صور الصفحة
PDF
النشر الإلكتروني

other missiles, till, having no other weapons left, they launched the persons of their living children from the walls, on the heads of their assailants, and finally put each other to the sword, rather than die by the hands of the multitude. At Vitri, also, fifty Jews dis tinguished themselves by a similar act of horrible despair. They chose with composure two of their number, a young woman and an old man, who received the charge to put the rest of their company to death. Those intrusted with the execution of this fearful duty executed their intructions without dispute or resistance on the part of the sufferers. When the others were all slain, the old man next received his death at the hand of the female, and, to close the tragedy, this last either fell or threw herself from the walls of the place; but having broken her thigh-bone in the fall, she was plunged by the besiegers alive into the fire which con. sumed the dead bodies.-Scott's Tales of a Grandfather.

OPENING OF THE NEW LONDON BRIDGE.

THIS grand ceremony, the preparations for which had occupied so much attention in the metropolis for some time past, took place on Monday, August 1, 1831, the anniversary of the battle of the Nile, and presented the most splendid spectacle that has been witnessed on the Thames for many years. The grand attraction of the scene was, of course, the presence of their Majesties, who graciously condescended to take that opportunity of honouring the citizens of London with a visit.

[ocr errors]

It was originally intended that his Majesty should have proceeded through the park, and have embarked at Whitehall; but his Majesty, with a truly paternal anxiety to afford the gratification of a view of the procession to the largest number of the inhabitants of the metropolis, consented to embark at the stairs of Somerset-house. By this alteration, the whole of the procession was visible to all the inhabitants of Pall-mall, Cockspur-street, and the greater part of the Strand, and a vast addition was made to the splendid arrangements of the day.

The preparations were carried into effect with a precision and regularity which reflect the highest credit, not only on the foresight and good taste of those by whom the arrangements were planned, but also on the discipline and good order of the several parties on whom their execution devolved.

Many of the boats and barges which were to form the double line from Somer

set-stairs to London-bridge, and through which the royal procession was to pass, had taken up their appointed stations on Saturday.

Several of these, particularly those in the lines opposite Somerset-house, were decorated with all the national flags of Europe, presenting in this, as well as in the gay attire of the respectable parties of ladies and gentlemen seated on platforms on their decks, one of the most brilliant and im posing spectacles that ever rested on the bosom of old Father Thames.

[ocr errors]

The balustrades of Waterloo were crowded at an early hour, many persons having taken up their stations there as early as between five and six o'clock in the morning. Most of these showed, that, if the weather permitted, they were determined to "make a day of it," for they brought with them, not only prog for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, but also materials for their evening repast, and before the close of the day there were not a few quietly enjoying their tea in the line of waggons, with awnings, which were drawn up alongside the pathway of the bridge. Some of these waggons were fitted up with seats, as the speculations of the owners; and from the prices demanded, and readily given, we should judge that they turned to good account. Others were stationed there by private parties, for the accommodation of their friends, and, considering their temporary character, were very convenient. T

The appearance of the front of Somersethouse added greatly to the effect of the whole spectacle. On the whole length of the terrace, several tiers of seats were erected, which were occupied even at an early hour with a most respectable company, chiefly ladies. The windows behind, and the tops of the building in every place which could command a view, were also thronged with spectators.

[ocr errors]

At Mr. Calvert's premises, tiers of seats were erected to a very considerable extent for the accommodation of the friends of "the house," who, we understood, to the number of 1,000, were also sumptuously regaled on this occasion.

The arrangements made at Somersethouse for the reception of their Majesties, partook of the same order and regularity which distinguished those in the whole line of the Bridge. The order of the barges appointed to receive the royal party was committed to Lieut. Cooley, R. N. The stairs leading from Somerset-house, as well as the platform, were covered with dark cloth, over which was laid red cloth in that part by which their Majesties were to pass.

OPENING OF THE NEW LONDON BRIDGE.

At the end of the stairs were placed two splendid union jacks, of rich silk, and of immense size, but they were not unfolded until a few moments before the arrival of the Royal party.

