselves by no one good work.

left Titus in Crete.

5 For this purpose I left thee in Why he Crete, that thou mightest proceed to set right what was left unfinished, and appoint elders in every city as 6 I directed thee; if any one be irreproachable, the husband of one wife, having children that are lievers, and not charged with riot and unruliness.

7 For a superintendant must be Character blameless as the steward of God; od not self-willed, not passionate, not


of the


But speak thou the things which CHAP. become sound doctrine; that elder

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or overseer a continuer at the wine, no strik-ly men be sober, venerable, chaste, Duties of er, not greedy of dishonourable gains; but a friend to hospitality, 8 a lover of good men, chaste, just, 9 holy, temperate; keeping to the true doctrine which he hath been taught, that he may be able to

sound in love, in patience, in fide-
lity. That elderly women likewise
behave as becometh holy persons; 3
not slanderers, not addicted to much
wine, teachers of what is good;
that they may instruct the young 4

'The island of Crete was the parent of Roman and Greek idolatry; and the Cretans so far excelled ether nations in inventing gods, that they were called "The Liars." They had also intermixed the whims of Egyptian philosophy with Judaism. It was highly necessary that Titus should be well instructed, how to conduct himself amongst them, and to be very earnestly exhorted to

zeal and activity, and fearlessness of suffer-
ing, in preaching the gospel to them. This
epistle was written A. D. 56, while St. Paul
was in Macedonia.

2 All true Christians.
3 The Poet Epimenides.
4 That is, all kinds of food, though for
bidden by the Jewish teachers.


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good work; to speak ill of no one, CHAP. not to be quarrelsome, but gentle, shewing all meekness to all men. Of sub


power, &c.

CHAP. women to be orderly, to love their husbands, to love their children, to 5 be chaste, pure, keepers at home, good, submissive to their own hus-I say so all men, notwithstanding mission to bands, that the doctrine of God be their vices; for we ourselves were not evil spoken of. formerly unwise, disobedient, de- 3 ceived, slaves to many evil desires and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hated by others and hating them.

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6 In like manner, exhort young 7 men to be sober minded. In all things showing thyself a pattern of good works; in thy doctrine impar8 tial, grave, uncorrupt; in thy discourse instructive and unblameable, that the adversary may be ashamed, having nothing amiss to say about you.



the bless

But when the kindness of God 4 our Saviour, and his love towards Men are man appeared, he placed us in a solely to state of salvation, not in conse- the quence of the righteous works which love of Exhort servants to submit them- we had done, but according to his God, for f servants selves to their own masters in all mercy, by a washing in baptism, ings of the things, to be desirous of pleasing representing a regeneration, accom- gospel. 10 them, not contradicting, not thiev-panied with a holy disposition, ing, but showing the utmost fide-formed anew in us, which God 6 lity, that they may adorn the doc- hath afforded us abundant means of trine of God our Saviour, in all acquiring through Jesus Christ our things. Lord; that becoming righteous 7 through the favour of God, we might be heirs in expectation of eternal life.


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For the favour of God, which sign of bringeth the offer of salvation to gospel. all men, hath appeared, teaching us 12 to deny ungodliness and worldly lusts, and to live soberly, righteously, and piously, in this present 13 world, gladly entertaining the happy expectation of the glorious manifestation of the great God, and of 14 our Saviour Jesus Christ; who gave himself for us, to deliver us from all iniquity, and to purify for himself a peculiar people, zealous 15 of good works. So teach and exhort, and reprove with all authori-knowing that such an one is per- 11 ty. Let no one despise thee. versely turned from Christianity, and sinneth against his own knowledge, and conviction. The favour 15 of Christ be with you all.

This is a true doctrine; and 18 wish thee earnestly to enforce these Necessity things, that those who trust in God of good may be foremost in good works. These aret hings which are good and profitable to mankind. But avoid 9 foolish questions and genealogies, and contentions, and strifes about the law; for they are unprofitable and vain. Reject an 3 heretic after 10 the first and second admonition,




Put men in mind of submission to authorities and powers; of a ready obedience to them in every

1 Devoted himself both in life and death, to promote the cause of truth and virtue, on which the happiness of mankind depends.

