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is sought, and the other angle at the base is the given latitude, together with the angle whose sine is proportional to S-s. Or the divisions may be found geometrically with great ease.
Maps constructed in the above method will represent the different countries, &c. more proportional to their size; therefore, greater measurements may be performed with more correctness: and if celestial maps were thus constructed, they would, when properly bent, have the property of discovering the stars.
Draycott, near Derby.
A SIMPLE BAROMETER.
MR. EDITOR, SIR, OBSERVING in your excellent periodical, vol. 3d, col. 830, an account of the leech being used as a barometer, I would beg leave to state, with due deference to your correspondent's observations, that it should be the horse-leech found in ponds or stagnant pools, instead of that used for medical purposes, the one being much stronger than the other, and more susceptible of acute feeling under the different changes of the atmosphere. But although it may be amusing to observe how the animal is affected by the weather, for my own part I have never found that degree of certainty attached to it which I could have wished. The most simple, cheap, and correct barometer, applicable to any useful purpose, is the following:
Take a common phial bottle; cut off the rim and part of the neck. This may be done by a piece of string, or rather whipcord, twisted round it, and pulled strongly by two persons in a sawing position, one of whom holds the bottle firmly in his left hand. Heated in a few minutes by the friction of the string, and then dipped suddenly into cold water, the bottle will be decapitated more easily than by any other means. Let the phial be now nearly filled with pump water; applying the finger to the mouth, turn it quickly upside-down; on removing the finger, it will be found that only a few drops escape. Without cork or stopper of any kind, the water will be retained within the bottle by the pressure of the external air, the weight of air without the phial being so much greater than the small quantity within it. Now, let a piece of tape be tied round the middle of the bottle, to which the two ends of a string may be attached, so as to form a loop to hang it on a nail. Let it be thus suspended in a perpendicular manner, with the
mouth open downwards, and this is the barometer.
When the weather is fair, and inclined to to be so, the water will be level with the section of the neck, or rather elevated above it, forming a beautiful concave surfacewhen disposed to be wet, a drop will appear at the mouth, which will enlarge till it fall, and then another drop, while the humidity of the atmosphere continues. The degree of certainty in this instrument may be relied upon, as I have used it for many years, and never found it fail in indicating the same change of weather with the common barometer. F. H. Leadenhall Street March 14, 1831.
ORIGIN OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
FROM the Anglo-Saxons we derive the names of the most ancient officers among us-of the greater part of the divisions of the kingdom, and of almost all our towns and villages. From them we derive our language; of which the structure, and a majority of its words, much greater than those who have not thought on the subject would at first easily believe, are Saxon.
Of sixty-nine words, which make up the Lord's Prayer, there are only five not Saxon; the best example of the natural bent of our language, and of the words apt to be chosen by those who speak and write it without design. Of eighty-one words in the soliloquy of Hamlet, thirteen only are of Latin origin. Even in a passage of ninety words in Milton, whose diction is more learned than that of any other poet, there are only sixteen Latin words. In four verses of the authorized version of Genesis, which contain about a hundred and thirty words, there are no more than five Latin. In seventy-nine words of Addison, whose perfect taste preserved him from a pedantic or constrained preference for any portion of the language, we find only fifteen Latin. In later times the language has rebelled against the bad taste of those otherwise vigorous writers, who, instead of ennobling their style like Milton, by the position and combination of words, have tried to raise it by unusual and far-fetched expressions. Dr. Johnson himself, from whose corruptions English style is only recovering, in eighty-seven words of his fine parallel between Dryden and Pope, has found means to introduce no more than twenty-one of Latin derivation.-The language of familiar intercourse, the terms of jest and pleasantry, and those of necessary business, the idioms or peculiar phrases into which words naturally run, the proverbs, which are the condensed and pointed sense
of the people, the particles, on which our Syntax depends, and which are of perpetual recurrence ;-all these foundations of a language are more decisive proofs of the Saxon origin of ours, than even the great majority of Saxon words in writing, and the still greater majority in speaking.
In all cases where we have preserved a whole family of words, the superior significancy of a Saxon over a Latin term is most remarkable. "Well-being arises from welldoing," is a Saxon phrase, which may be thus rendered into the Latin part of the language:-"Felicity attends virtue;" but how inferior in force is the latter ! In the Saxon phrase, the parts or roots of words being significant in our language, and familiar to our eyes and ears, throw their whole meaning into the compounds and derivations, while the Latin words of the same import, having their roots and elements in a foreign language, carry only a conventional signification to an English ear. It must not be a subject of wonder that language should have any closer connexion with the thoughts and feelings which it denotes, than our philosophy can always explain. As words convey these elements of the character of each particular mind, so the structure and idioms of a language, those properties of which, being known to us only by their effect, we are obliged to call its spirit and genius, seem to represent the character or assemblage of quality which distinguish one people from others.-Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia.
