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the most delicate and refined emotions of one mind can be transmitted, or, if we may so speak, transfused into another." By the movements of the tongue, and the modulas tion of the organs, certain articulations are produced as symbols of external objects, and of the ideas passing in the mind. These symbols, or, as we call them, words, are understood and recognized in their several distinct societies. The word, as soon as uttered by the speaker, enters the ear of the person addressed, and instanta

atmosphere, especially if you can contrive torbe in a state of perspiration; sitting or standing in a draught, however slight; it is the breath of death, reader, and laden with the vapour of the grave! Lying in damp beds for there his cold arms shall em brace you; continuing in wet clothing, and neglecting wet feet-these, and a hundred others, are some of the ways in which you may slowly, imperceptibly, but surely che rish the creature, that shall at last creep inextricably inwards, and lie coiled about your very vitals. Once more again!neously awakens the idea intended to be again again I would say, attend to this, all ye who think it a small matter to "neglect a slight cold!'-Diary of a late Physician. odw " 量 instal

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1 COR. xiii. 12.

MAN is compounded of mind and matter. Each of these, though essentially opposite in their nature, blends with the other in a mysterious though beautiful union. The mind is the great agent in this material machine, giving animation to an otherwise senseless, though exquisite organization, On the other hand, the material frame of man is the vehicle of the mind; and, through the various sensations and agencies of matter, mind holds communication with mind, opening a grateful intercourse to that nobler part of our being, which would otherwise be imprisoned during its pro batory state. We cannot then sufficiently adore the wisdom and goodness of Him who created us, mingling mind and matter, that man might not be an isolated being, and so forming us, that our passions, seated in a material frame, might be regulated by reason in that manner which would best promote our happiness. Reflecting on the importance and consequence of this union; in the present essay we will glance at the connection now existing between mind and matter, and the influence of the latter upon the former.ptv

In the structure of languages, we may observe a remarkable exemplification of this union. Completely enclosed in its material receptacle, one mind could hold no intercourse with any other, and the know. ledge of every one would consequently be exceedingly limited; but a most facile and ingenious communication is opened by means of speech. In the words of Blair, "Language is become a vehicle, by which 2D SERIES, NO. 11.-VOL. I.


conveyed. Here is first a vibration caused by the tongue in its articulation, and then its action on the membranes of the ear, by which thought is with the rapidity of lights ning communicated from one mind to another.

With respect to the words of a language, they seem originally to have been borrowed from a supposed resemblance in sound to those objects they symbolize. From the root whence they sprang, they have ramis fied so amazingly, and with such nice dis tinctions, that it is often difficult to discover their origin. Such then being the rise of languages, it is evident that not only the passions and feelings, but the operations of the mind, can only be described by those articulations which bear a supposed resem blance to sensible objects. Thought is em bodied in a material form when we would communicate with others, or obtain infor mation ourselves. By this it is evident how incomplete must be the transfer of thought in the first place, and how comparatively indistinct must be its comprehension ! Yet habit has so reconciled us to this defects that we scarcely perceive it. The process of thinking, likewise, being carried on in those vehicles of speech we most use, must suffer in some degree from the shackling influence placed upon it. But it seems inseparately connected with our being, that we should understand nothing but by ma terial representation, and that we should not be able to convey our ideas to one an other, but through the same medium.

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Sallust, when speaking of the soul and body of man, says "Alterum nobis cum diis, alterum cum belluis commune est." Indeed, his mind imparts to him a con nection with the Deity, while his material form chains him to the earth as a part, though the lord, of the animal creation. With the latter he leads a sensible existence, and goes through all the gradations of nature, subject to the same passions, though different in refinement and degree. But with the former he is enabled to compre hend the relation between cause and effect, 155.-VOL. XIII.

