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That he may not, however, be misunder. stood, in his departure from common language and general consent, his sentiments are thus expressed in the commencement of the first chapter.

"The operation of the Holy Spirit in the conversion of a sinner is not to be regarded as occasional or accidental, but as essential and uniform. Conversion to God never has taken place, and never will take place, without it. And if this be the case, it is but saying the same thing in other words, to assert that his influence is absolutely necessary to the production of this effect."-p. 2.

But, with all the acuteness which Mr. Hinton has shewn, we cannot but suspect that he has used many terms in what may be called a novel sense, and introduced expressions which, without his own exIn planation, have a startling aspect. this character the following passage will "The perhaps appear to most readers: means of repentance, therefore, and all the means of repentance, are possessed by a sinner without the Spirit; but the possession of the means of repentance constitutes the power of repentance; therefore a sinner has power to repent without the Spirit."page 81.

On turning to another part of this volume, we find power thus defined"When may it be said that a man has POWER to perform a given action? To this we answer without hesitation, when he possesses the means of doing so," page 63. This phrase may seem ambiguous, but, on referring to the definition of terms which the author has given, we find that his meaning and distinctions may without much difficulty be understood.

How far the author has been successful in all his speculations, is a point on which his readers will be divided in their opinions. But on which side soever they may give their judgments, all must allow that this volume contains a goodly portion of original matter, is written in an amiable spirit, and displays, without ostentation of learning, no contemptible degree of theological research.


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THIS is a formidable volume, and the subject on which it is written is of the utmost importance to the permanent foundation of the whole christian system. It is obvious, from several expressions in the preface, that this work is intended to have a full bearing on the denounced heresies of the Rev.


Mr. Irving, although no direct avowal of any such intention is made. The objects which the author has in view, he thus states in the following words :

"Of the exculpatory explanation of the word 'sinful,' that it is applied to the humanity of our Lord only in a passive sense, that is, I suppose, synonymous with peccable,' I have not felt myself called upon to take any notice. For, first, the word has no such meaning. Next, if it had, yet some of the principal arguments in support of the sinfulness of Christ's flesh, are founded upon the active meaning of that word. Thirdly. Many other words, equally offensive, and capable of no such explanation, are applied to the flesh of Christ; so that if the word was altogether abandoned, the tenet against which I contend, remains unaltered. Fourthly. I deny that the word is applicable to Christ, or, if we must separate his bumanity from himself, to the humanity of Christ, in any sense, active or passive; I deny that Christ, or the humanity of Christ, was peccable. Finally. The charge against the tenet of the sinfulness of Christ's flesh is, that this tenet is rank Nestorianism; and nothing can shew a more thorough want of acquaintance with the subject, than an attempt to escape that charge by attaching to the word sinful' a meaning less offensive than that which it is understood to convey."-Preface, p. viii.

In the same preface, Mr. Dods tells us, that he had originally intended to give a complete view of the theology of the primitive church on the doctrine of the incarnation; but that this was abandoned, because it would require a work larger than he had contemplated, or could command time to execute. He therefore found it necessary to direct his attention exclusively to the one point of the sinfulness of our Lord's flesh. And even on this point he found that he must confine himself to the writers of the first four centuries, and, even within these limits, to omit by far the greater number of the passages which he had marked for quotation.

From these statements, partially given in the author's own words, and partly in substance only, the reader will be able to perceive the prolific source whence Mr. Dods has derived his materials, and will cease to wonder how his book has been extended Under to its present voluminous size. such circumstances, the writer may grow weary, but his resources will remain unexhausted. With a little more time and patience, another and another volume might be produced, equal in magnitude, if not in interest, to this which is now under consideration.

In the early stages of his preliminary observations, Mr. Dods has risked some very problematical positions, respecting the existence of moral evil, viewed in connexion with the perfections of God. The truth of these he appears to have admitted, as though they were indisputable axioms; but many readers, perhaps, will be led to doubt their legitimacy, and even to suspect that their truth is more than questionable :

"The actual existence of moral evil can be

denied by none. He who proves that good preponderates over evil, if his proof be sound, does something perhaps to remove the unfavourable impression with regard to the character of God, which the existence of evil has sometimes produced; but he has done nothing to account for the origin of evil. He who proves that, through the medium of evil, a degree of happiness and perfection is attained, which could not by any other means be reached, may be admitted to have completely reconciled its existence with the perfections of God, but still he has not accounted for its origin.