ANNIVERSARIES OF BENEVOLENT INSTITUTIONS IN THE METROPOLIS.
WHEN the tide of benevolence first began to flow, many persons who watched its progress, hesitated not to predict that it was nothing more than a momentary effervescence, which would speedily expend its energy, and subside. Time, however, has proved, that false prophets may exist, without taking shelter under the sanction of religion. Instead of diminishing, these societies increase in number; instead of having expended their energies, they acquire renewed vigour; instead of contracting their spheres of operation, they occupy a wider field, embrace new objects, and every year their supporters become more
Amounting in their varied forms to about one hundred, we must content our selves with noticing some of the principal; for beyond this, our limits will not allow us to pass. To such of our readers, however, as wish to obtain an extended outline of
the speeches delivered at these anniversaries, we recommend the Christian Advocate Newspaper, as containing a faithful report of the transactions and sentiments which it records. The first in order that comes under our notice is the
The anniversary of this truly benevolent institution was held at Exeter Hall, (a large and commodious room lately opened in the Strand, near Waterloo Bridge,) on Saturday, April 23. On this occasion his Royal Highness the Duke of Gloucester was expected to take the chair, but having been prevented through indisposition, Lord Suffield was called on to fill his place. His Lordship's address was manly, animated, and unequivocal. It breathed hostility to slavery in all its forms, and from the inhumanities inseparable from the system, still practised in our colonies, his Lordship argued the necessity of a total abolition.
T. Fowel Buxton, Esq., M. P. drew a frightful picture of this colonial monster, establishing his general view by an appeal to facts, some of which consign to the gibbet of infamy a clergyman of Jamaica, named Brydges, for his inhumanity towards one of his slaves. This detestable system, he asserted, has within a few years destroyed no less than forty-five thousand human beings.
Sir James Mackintosh argued forcibly on the necessity of a total abolition. Little had yet been done; but from the new Parliament, about to be returned, much might be expected.
Dr. Lushington avowed himself to be an advocate for the immediate and entire emancipation of West India slaves. Of every candidate soliciting to be returned to Parliament, he recommended that each voter should ask the question do you abhor slavery? will you vote for its extermination?" and unless his answer prompt and unequivocal, to vote against him.
The Rev. Daniel Wilson was an enemy to slavery on religious grounds, and was resolved to co-operate in any measures that should tend to annihilate the horrid system.
Daniel O'Connell, Esq. M. P. declared himself the mortal foe of slavery, abhorring it in all colours, creeds, and climes. He asserted, that in fourteen colonies, during only ten years, there had been a decrease in population of forty-five thousand eight hundred and one. Every day ten human beings are despatched by slavery. It could be borne no longer, and he was resolved
to divide the House of Commons on the motion, that every negro child born after the first of January, 1832, shall be free. Mr. Shiel, in his delineation of slavery, adverted to the case of a female slaveholder, who, to inflict acuter torture on the victim of her cruelty, rubbed pepper in the eyes of a female slave. Mr. Canning's propositions in 1823 had been disregarded, and from the colonial powers nothing but interminable slavery was to be expected. The shriek of the agonized negro had been heard across the Atlantic; and the time was at hand, when the slave must be emancipated from his chains.
Mr. Pownal adverted to the artifice that had been practised upon the people by the promises of 1823, and warned them to beware of a similar deception. No rest should be sought until slavery had received its death-wound, and nothing could ensure this, but the fixing of some specific time, after which, children should cease to be born slaves in our colonies.
The Rev. John Burnet surveyed slavery, as mentioned in the Bible, and argued that between this, and West Indian servitude, scarcely any resemblance can be traced. The British lion was asleep when slavery started into existence under the sanction of legislative authority, but, roused by the clanking of the chains which the victims of oppression wear, the hydra now trembles before him, and, awed with more than common presages, anticipates its fate. The Rev. Richard Watson could see no ground for hope from colonial legislation. Even Christianity, which was recommended to prepare the slaves for emancipation, was obstructed in its diffusion. Religion could not make good slaves; it would make good servants; but, enlarging their views, through which they might perceive the relative duties of life, it would beget a love of freedom, and forbid the slave to kiss his chain. A Christian father will not bear to see his children taken from him, as a heathen would, nor to see his daughter subdued by means of the whip, that she might be violated. We must aim to get a definite period fixed; till that be done, all else will be in vain, and even pernicious.