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and the moral perception of right and wrong. He is the link in creation which connects the irrational brute with those im material beings who can receive no con. tamination through the influence of matter. But man, though endowed with reason, is not uncontrolled by the material form he inhabits. His physical constitution and infirmities affect his passions, and these again affect the mind. The process as well as the communication of thought being carried on by the means of matter, are effected by its impurities and defects.

If we advance to the effects of the influence of matter upon the mind of man as manifested in religion, we must be struck with its importance. The soul of man, as was before observed, being in some measure assimilated to the Deity from whom it sprang, this would seem the most important to cultivate, and to divest of deformity. Here would piety place the seat of obedience, and here it would expect to meet with its reward. None but a thinking mind could conceive of the existence or attributes of a Supreme Being, or could adore him as bis Maker. None but a rational creature could comprehend the beauty of moral good and the deformity of vice, or could feel that the one was as acceptable as the other was loathsome to a pure and holy God. Neither could any but a moral and accountable being receive a probationary state of existence, to be rewarded hereafter according to his actions.

The mind of man can only conceive of God by material representations, for of itself, unless possessing an intuitive faculty, it could know nothing of a Supreme Being. We see the productions and works of Jehovah, and by a necessary and immutable action of the mind, which recognizes a relation between cause and effect, we are enabled to perceive the necessity of His existence, and to comprehend many of his attributes by what is manifested in the material creation. When the Almighty is unfolded to the view of man by revelation, it is by means of symbols and the assumed forms of matter. Indeed, it would be impossible, owing to the present finite nature of our faculties, that we should comprehend any thing of so vast a being, but by the prefiguration of sensible objects. The majesty of the Most High is shadowed thus faintly, lest the magnificent lustre of his sun-like beams should only dazzle and confound the eye of mortality. What must be the nature of that Being, whose boundless pavilion, like the light of heaven, is stretched from east to west, who maketh the clouds his chariot," who walketh on the wings

of the wind!". Indeed, wherever a de scription of Jehovah is drawn in the scriptures, though under the metaphor of the most glorious and sublime objects, we must continually reflect that these are but metaphors which fade before the reality, as the reflected rays of moonlight,


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Softly alighting upon all below," disappear before the gorgeous beains of the noon-day's sun. When we would contemplate the omnipresence of God, with David we ascend up into heaven," his dwellingplace, and there his glory "is the light thereof," and he exhibits himself as his own temple, in which his favoured people shall worship. If we descend to the gloomy dwelling of departed spirits, even there is the solemn all-pervading presence of the Most High. In the most distant, the most solitary spot of this world, as well as in the frequented and commercial city, in the deepest shades of darkness, as in the unshadowed day, God is unfolded to our view.

As finite beings, it is impossible for us entirely to comprehend the boundlessness of Jehovah, whether in his nature or in his attributes. We can conceive of the pos sibility of infinity, though our perception can extend but very little beyond ourselves. We are compelled, in the contemplation of infinity, to take in at several distinct times so many distinct parts of the circle, but we can never grasp a thousandth part of the whole. We gaze upon the various objects of the material creation, and, divesting them of their imperfections, regard them as sym bols of the Most High. All matter being circumscribed in extent, essentially motionless in its nature, and void of reason, we imagine perfection in a contrast of these, and hence conceive of an immaterial God. Thus, by the simplest act of reason, we perceive that the Supreme Being cannot be matter, and conceiving these qualities capable of being negatived, we form some faint conceptions of what He is, by knowing what He is not. With these reflections, we should be impressed with a sense of our limited knowledge of the Most High. Be holding the stupendous objects of nature around us, and regarding them as the puny emblems of Jehovah, our own insignificance startles us, and we exclaim with the psalmist, "What is man, that thou art mindful of him? and the Son of man, that thou visitest him ?”