We may not be permitted to open the sealed book, and to answer the question, whence cometh evil? But while it standeth before us in all the undeniable reality of its actual existence, we may be able, with the light of revelation for our guide, to trace it to some of its beneficial results, and to see how, instead of unfitting the creature for the manifestation of the divine perfections, it furnishes the means of a manifestation which never otherwise could have been given." -p. 7.

Mr. Dods seems hardly to be aware, that while, in these positions, he has made moral evil necessary to the attainment of good, and ascribed to it beneficial results, he has so far annihilated its character, and changed its nature. Moral evil cannot be the cause of good, without ceasing to sustain the name by which it is distinguished. God may take occasion to work through its instrumentality, but moral evil can never be the real cause of any good whatever. It is a fallacy in argument to contend, that disease should be tolerated, that the skill of

medical men may thereby appear to the greater advantage. Moral evil was not necessary in paradise, to furnish Adam with all the blessings which his state required; neither would it have been necessary in heaven, to the consummation of eternal bliss. The benefits resulting from the interposition of divine mercy when man had fallen, was but a remedy to heal the wounds which sin had made. All good is capable of shining by its own inherent lustre, and requires not the agency of moral evil to give it either existence or adventitious brightness.

On the great subject of his volume, Mr. Dods has been eminently successful. He has proved it necessary, by irrefragable arguments, that Christ, in his mediatorial character, should be "holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens." These essential qualifications he has guarded by fortifications which cannot be stormed, and the evidence he has adduced would have been complete, even though he had declined all appeal to the primitive writers of the christian church.

That he might not, however, be suspected of advancing sentiments which were unknown in the pure ages of Christianity, he has brought forward the testimonies of the ancient fathers, whose views coincide with his

own; and from the whole has accumulated a mass of evidence, which it would be the height of folly either to gainsay or resist. This evidence, however, is chiefly restricted. to two points; namely, that neither original nor actual sin was included in the nature of Christ; but beyond these, the force of his reasoning appears with considerable diminution:

"If he had no sin, either original or actual, then he was not fallen and sinful, and we draw from his life, and especially from his death, a knowledge of God which we can never exhaust. If he bad either original or actual sin, then indeed he was fallen and sinful, and in this case we can learn no more from his death, than we can learn from that of any other man."-p. 101.

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The positions contained in the preceding passages, few will be disposed to controvert. Yet it must not be forgotten, that Adam, when created, was an entire stranger both to original and actual sin. Yet even this state of primeval rectitude did not place him beyond the possibility of sinning. On this point we should have been glad if Mr. Dods' arguments had been more ener-^ getic, and perspicuously applicable. The momentous question-"Was it within the reach of possibility, that Christ might have yielded to the temptations with which he was assailed, and of thus defeating the purposes of redemption; or was it absolutely impossible?" is one to which we could have wished that the author had given a specific reply, supported by the reasonings and arguments which he is so capable of adducing. Let this awful question be set at rest, and the disputations respecting "peccability" and "sinful," used in a "passive" sense, will soon cease to be sufficiently important to demand a volume of nearly six hundred pages.

That this work contains a vast fund of valuable matter, on subjects of vital importance to the christian cause, no one, who examines it with attention, can for a moment doubt. The arguments are power. ful, comprehensive, and diversified; yet we cannot divest ourselves of the idea, that its innumerable excellences might have been retained, although the whole had been compressed within a much narrower com


REVIEW.-The Deliverance of Switzerland, a Dramatic Poem. By H. C. Deakins. 12mo. pp. 270. Smith, Elder, & Co. London. 1831. SWITZERLAND, liberty, and William Tell will never cease to adorn the pages of history. The events which gather round this hero, are of such a nature, as to elevate his exploits far above the common occur

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rences of life. Many others appear in this drama to great advantage; but, as may naturally be expected, the deeds of this patriotic deliverer always shine forth with the greatest lustre.