At this anniversary, probably about six thousand were present, and all appeared to be actuated by one common feeling and spirit in favour of Negro freedom. For this desirable event, the present period is peculiarly auspicious. The Parliament about to assemble will meet under the impression, that to remove long-existing evils, something decisive must be done;
and to such a Parliament, petitions for negro emancipation cannot be presented in vain.
FRIENDS OF THE HEBREW NATION.
The second anniversary of this Society was held in Exeter Hall, on Thursday, the 28th of April, Henry Drummond, Esq. in the chair, when a crowded assembly evinced, by the most ardent attention, their rising interest in the cause of afflicted Israel.
The chairman stated, among other interesting things, that some time back a letter was received from the Committee of the Cambridge Auxiliary Branch Society, by the Committee in London, stating a report prevalent there, that it was intended by the London Committee to establish a New Hebrew Church, with a Liturgy founded upon the Hebrew ritual, and also on that of the Church of England. In order to answer this letter, the question was put in the London Committee, and a direct negative being given thereto, the result was transmitted to the Committee in Cambridge. To these proceedings, the then superintendant of the Hebrew Institution was privy; no circumstance pertaining thereto having been withheld from him.
The Secretary read the report, which stated, among many other matters connected with the Society, that twelve Jews, then inmates of the Hebrew Institution, had been baptized by the Lord Bishop of London, in the year 1830, and seven others, under his orders, by the Rev. T. J. Judkin, M. A. early in the present year; making, in the whole, nineteen, who, through the instrumentality of this Society, had received baptism, in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. That, in the month of February last, the inmates of the Hebrew Institution, without the knowledge of the Committee of management, elected, from amongst themselves, a bishop, elders, deacons, &c. &c. constituting what they denominated "The Apostolic Hebrew Church;" and that the superintendant wrote to the Lord Bishop of London a most unceremonious letter, containing an account of these proceedings. On these circumstances coming to the knowledge of the Committee, an inquiry was instituted, and it being found that the friends of the Hebrew nation never contemplated the establishment of such a church, when they founded the Hebrew Institution, that they had stated their determination to the contrary, in their answer to the Cambridge Committee, and that, as the rules of the Institution did not embrace any such church, they could not give their licence for the exercise of the functions of
a bishop, elders, deacons, &c. within the premises appropriated to the use of the Hebrew Institution. On this being intimated to the Apostolic Hebrew Church, the Superintendant of the Institution resigned his office; and, with him, the members of this Church formed a determination to remove to a situation about to be taken for their reception, in or near Kensington; to which situation, after many painful meetings with the Committee, at their own time, they removed; leaving in the Institution eleven, and taking with them twelve, Hebrews. Whether the Apostolic Hebrew Church is or is not of God, the Committee did not feel themselves called upon, nor did they presume, to determine.
During this anniversary of the Society, this painful subject was introduced anew, and a discussion of some length ensued; which, however, terminated decidedly in the negative; a few hands only being held up in favour of the parties who introduced the subject. The harmony of the meeting was then resumed; and with one consent the Society determined, by divine aid, to persevere in their original plan, through good report and evil report, through honour or dishonour; keeping only in view the glory of God and the good of the Hebrew nation. Encouraged by past success, by the present harmony subsisting in the Hebrew Institution, and by the cheering prospects of future usefulness, one mind seemed to pervade the whole Society; namely, a feeling of gratitude to Jehovah for His manifested favour, and of confidence in Him for renewed displays of His mercy and grace to Israel.
Taking into their consideration, that the Hebrew Institution was only to inquiring Hebrews, and that many of the sons of Abraham, who had put on the Lord Jesus Christ, under the sanctifying influences of the Holy Ghost, and had testified their faith in Him, in baptism, and by an open profession of His name, were equally destitute of the comforts this world affords, with their junior brethren, who found an asylum there, the Society determined to unite with others, the friends of Israel, in rearing up an asylum for these also. In this new Hebrew Institution, the inmates will he taught useful trades, in a manner similar to the elder institution, in the exercise of which they will be enabled, on quitting the same, to provide things honest in the sight of all men. To these Institutions, may Jehovah, in the plenitude of His mercy and love, grant His blessing.
IRISH SOCIETY, IN LONDON, FOR EDUCATING AND INSTRUCTING THE NATIVE IRISH IN THEIR OWN LANGUAGE.