• He means the Cretans in their Gentile

3 A fomenter of divisions, who taught
doctrines as received from inspired men,
which he knew he had not received.
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over the


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OD, who by sundry parts, and 'had cleansed our sins by himself, CHAP in several manners, spake of old sat down on the right hand of suSuperiority unto the fathers by the prophets, preme majesty; and is become so 4 of Christ hath spoken in these latter days much greater than those messenprophets unto us by his son, whom he ap-gers, the prophets, as he inherited pointed heir of all things, through a more excellent name than they. whom also he settled the ages; For unto which of those messen- 5 3 who being a ray of God's bright-gers said the scripture at any time, ness, and an image of his perfec- "Thou art my son: this day I Psalm And again, 2 Sam. tions, and upholding all things by have adopted thee?" the authority of his power, after he "I will be to him a father, and vii. 14

that came before him.

ii. 7.

This epistle, which is deservedly admired for the elegance and beauty of its style, is generally agreed to have been, as to the subject and matter of it, the production of an apostolic pen. But there is much uncertainty as to the real author. The most probable account is, that the whole plan and sentiments of the epistle are St. Paul's, but that he employed some amanuensis, perhaps Luke, who expressed the apostle's thoughts in purer Greek than he commonly used himself. The omission of the name in the address to the Hebrews, is easily accounted for, from the well known prejudices conceived against the apostle, for his sentiments respecting the abolition of the

Mosaic ritual. The scope and design of
the epistle, which was written from Rome
or some part of Italy, A. D. 63, is to show
the superiority of the Christian covenant
over the Jewish, or the preference of Christ
and the Christian institution to Moses and
the high-priest, and the Mosaic dispensa-

The same as being head over all things
to his church.

3 Ratified that covenant by which God promised forgiveness of sins to all sincere Christians.

This was originally said of Solomon, but was considered by the Jews as applicable to the Messiah.

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CHAP. he shall be to me a son:" and such a great salvation, which was CHAP. when it bringeth again the first-first published by the Lord, and born into the world, it saith, established among us by the hear"And let all the messengers of God pay homage to him."

Psalm xcvii. 7.

Psalm civ. 4. shown, from the

cable to

to him.

Psalm xlv. 6.

Psalm cii. 25.


And of these messengers indeed "the scripture saith, speaking of God, "Who maketh his messengers winds, and his ministers a Name of fire:" but of the son it language saith, "God is thy throne for ever of scrip- and ever; the sceptre of thy kingture, appli-dom is a sceptre of rectitude. them and Thou lovedst righteousness, and hatedst iniquity; therefore God, even thy God, anointed thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows." And Thou, Lord! in the beginning didst found the earth, and the heavens are the works of thy 11 hands. They will perish, but thou 12 wilt endure throughout: they will decay altogether like a garment, and as a vesture shalt thou change them, and they will be changed; but thou art the same, and thy 13 years will not fail." Moreover, of which of these messengers hath the scripture ever said, "Sit thou on my right hand, until I make thine 14 enemies thy footstool?" Are they not all ministering spirits, sent forth to minister on account of the future heirs of salvation?

Psalm CX. I.

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ers of it; God at the same time 4 bearing testimony to them both by signs, and wonders, and various mighty works and distributions, according to his own will, of divine power:

able to the

Now it became God, for whom 10 are all things, and by whom It was suitare all things, in bringing many wisdom of sons to glory, to make the au- God to apthor of their salvation perfect point.a sufthrough sufferings. For all are fering Mesof one Father, both Christ the sanctifier and they who are sanc- 11 tified; on which account Christ is not ashamed to call them brethren.


due com

For indeed Christ helpeth not 16 angels, but he helpeth the race of that he Abraham; so that it was right for might have him in all things to be like to his passion for brethren, that he might be com- mankind. passionate, and a faithful high- 17 priest for the service of God, to make reconciliation for the sins of the people: for by suffering trial 18 himself, he is able to succour them that are tried.


thy of be

Wherefore, holy brethren, par- CHAP. takers of the heavenly calling, consider this apostle and high-priest of Why he our profession, Christ Jesus, who was wore. was faithful to him who appointed ing attendhim, as Moses also was in all the ed to. family committed to him; for he 3 received as much greater honour than Moses, as the regulator of a family hath greater honour than the family itself.