Among the acts of wanton despotism which disgraced the oppressors of the Swiss, the tyrant Gesler had ordered a pole bearing a hat on its summit to be erected as his representative, in the marketplace, to which all who came near it were compelled to do homage. Tell comes to the place, ignorant of the mandate, and, on hearing some mysterious expressions from the townsmen, inquires the meaning, and receives the following information:


Why then, I thus unriddle thee my riddle :-
Yon mighty pine-pole and its mightier hat
Are by our tender master stuck up there,
That all his loving subject-slaves may kiss,
Whene'er they pass that pole, their mother earth!
Dost understand me ?"

TELL (starting furiously.)

"Now, by my father's resting-place I swear,
And by my mother's quiet tomb I vow,
And by the sacred heaven that looks upon us,
And by the stars that sanctify the night
With their celestial glories, I will hurl
You hooded bully to the earth! 1 bend!
No! were ten thousand Geslers in my path,
And thrice ten thousand Austrians at their back,
I'd trample it on earth, or perish !"-p. 107.

Having delivered this speech, Tell
rushes to the pole, shakes it violently,
and hurls it to the earth. The townsmen
raise a shout; but the soldiers appear,
seize Tell, load him with chains, and com-
mit him to prison. Information of these
transactions is communicated to Gesler,
who orders the captive hero to be brought
before him, to hear the following sentence:
"Hear now, audacious man, thy puuishment!
Thou hast an only boy.-In three days hence,
It is a general festival: take thou

The choice of instant death, unshrived and sinning,
Or on thy fair child's head an apple place,
And with thine arrow, at one hundred yards,
Cleave it in twain, or die on that festal day.
What sayest thou ?"


"Thou purple-mantled tyrant! I accept
The trial thou hast offered;-but, bethink thee!
Should my boy fall, his blood will rise to heaven,
Rise in the sun a crimson exhalation,
Shrouding thee from the dwelling of thy God!
Bethink thee, Count, of the sin thou'lt commit,
Of the great curse of after-ages on thee;
Upon the records of eternity,

The name of monster will be written of thee:
And upon that great day, when heaven itself
Shall melt, and earth like a scroll be shrivelled,
And the green plains be rolled up like leaves
Enclosing the vasty Alps within them;

And when the sun shall tumble from his throne,
And his benighted orb reel rayless round,
And when the stars shall crumble into chaos,
And for a moment He himself appears,
He, the omnipotent, to judge the world!

My murdered boy will rise 'gainst thee in wrath,
And thou wilt perish,

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"Tyrant, I have-I take the trial!

"My noble lords, on the third day from this,
We hope to show you good divertisement.
Off with the hound to prison."


p. 122.

On the arrival of the third day, we are introduced to the following scene, in which Merta, the wife of Tell-Tell-Gesler the tyrant-and Werner the son of Tell, sustain their respective parts.

"O Thou, within yon azure sky unseen,
Who mad'st the round world and its host of stars,
Who dost, as thy sun dries the streams, dry up
The widow's and the orphan's tears-dost heal
Man's lamentations with thy Holy Spirit;
Thou of all power! who, on thy winged throne,
Need'st not the light of sun or crescent moon,
Thou who dost look within the sea's great heart,
Rousing the sleeping storms! who rend'st this

With earthquake or with fire, who only look'st,
And all things rush upon thy sight, prepared
Thy holy ordinances to obey;
Have mercy on us!

"As thou didst stay

The patriarch's uplifted knife, when poised
For his son's bosom,-turn, O turn aside
The arrow of yon tyrant from our child;
And with a whisper wing it on its way,
Unerring to the mark. Save him, great God,
Support us through this dreadful trial-hour,
As thou didst the associated three
Through the consuming flames uninjured.
My boy! Tell! O be God's Spirit on ye!.
The triune and triumphant presence aid ye!
One kiss, my child!

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Nerve, nerve my heart, O heaven!
O God! I'll say no more, my heart will burst,
(With sudden energy.)
Courage, my boy! the Lord is thy protection!
On to the post of honour, boy! away!
Thy father's life is in thy footsteps, child.
Away! O heaven! I can no more.


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Thanks, generous boy, my noble-hearted child,
Thou hast thy mother's smile: God bless thee for it,
Plant one knee on the ground, one foot before thee.
Be firm, and fear not. Let thy prayers aloud
Ascend to heaven-One kiss.

(He embraces him, and seems for
a moment deeply convulsed.)
'Tis over, the bitterness of death is past.