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Again, when we would contemplate a future state, the nature of our existence hereafter, and the paradise in which the blessed shall dwell, our views are too much tinctured with the grossness of materiality. Thus it has ever happened during the



various eras of superstition in all countries-the pleasures of heaven have been supposed to consist in those gratifications that have delighted most in this world. The Indian, who had revered the Great Spirit during his life, expected when he died to dwell in extensive hunting grounds. Ossian, in his beautiful poems, imagines men in a separate state to retain the same dispositions which animated them in this life. The ghosts of departed heroes ride upon the winds, and, bending their aerial bows, they pursue deer formed of clouds. Indeed, the heathen of all nations seem to have entertained the same notions in forming for themselves a future state of bliss. Mahomet also unfolded his voluptuous paradise to his disciples, as a temptation to obedience. (Paley.) "His robes of silk, his palaces of marble, his rivers and shades, his groves and couches, his wines, his dainties; and above all, his seventy-two virgins assigned to each of the faithful, of resplendent beauty and eternal youth; intoxicated the imaginations, and seized the passions, of his Eastern followers." And, strange as it may appear, even among Christians the same disposition prevails, of investing paradise with the pleasures of


This disposition may in some measure be accounted for by the necessity that heaven and the material world should be symbo lized by those sensible objects they most resemble. The ideas of man can extend no further than to those objects which he has seen, or, from resemblance can conceive. That glorious world then could only be described by likening it to what we from experience can understand. Thus, in the expression used by St. John," the city was pure gold, like unto clear glass. And the foundations of the wall of the city were garnished with all manner of precious stones," we are only to understand the description as figurative. Gold is the most valuable of all metals, and free from liability to corruption, while precious stones fill the mind with ideas of worth and splendour, such being to man the fittest emblems of transcendent excellence. Likewise, in visions and prophecies, where beasts are mentioned, we are to understand their attributes rather than the beasts themselves. Instead of the music of the golden harps, we are rather to understand the celestial harmony of the soul continually responding the chord of love. Indeed, upon the whole, we are rather to regard heaven as a state of existence, than as a fixed dwellingplace invested even with the most refined pleasures of sense. The necessity of this


will appear more evident, when we reflect that heaven, being the abode of the Most High, and of immaterial spirits, cannot be supposed to consist of any enjoyments of sense, but rather of mental and spiritual pleasures. In order then to take up his residence in so pure a region, man must be divested of his material nature, and receive a capability of comprehending and enjoy! ing the pleasures of heaven unrestrained by the influence of matter, for, as St. Paul asserts," flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God."

Finally, the material part of our existence, or, in scripture language, the flesh, is one of the principal engines of tempta tion used by our great adversary for the destruction of man. "To be carnally minded," or in defiance of moral rectitude to seek the gratifications of sense," is death; while "to be spiritually-minded," or by the mortification of sense to draw off the soul to a contemplation of God," is life and peace." Hence the importance and value of faith, which leads a man to withstand the fascinations of sense, and live in con stant preparation for a pure and unseen world. In the present state of existence, a just and perfect conception of holiness, of the existence and nature of Jehovah, and of the paradise prepared for those that love and serve the Most High, is much dimmed by the influence of matter upon the mind. Our spiritual knowledge increases or decreases according as we resist or yield to the temptations of sense; but even in the highest state of excellence, so feeble is mortal vision, that we cannot but confess "now we see through a glass darkly;" yet by the same Spirit which has imparted that degree of vision we at present enjoy, may we hereafter see these sublime and spiritual objects "face to face," and "know, even as we also are known." Beaconsfield.

J. A. B.

THE CONFESSIONS OF A PIRATE. (From the Bolton Chronicle of June 4th, 1831.) THE New York Evening Post contains one of the most extraordinary confessions ever read-the confessions of a man whose crimes make all the horrors of fiction comparatively tame and trifling. The necessity of putting beyond question the truth of a tale so truly appalling, has necessarily overcharged the original paper with minute details and repetitions, for which, its general truth having been established, the necessity no longer exists, and we shall therefore abridge the whole into narrative.