The Royal Family and their Majesties' suite assembled at the Palace about two o'clock, and at a quarter before three the grand procession, consisting of twelve carriages, was formed in the gardens of the Palace. The King, who appeared in the Windsor uniform, entered the last carriage, accompanied by the Queen, the Duchess of Cumberland, and the Duchess of Cambridge.

At three o'clock the hoisting of the Royal Standard of England over the centre of Somerset-house announced the arrival of their Majesties. The signal was received with loud huzzas from the crowds on the water and at both sides, and was followed by discharges of cannon of all sorts from the wharfs and barges. A guard of honour, of the Foot Guards, with their band, and also the bands of the household troops, were in the square of Somerset-house, and received their Majesties on their arrival, the bands playing the national anthem, which was responded to by loud and continued cheering from the surrounding crowds.

When the King and Queen appeared on the steps descending to the platform from which they were to embark, the cheers were renewed so as to be almost deafening. Their Majesties graciously acknowledged the compliment by bowing repeatedly to the assembled multitudes. His Majesty looked extremely well, and descended the stairs with a firm step, declining the aid of the proffered arm of one of the lords of

his suite.

Upon his Majesty's arriving opposite the barges, the band struck up, "God save the King," and the discharge of cannon seemed to attract the attention of his Ma

jesty, who graciously condescended to acknowledge the compliment by taking off his hat. Between Southwark and Londonbridges the scene on the river, at both sides, was equally grand with that above Blackfriars.

The procession moved very slowly along in its way down, from the very considerate wish of their Majesties that all those in the line should have a full opportunity of see

ing the royal party. In consequence of this slow progress, it was past 4 o'clock before the royal barges reached the Bridge.

The

coup d'ail from the Bridge was of a novel and striking character.

Shortly after 4 o'clock, the loud and general cheering from the river gave signal

419

of their Majesties' approach. Every body rushed to the side of the Bridge. A royal salute was fired from the brig stationed off Southwark Bridge, the shouts from the people on the river increased, the bells of the churches struck up a merry peal, and in a few minutes the foremost of the royal barges was discovered making its way through the centre arch of Southwarkbridge.

1

It is impossible to give any notion, by description, of the enthusiastic cheering which accompanied their Majesties from Southwark-bridge to the landing-place at London-bridge.

Their Majesties proceeded to the top of the stairs without resting, although sofas had been placed on the landing-places for the use of their Majesties in case they should feel themselves fatigued with the long ascent. His Majesty walked up the tremendous flight of steps without the slightest appearance of fatigue.

Upon reaching the top of the stairs, the sword and keys of the city were tendered to his Majesty by the Lord Mayor. His Majesty was graciously pleased to return them to the Lord Mayor, and to signify his wish that they should remain in his Lordship's hands. The chairman of the committee then presented his Majesty with a gold medal, commemorative of the opening of the Bridge, having on one side an impression of the King's head, and, on the reverse, a well-executed view of the new Bridge, with the dates of the present cere mony and of the laying of the first stone.

As soon as these formalities were com→ pleted, and the whole of the royal party had assembled in the Pavilion, their Majesties proceeded to the end of the Bridge amidst that most grateful music to a monarch's ears, the enthusiastic plaudits of a people. Their Majesties were attended by their Royal Highnesses the Dukes of Cum. berland and Sussex, and by the principal members of the royal family. The officers of the royal household, nearly all the ministers, and a vast number of the nobility, and of the members of the House of Commons, composed the royal procession. Among these were Sir Robert Peel and his lady. In going to and returning from the Surrey end of the Bridge, their Majesties threw medals to the spectators on each side.

[ocr errors]

As soon as it was announced that their Majesties were approaching the Bridge, Mr. Green had caused his balloon to be filled, and, just as the Royal procession reached the Surrey side of the Bridge, Mr. Green, with a Mr. Crawshay for his

are registered; and has led to the discovery of innumerable important and curious facts, and disclosed the existence of whole classes of celestial objects, of a nature so wonderful as to give room for unbounded speculation on the extent and construction of the uni

verse.