Guards, strike the prisoner's fetters.
Present your spears, and form half rampart
round him."


[Tell takes his place--the boy has the apple laid on his head-Merta and the three younger children fall on their knees; she throws

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her arms around them, and bows
her head-a dead silence prevails
-the crowd simultaneously kneel,
and while Tell is adjusting his
arrow, and during the flight of it,
Werner exclaims,]

Nerve thou my father's arm, O Lord! protect
My mother shield her with thy almighty love?
O bless my sisters, holy God!
Bless, bless my father!"

[The arrow flies-the apple is split,

a loud shout arises of "He's safe,
he's safe." Tell clasps his son to
his breast, and sobs aloud; then
falls on his knees, and prays for a
few moments in silence. He then
turns, and sees his wife senseless
on the ground. He rushes to
her, and, leaning over as he half
supports her, exclaims,

Merta, our child is safe-the apple's split:
The lightning of the Lord did point my arrow;
Werner is safe.-p' 172.

The preceding extracts cannot fail to
place this dramatic poem in a favourable
attitude. The concealed arrow dropping
from beneath Tell's mantle, the develop-
ments which followed the discovery, the
commitment of Tell to prison, his escape,
and the death of Gesner, are events both
pathetic and interesting. Yet we cannot
forbear thinking, that, on the whole, the
poem is lengthened out beyond what the
materials will fairly justify. Hence, some
portions become tedious, and we pass
from page
to page with scarcely any
occurrence to relieve the monotony of the


REVIEW.-A Vindication of the South Sea Missions from the Misrepresentations of Otto Von Kotzebue, Captain in the Russian Navy, with an Appendix. By William Ellis. 8vo. pp. 164. Westley, London. 1831.

OTTO VON KOTZEBUE may be a good seaman, and a very able navigator; but if he has not been more successful on the watery element than in his descriptions and historical observations respecting the South Sea Islands, and their inhabitants, it would have been creditable for his reputation if he had slept among the bears of the arctic circle, or had never attempted publicity beyond the boundaries of his native land.

As an adventurous voyager, transiently touching at the islands of the Pacific, it was not to be expected that his information could be very extensive; but common prudence might have suggested the propriety of silence on subjects which he could not accurately examine, nor, perhaps, fully comprehend. Unfortunately, however, for his reputation as an author, he has neglected that salutary caution, and committed himself, not only on topics im

mediately connected with the missionaries, but also on many others, on which correct information might have been easily obtained. This is the more inexcusable when his errors refer to the harbours, shores, and bays which he describes; and also the more dangerous, since the misrepresentation may deceive others, and be attended with fatal consequences.

Von Kotzebue's work having been translated into English, some of our leading journals readily availed themselves of his unfriendly remarks on the labours of the missionaries; and, without questioning the truth of his statements, exulted in the discovery, that the natives had rather been injured than benefited by the introduction of Christianity among them. This book, and these exultations, falling into the hands of Mr. William Ellis, who had been a resident in these islands nearly ten years, were examined by him with much surprise; and the result is, the appearance of the "Vindication" now before us.

In this work, he follows Mr. Kotzebue through his numerous allegations, and adduces an overwhelming multiplicity of instances to prove that, as an author, he is unworthy of credit, and that those who have praised his production, have done so at the expense either of their integrity or their understanding. A few references will fully illustrate these assertions.

In Von Kotzebue's map of Matavai village and bay, Port Papeite and Motunta are placed to the eastward of Point Venus, when, in fact, both these places are situated seven miles to the south-west!

The tides in this part of the Pacific invariably present a remarkable phenomenon. At noon and midnight it is always highwater; and at six in the morning, and at six in the evening, the tides are at their lowest ebb. With a circumstance so very peculiar, it would be natural to suppose that every circumnavigator would be intimately acquainted; yet, on this curious fact, Von Kotzebue observes as follows

"Every noon, the whole year round, at the moment the sun touches the meridian, the water is

highest, and falls with the sinking sun till midnight." these islands have only one tide in twentyFrom this assertion it would appear, that four hours, which all who have visited them know is not the case. On this fact, Mr. Ellis makes the following observations

"Kotzebue must have paid little attention to the tides, for, instead of continuing from noon to fall with the sinking sun till midnight,' after six o'clock midnight; 'so that, instead of being highest at noon in the evening they rise, and continue rising till

and lowest at midnight, the whole year round,' the tide is highest at both these times, and lowest about sunrise and sunset every day. So uniform and wellunderstood is this ebb and flow of the sea, that, throughout the islands, during the whole year, the


time between evening twilight, and midnight, is designated by a term expressive of its advancing height; and the hours from midnight to the appearance of the


and practice, in which he instructs by precept and example; and both private indi

morning star, are distinguished by terms descriptive viduals, and those who fill public stations, of a corresponding fact."-p. 7.