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The miserable wretch from whose own lips the following particulars were collected, was at length convicted of murder on the high seas, and was to have been executed on the 22d of May. He is a native of the State of Rhode Island, and is known in America by the name of Charles Gibbs, but from the wording of the paragraph, we suspect it is not his real name. From his confession, carefully compared with known facts, there is every reason to believe, that he was concerned in the robbery of more than forty vessels, and in the destruction of more than twenty, with their entire crews. Many of those destroyed had passengers on board, which makes it probable that he had been an agent in the murder of nearly FOUR HUNDRED HUMAN BEINGS!!


The account that he gives of himself is, that he served first in the navy of the United States, and was on board the Chesapeake when captured. After his change, he abandoned all idea of following the sea for a subsistence, and returned to Rhode Island; but after a few months he entered again. The death of an uncle now put him in possession of about two thousand dollars, with which he established himself in the grocery business at Boston, but not succeeding, he again went to sea. Eventually, he served on board the Columbian privateer Maria, Capt. Bell, and here begins the history of his piracies.

The crew being dissatisfied in consequence of the nonpayment of their prizemoney, a mutiny arose; the crew took possession of the schooner, and landed the officers near Pensacola. They cruised for a short time without any success, and it was then unanimously determined to hoist the black flag, and declare war against all nations. Their bloody purpose was not carried, however, into immediate execution. They boarded a number of vessels, and allowed them to pass unmolested, there being no specie on board, and their cargoes not being convertible into any thing valuable to themselves. At last one of the crew, named Antonio, suggested, that an arrangement could be made with a man in Havannah, that would be mutually beneficial; that he would receive all their goods, sell them, and divide the proceeds. This suggestion being favourably received, they ran up within two miles of the Moro Castle, and sent Antonio on shore to see the merchant, and make a contract with him. Previous to this, Gibbs was chosen to navigate the vessel. Antonio succeeded in arranging every thing according to their wishes, and Cape Antonio was appointed as the place of rendezvous. The merchant was to

furnish droghers to transport the goods to Havannah, which was done by him for more than three years.

The Maria now put to sea, with a crew of about fifty men, principally Spaniards and Americans, with every hope of infamous success. The first vessel she fell in with was the Indispensable, an English ship, bound to Havannah, which was taken and carried to Cape Antonio. The crew were imme diately destroyed: those who resisted were hewn to pieces; those who offered no re sistance were reserved to be shot and thrown overboard. A French brig, with a cargo of wine and silk, was taken shortly after. The vessel was burnt, and the crew murdered.


Gibbs was now unanimously chosen to be their leader in all their future enterprises. To reap a golden harvest without the hazard of encountering living witnesses of their crimes, it was unanimously resolved to spare no lives, and to burn and plunder without mercy.


He now directed his course towards the Bahama Banks, where they capturedra brig, believed to be the William, from New York, for some port in Mexico, with a cargo of furniture; destroyed the crew, took the ship to Cape Antonio, and sent the furniture and other articles to their friend at Havannah. Some time during this cruise, the pirate was chased for nearly a whole day by a United States ship, supposed to be the John Adams; they hoisted patriot colours, and finally escaped. In the early part of the summer of 1817, they took the Earl of Moira, an English ship from London, with a cargo of dry goods. The crew were destroyed, the vessel burnt, and the goods carried to the Cape. There they had a settlement with their Havannah friend, and the proceeds were divided ac cording to agreement.