Among these, perhaps, the most remarkable are the revolving double stars, or stars which, to the naked eye, or to the inferior telescopes, appear single; but, if examined with high magnifying powers, are found to consist of two individuals placed almost close together, and which, when carefully watched, are (many of them) found to revolve in regular elliptic orbits about each other; and, so far as we have yet been able to ascertain, to obey the same laws which regulate the planetary movements. There is nothing calculated to give a grander idea of the scale on which the sidereal heavens are constructed than these beautiful systems. When we see such magnificent bodies united in pairs, undoubtedly by the same bond of mutual gravitation which holds together our own system, and sweeping over their enormous orbits, in periods comprehending many centuries, we admit at once that they must be accomplishing ends in the creation which will remain for ever unknown to man; and that we have here attained a point in science where the human intellect is compelled to acknowledge its weakness, and to feel that no conception the wildest imagination can form, will bear the least comparison with the intrinsic greatness of the subject. Herschel's Discourse on Natural Philosophy.

NAPOLEON'S SACRIFICE OF HUMAN LIFE.

NEVER was there a conqueror who fired more cannon, fought more battles, or overthrew more thrones, than Napoleon. But we cannot appreciate the degree and quality of his glory, without weighing the means he possessed, and the results he accomplished. Enough for our present purpose will be gained, if we set before us the mere resources of flesh and blood which he called into play, from the rupture of the peace of Amiens, in 1804, down to his eventful exit. At that time he had, as he declared to Lord Whitworth, an army on foot of 480,000 men. The decree of the 17 Ventose, an. VIII., in arrear, 30,000; ditto 28 Floreal, an. X., 120,000; ditto, 6 ditto, an. XI., 120,000; ditto 25 Ventose, XIII., 2,000; ditto 3 Germinal, an. XIII., 30,000; ditto 27 Nivose, an. XIII., 60,000; ditto, 3 Aug., 1806, 80,000; ditto, 4 Dec., ditto, 80,000; ditto, 7 April, 1807, 80,000; ditto, 21 January, 1808, 80,000; ditto, 10 Sep.,

of the same year, 160,000 ; ditto, 25 April, 1809, 40,000; ditto, 5 October, ditto, 36,000; ditto, 13 Dec., 1810, 160,000; ditto, Holland, Rome, Tuscany, and the Hanseatic Towns, 1808-9-10, 11,065; ditto, 20 Dec. 1811, 120,000; ditto, 18 March, 1812, 100,000; ditto, 1 Sep., ditto, 137,000; ditto, 11 Jan., 1813, 100,000, ditto, 11 Jan., 1814, 150,000; ditto, ditto, (Guards of Honour,) 10,000; ditto, 3 April, 1813, (classes 1807, 1812,) 80,000; ditto, ditto, (National Guard,) 90,000; ditto, 24 Aug., 1813, (Dept. of the South,) 30,000; ditto, 19 Oct., ditto, (remaining Dep.,) 120,000; ditto, ditto, (class 1815,) 160,000; ditto, 15 Nov., 1813, arrears 1804 and 1814,) 300,000. Total of levies, 2,965,965. This detail, which is derived from Napoleon's official journal, the Moniteur, under the several dates, is deficient in the excesses which were raised beyond the levies; but even if we deduct the home casualties, as well as the 300,000 men dis banded in 1815, we shall be much under the mark in affirming, that he slaughtered two millions and a half of human beings, and these all Frenchmen. But we have yet to add the thousands and tens of thousands of Germans, Swiss, Poles, Italians, Neapolitans, and Illyrians, whom he forced under his eagles, and, at a moderate computation, these cannot have fallen short of half a million. It is obviously just to assume, that the number who fell on the side of his adversaries was equal to that against which they were brought. Here, then, are our data for asserting, that the latter years of his glory were purchased at no less a cost than six millions of human lives. This horrible inroad on the fairest

portion of the population of Europe ended in the abandonment of every conquered territory, the bringing of foreign enemies twice, within four-and-twenty months, under the walls of Paris, and the erasure of his name from the records of dominion! 0 curas hominum! O quantum est in rebus

inane!