Von Kotzebue asserts

"Here are neither ants, musquitoes, nor any of the tormenting insects so common in tropical climates; no destructive worm nor serpent; even the scorpion, of which a small sort is to be met with, loses its poison." On this, Mr. Ellis has the following remarks

"Centipedes are large and numerous, and their bite often occasions swelling and pain. How Kotzebue could remain in Tahiti from the 14th to the 24th of March, and frequently on shore, without discovering the myriads of musquitoes and ants that swarm in every place, it is not easy to imagine. Few visitors remain a day on shore without the greatest annoyance from both. So numerous are the ants, that the resident foreigners can only secure their food by having the place, on which it is deposited, surrounded by water."-p. 8.


On the manners, customs, and general character of the inhabitants, Von Kotzebue is equally unfortunate; and the numerous instances in which he has been detected, throw an atmosphere of suspicion over other portions of his work, in which it is possible his statements may be correct. is, however, in the missionary department that he appears to the greatest disadvantage, and here Mr. Ellis enjoys an unmolested triumph. But we cannot follow him in his victorious march. This, to every reader who wishes success to the missionary cause, will appear in every page, on a perusal of the Vindication. We must conclude, by observing, that a more complete refutation of glaring error, deviations from truth, and of misrepresented facts, has not been presented to the public for many years.

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THIS is not a life of adventure, of exploit, of incident; of hazard and escape, but the personal history of a pious minister of the gospel, active and zealous in his Master's cause, and remarkably useful in his day and generation, to multitudes who were favoured with his ministry. A considerable portion of this volume is composed of extracts from Mr. Charles's diary, in which he delineates, with much plainness and simplicity, the commencement and progress of his serious impressions, the dealings of God with his soul, and his call to the ministerial work.

No one who peruses these extracts, can, for a moment, doubt the sincerity of Mr. Charles. Fidelity appears in every sentence; and all his letters bear testimony to the consistency of his character. The whole volume is a body of christian experience

may find in its pages much that is worthy of imitation.

So far as the biographical sketch has been given by Mr. Morgan, from his own resources, the character of his friend is placed in an equally amiable light. Towards his latter days, Mr. Charles seemed prepared to leave the world, and to be ripening for glory. The account of his death is pleasing and highly satisfactory. He appears to have met the last enemy with calmness and christian fortitude, and to have expired in the full assurance of faith. The lives of such men are deservedly recorded, for it is to these that we are indebted for nearly all that is experimentally and practically valuable in christian biography.

REVIEW.-No Fiction, a Narrative founded on recent and interesting Facts. By Andrew Reed. 12mo. pp. 440. Westley and Davis, London. 1831.

For a considerable time this work appear ed without its author's name, and obtained a very extensive circulation. To this, the interesting occurrences detailed in the narrative, and its title of "No Fiction," most essentially contributed. At length the Lefevre of the tale, provoked at the unwarrantable liberties taken with his character and conduct, on finding himself an object of notoriety within a large circle of his own and of the author's acquaintance, broke from his cerement, avowed his name to be Francis Barnett, published a memoir of his life, drew the veil from "No Fiction," and exposed the nakedness of the land. No Fiction having thus been discovered to be far more fictitious than its author had taught the public to believe, soon lost a considerable portion of the reputation it had gained, and fell at once full fifty per cent. in the estimation of all who had been captivated with "No Fiction, a narrative founded on recent and interesting facts.'

Independently, however, of the question, whether FACT or FICTION be the predomi nant feature in this work, all must allow that it possesses more than an ordinary share of merit, and displays the author's talents to great advantage. In each department the character is well sustained; the digressions are diversified and appropriate, and, throughout the whole, the interest that was first excited, is kept alive, and rendered powerfully attractive.

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