Gibbs then repaired to Havannah, introduced himself to the merchant, and made further arrangements for the successful prosecution of his piracies. When there, the became acquainted with many of the English and American naval officers, inquired respecting the success of their various expeditions for the suppression of piracy, and made himself acquainted with the speed of their vessels, and all their intended move

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During this cruise, which was made in the latter part of 1817, and the beginning of 1818, a Dutch ship from Curaçoa was captured, with a cargo of West Indian goods and a quantity of silver plate. The passengers and crew, to the number of thirty, were all destroyed, with the exception of a young female about seventeen, who fell upon her knees and implored Gibbs to save her life. The appeal was successful, and he promised to save her, though he knew it would lead to dangerous consequences among his crew. She was carried to Cape Antonio, and kept there about two months; but the dissatisfaction increased, until it broke out at last into open mutiny, and one of the pirates was shot by Gibbs for daring to lay hold of her with a view of beating out her brains. Gibbs was compelled, in the end, to submit her fate to a council of war, at which it was decided that the preservation of their own lives made her sacrifice indispensable. He therefore acquiesced in the decision, and gave orders to have her destroyed by poison, which was immediately done.

v. This, he says, hurt his feelings more than any other act of his life, and is the only one he can say he felt sorry for! Her father, mother, and all her relations perished on board the vessel.

The piratical schooner was shortly afterwards driven ashore near the Cape, and so much damaged that it was found necessary to destroy her. A new sharp-built schooner was in consequence provided by their faithful friend in Havannah, called the Picciana, and despatched to their rendezvous. In this vessel they cruised successfully for more than four years. Among the vessels taken and destroyed, with their crews, he remembered the brig Jane, of Liverpool; brig, (name forgotten) of New York, from the Spanish Main; brig Belvidere, of Boston, taken in the Gulf; two French brigs in the Gulf of Mexico; ship Providence, of Providence-took from her 10,000 dollars. She was suffered to pass, as examinant could not consent to destroy his own townsmen. [A gleam of humanity like that of Lady Macbeth.] Ship William, Ship William, of Saltown, name unknown; took from her a Large quantity of plate, some gilt-edged paper, and from twenty to thirty pianofortes. A French ship, cargo wine; ship Earl of Moira, of London: and the ship Indispensable, of London.

There were many other vessels taken and destroyed, and among them Americans. Every thing valuable was taken from them, and vessels and crews destroyed. The goods were sent to a Spanish house in the


We had, he

Havannah, who sold them. said, a contract with the house, and rel ceived half the proceeds.

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"While I was in the schooner Mar. garetta, we took the American ship Caroline, and run her on shore at Cape Antonio (Cuba.) The United States armed vessel, the Enterprise, came alongside shortly after, and before we had a chance of taking any thing out of her, the crew, or some of the crew, of the Enterprise landed; we had a fight with them; some of our men were killed, and I believe some of theirs. We were beaten, and driven to the mountains, where we remained some days. We then separated; some got to Trinidada, south side Cuba; others got to Havannah. The crew of the Enterprise destroyed our fort, took the goods from the Caroline, and our two vessels, the Margaretta and Picciana.”

When asked why they were so cruel as to kill so many persons when they had secured all their money, his answer is worthy of observation


"The laws are the cause of so many murders. Because a man has to suffer death for piracy; and the punishment for murder is no more. Then, you know, all witnesses are out of the way; and I am sure, if the punishment was different, there would not be so many murders."

On one occasion, Gibbs states that he cruised for more than three weeks off the Capes of the Delaware, in the hope of falling in with the Rebecca Sims, a Philadelphia ship, bound for Canton. They knew that she would have a large quantity of specie on board, but they were disappointed in their booty. The ship passed them in the night.

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Some time in the course of 1819, he states that he left Havannah, and came to the United States, bringing with him about 30,000 dollars. He passed several weeks in New York, and then went to Boston, whence he took passage for Liverpool, in the ship Emerald. Before he sailed, however, he had squandered a large part of his money by dissipation and gambling. He remained in Liverpool a few months, and then returned to Boston in the ship Topaz, Capt. Lewis. His residence at Liverpool, at that time, is satisfactorily ascertained from another source, besides his own confession. A female, now in New York, was well acquainted with him there, where, she says, he lived like a gentleman, with, apparently, abundant means of support. speaking of his acquaintance with this female, he says, "I fell in with a woman, who, I thought, was all virtue but she deceived me; and I am sorry to say, that


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