KILLED AND WOUNDED IN PARIS DURING

THE REVOLUTION OF JULY, 1830. As no property had been destroyed, and no industry perceptibly interrupted, the only loss to be deplored on the part of the people was the blood which had been shed in the commotion; and, on this subject there has been great exaggeration. Life, indeed, was profusely scattered on the two last days; prodigally thrown away on the part of the people, and mercilessly destroyed by the hands of the guards; but the number of

THE MASSACRE OF THE JEWS AND LEPERS.

victims has been ridiculously magnified by wondering ignorance or factious prejudice. Accounts have been published, in which more of the troops are slaughtered than came into action, and in which thousands of the people are represented as killed, who have probably swelled the crowds of subsequent riots. When we hear of grape-shot sweeping the streets in an instant, of cartloads of dead being carried from the field of battle after a discharge, we naturally ima gine that the slaughter of forty or fifty hours' fighting must be immense. But this is a wrong view of the case. Except at the Hotel de Ville on Wednesday, and before the colonnade of the Louvre on Thursday, the citizens never presented themselves in a compact body before the troops. They fired from windows or corners, from behind pillars or parapets, but never uselessly exposed themselves to the discharges of the guards. On the other hand, the troops on the Tuesday and Thursday suffered little; because, on the former day, the people were not armed, and on the latter the soldiers were protected by the interposition of large spaces between them and their assailants.

When scattered through the streets on Wednesday, their loss was considerable, but it would, perhaps, be overstated at five hundred men killed and wounded. On this subject we have fortunately a statement of fact, on which considerable reliance can be placed, from the pen of Dr. Prosper Meniere, surgeon in the hospital of the Hotel Dieu, at Paris, who details the history of what passed in that great infirmary and other hospitals, "pendant et apres les trois grands journées," with apparent good faith and knowledge. He states, that the number of dead bodies deposited at the Morgue amounted to one hundred and twenty-five; the number interred under the colonnade at the Louvre, to eighty-five; the number buried on the other side of the Louvre, at the end of the street Fromenteau, to twenty-five; in the Marché des Innocens, to seventy; in the vaults of St. Eustache, to forty-three; in the vaults of the Quai de Gevres, to thirty-four; and in the Hotel Larochefoucault, to eight: making a total of three hundred and ninety. The number of citizens who were wounded, and brought to the different hospitals, or attended to at their own houses, the doctor estimates, from the best authority, at about two thousand. To these he adds three hundred of wounded soldiers in the military hospitals. Of those who were brought to the hospitals, three hundred and four died in the course of a week. The number of deaths, therefore, amounted to about seven hundred; and the 2D. SERIES.NO. 9. VOL. I.

417

whole number of killed and wounded, to about three thousand, including soldiers as well as citizens. The number of killed and wounded of the guards, gendarmerie, and other troops, exposed during the three days to the attacks of the people, is stated by official accounts at three hundred and seventy-five, of which the killed are about a fifth part, or about seventy-five. Of these, the Swiss composed about a fourth.-Dr. Lardner's Cabinet Library, Vol. III.; being Vol. 1. of Annual Retrospect of Public Affairs for 1831.

THE MASSACRE OF THE JEWS AND LEPERS,

The Jews, who had been persecuted and banished from France by Philip the Fair, and restored by his successor, as necessary to the existence of the state, once again became the objects of popular hatred, not only on account of their religion, and because their wealth rendered them the ready objects of plunder, but also from a new accusation, to which so ignorant an age alone would have listened. A pestilential or epidemic disease was at this time scourging France, where bad living and dearth of provisions rendered such infectious disorders very fatal. To ac count for the present pestilence, it was said that the Jews had accepted a bribe from the Mahometan princes, and had undertaken to poison all wells, fountains, and rivers. The charge of participation in this crime was extended to a set of unfortunate wretches, who were rather the objects of disgust than of compassion. Those afflicted with the leprosy, who were obliged to live in hospitals apart from the rest of mankind, were stated to have joined with the Jews in the iniquitous project of poisoning the waters of the kingdom. It was an accusation easily understood, and greedily swallowed by the vulgar. The populace, of course, being already in arms, turned them against the Jews and the lepers, considering both as a species of wretched outcasts, whose sufferings ought to interest no healthy Christian, Without any formality, of trial or otherwise, these ignorant fanatics seized upon great numbers both of the Jews and of the lepers. and tore them to pieces, or burnt them alive without scruple. The Jews, though of late years they may be considered as an unwarlike people, have always been remarkable for the obstinacy of their temper, and for their opposing to popular fury a power of endurance which has often struck even their oppressors with horror. Five hundred of these men, upon the present occasion, defended a castle, into which they had thrown themselves, with stones, arrows, javelins, and