Take heed, brethren! that there 12 never be in any of you an evil heart


The scripture, in the ninety-seventh psalm, which speaks of David's return to his own land, after being driven out of it by his enemies, which is here called, the scriptures bringing him into the world. The reason of David's being called the firstfrom Psalm lxxxix. 27. It is

born appears

evident that the quotation in the text is applicable to Christ only by accommodation.

Christ was not a high-priest in the proper sense of the word, for he was of the tribe of Judah, and the high-priest was always of the tribe of Levi. He only resembled a high-priest.


ness of sin to be care

guarded against.


XCV. 7.


spects 'like ourselves, yet without CHAP,
sin. Let us therefore come with
confidence to the throne of favour, 16
that we may find mercy and par-
don for our seasonable relief.

CHAP of unbelief, in falling away from the living God: but encourage each Deceitful- other daily, while it is called today, lest any of you be hardened fully by the deceitfulness of sin. For we have fellowship with Christ, if we can hold fast the principles on 14 which we stand firmly to the end, according to the following declaration," To-day if ye will hear his voice, harden not your hearts, as 16 in the provocation of me." For some when they had heard, provoked God, however not all who came out of Egypt under Moses. 17 But with whom was God grieved forty years? Was it not with those who sinned, whose carcases fell in 18 the desert? And to whom did he solemnly declare that they should not enter into his rest, but to those 19 who were disobedient? We see then that they were unable to go in from their want of trust in him.


not be deceived.


to his

Now every high-priest taken CHAP. from among men is appointed in behalf of men, over divine services, Christ was to offer both gifts, and sacrifices for appointed sin, one who can make allowances office by for the ignorant and mistaken, in- God, as was asmuch as he also is himself cloth- Aaron; ed in weakness; and on this ac- 3 count he hath occasion to make sin-offering for himself also, as well as for the people. And as no 1 one taketh this honour to himself, but must be called thereto by God, as Aaron was; in the same man- 5 ner Christ did not confer upon himself the honour of the high-priesthood, but God, who said concerning him, "Thou art my son, today I have adopted thee."

which he

from the

Let us, therefore, endeavour ear- Now Christ in the days of his and the IV. nestly to go into that rest, that flesh, offered up both supplications Prayers God can- none of us may imitate the same and entreaties, with strong crying made to pattern of disobedience, since it is and tears, unto him who was able God to impossible we can escape unnoticed; to deliver him from death, and was delive 12 for the mind of God is lively and heard for his pious reverence; and evils which active, and sharper than any two-though he was a son, yet he learn- wicked men were bringedged sword, and piercing even to ed obedience under his sufferings, ing upon a separation both of life and spirit, and having been made perfect him, might 13 both of joints and marrow; and is through his sufferings, became the be considera discerner of the thoughts and in- author of eternal salvation to all ed as sinofferings. tentions of the heart: nor is any that obey him. creature hidden before it; but all things are bare and laid open to the eyes of him with whom we have to do.


It is impossible that they who CHAP. have been once enlightened, and have enjoyed that heavenly gift, Danger of and partaken of the holy spirit, apostacy. 14 Having, therefore, a great high- and have tasted the good word of 5 The exam- priest, who hath passed into the God, and seen miracles of the age heavens, Jesus the son of God, that was to come, should, if they 6 let us hold fast our profession. fall away, be renewed unto repentcouraging. For we have not a high-priest un-ance, having exposed for them15 able to feel a common concern for

ple of

Christ is

very en

our infirmities, but one who hath
suffered trial, and was in all re-

selves again the son of God upon a
cross to public shame. For the 7
land which drinketh the rain, that

I Human, frail, mortal.

The age succeeding the ascension of

• An angel being sent to comfort him, Christ. Luke xxii. 43.

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