3 G

153.-VOL. XIII.

other missiles, till, having no other weapons left, they launched the persons of their living children from the walls, on the heads of their assailants, and finally put each other to the sword, rather than die by the hands of the multitude. At Vitri, also, fifty Jews distinguished themselves by a similar act of horrible despair. They chose with composure two of their number, a young woman and an old man, who received the charge to put the rest of their company to death. Those intrusted with the execution of this fearful duty executed their intructions without dispute or resistance on the part of the sufferers. When the others were all slain, the old man next received his death at the hand of the female, and, to close the tragedy, this last either fell or threw herself from the walls of the place; but having broken her thigh-bone in the fall, she was plunged by the besiegers alive into the fire which consumed the dead bodies.-Scott's Tales of a Grandfather.

OPENING OF THE NEW LONDON BRIDGE.

THIS grand ceremony, the preparations for which had occupied so much attention in the metropolis for some time past, took place on Monday, August 1, 1831, the anniversary of the battle of the Nile, and presented the most splendid spectacle that has been witnessed on the Thames for many years. The grand attraction of the scene was, of course, the presence of their Majesties, who graciously condescended to take that opportunity of honouring the citizens of London with a visit.

It was originally intended that his Majesty should have proceeded through the park, and have embarked at Whitehall; but his Majesty, with a truly paternal anxiety to afford the gratification of a view of the procession to the largest number of the inhabitants of the metropolis, consented to embark at the stairs of Somerset-house. By this alteration, the whole of the procession was visible to all the inhabitants of Pall-mall, Cockspur-street, and the greater part of the Strand, and a vast addition was made to the splendid arrangements of the day.

The preparations were carried into effect with a precision and regularity which reflect the highest credit, not only on the foresight and good taste of those by whom the arrangements were planned, but also on the discipline and good order of the several parties on whom their execution devolved.

Many of the boats and barges which were to form the double line from Somer

set-stairs to London-bridge, and through which the royal procession was to pass, had taken up their appointed stations on Saturday.

Several of these, particularly those in the lines opposite Somerset-house, were decorated with all the national flags of Europe, presenting in this, as well as in the gay attire of the respectable parties of ladies and gentlemen seated on platforms on their decks, one of the most brilliant and im posing spectacles that ever rested on the bosom of old Father Thames.

The balustrades of Waterloo were crowded at an early hour, many persons having taken up their stations there as early as between five and six o'clock in the morning. Most of these showed, that, if the weather permitted, they were determined to "make a day of it," for they brought with them, not only prog for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, but also materials for their evening repast, and before the close of the day there were not a few quietly enjoying their tea in the line of waggons, with awnings, which were drawn up along. side the pathway of the bridge. Some of these waggons were fitted up with seats, as the speculations of the owners; and from the prices demanded, and readily given, we should judge that they turned to good account. Others were stationed there by private parties, for the accommodation of their friends, and, considering their temporary character, were very convenient. T

The appearance of the front of Somerset. house added greatly to the effect of the whole spectacle. On the whole length of the terrace, several tiers of seats were erected, which were occupied even at an early hour with a most respectable company, chiefly ladies. The windows behind, and the tops of the building in every place which could command a view, were also thronged with spectators.

At Mr. Calvert's premises, tiers of seats were erected to a very considerable extent for the accommodation of the friends of "the house," who, we understood, to the number of 1,000, were also sumptuously regaled on this occasion.

The arrangements made at Somersethouse for the reception of their Majesties, partook of the same order and regularity which distinguished those in the whole line of the Bridge.

The order of the barges appointed to receive the royal party was committed to Lieut. Cooley, R. N. The stairs leading from Somerset-house, as well as the platform, were covered with dark cloth, over which was laid red cloth in that part by which their Majesties were to pass.

« السابقةمتابعة »