The Anniversary of this Institution was held in Exeter Hall, on Friday, April 29, the Lord Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry in the chair. The object of this society is, to extend the Gospel, as taught by the established Protestant church, among the benighted Irish, in their native tongue. It appeared from the report, that, in conestablished by this Society had been dimisequence of papal persecution, the schools nished, and that the number of pupils was less than during the preceding year. The demand, however, for books had increased, and many thousand copies of suitable publications had been put into circulation. In various parts of England, about forty auxiliary societies had been formed for the same benevolent purpose, and £150 had been transmitted to the parent institution in Dublin, to promote this excellent cause.
WESLEYAN MISSIONARY SOCIETY.
The anniversary of this well-known society was held in Exeter Hall, on Monday, May 2d, Launcelot Haslope, Esq. in the chair.
It appeared from the report, that during the preceding year five missionaries had died; that the stations were 150; the number of missionaries 213, catechists, who were paid, 160; gratuitous teachers, 1,400, in the Sunday and other schools, making a total number of above 2,000 agents actively employed in spreading the Redeemer's kingdom, and giving diffusion to useful knowledge. The members in society on foreign stations, not including Ireland, amount to 41,186, of whom 24,439 are slaves. The aggregate of contributions throughout the year, was stated to be £50,017. 18s. 8d.
On this occasion, the assembly was addressed by the Rev. Mr. Alder, from Sheffield, James Montgomery, Esq. J. Poynder, Esq. Rev. James Dixon, Rev. Dr. Burder, Rev. Dr. Raffles, of Liverpool, Rev. John Burnet, of Camberwell, Rev. Robert Newton, Rev. Richard Watson, Peter Jones, an Indian chief, and several others. The speeches delivered by the above gentlemen were luminous, animated, and appropriate. The large hall was crowded with highly respectable and attentive hearers, and the utmost harmony prevailed.
Among the speakers at this anniversary, no one excited so much attention as Peter Jones, the converted Indian chief. He spoke good English, and his speech was rendered remarkably interesting by the piety,
humility, and simplicity with which his sentiments were delivered. The peculiarity of his character and condition in life, and occasionally the singularity of his phraseology, made a powerful impression in his favour. He frequently designated the Almighty the "Great Spirit, the light of whose good word had visited him and his tribe in the wilds of North America," and bore a luminous testimony to the influence of the gospel on his heart.
CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY.
This annual meeting took place at Exeter Hall, on Tuesday May 3d. Lord Gambier was called to the chair.
It appeared from the report, that the donations and subscriptions for the year amounted to £45,584, and that on the whole the prospects of the Society were cheering.
The chief speakers were the Bishop of Lichfield and Coventry, the Hon. and Rev. Baptist Noel, the Rev. Mr. Wilkes, the Rev. Mr. Woodroffe, the Rev. Daniel Wilson, H. Pownell, Esq. the Rev. W. Marsh, the Bishop of Winchester, Lord Bexley, the Bishop of Chester, the Rev. E. Bickersteth, and the Rev. J. H. Steward.
During the addresses of the above gentlemen, an awful picture was drawn of the heathen world. Slavery, with its concomitant atrocities, was also introduced; and several instances were given of the grossest tyranny, injustice, and inhumanity, inflicted on its victims. From these gloomy delineations the imperious necessity was inferred, of continued and increased exertions, to send the light of the gospel into the benighted regions of the earth.
All these advocated the necessity of outdoor preaching, urging, that if the people would not seek them, it was their duty to seek the people; and the conduct of Whitfield and Wesley was adduced as an example worthy of imitation.
A benevolent lady, it was stated, had placed the sum of £200 in the hands of the treasurer; a gentleman of York had remitted a fourth donation of £50; and the chairman presented £25, in aid of this truly Christian cause.
BRITISH AND FOREIGN BIBLE SOCIETY.
On Wednesday, May 4th, the anniversary of this grand national association took place in Exeter Hall. Lord Teignmouth was expected to preside, but a letter announcing his inability to attend, placed Lord Bexley
in the chair.
The report stated, that during the preceding year, 173,547 Bibles, and 297,382 Testaments, had been distributed, making a total of 470,929 copies, being 36,507 more than on the previous year. The amount of money received by the Society was £95,424, being about £10,441 more than the previous year had produced. The expenditure of the society was about £83,002, and its engagements £45,800. The auxiliary and branch societies had continued their exertions, and 164 new associations were added to those already existing.
The principal speakers at this anniversary were, the Rev. Andrew Brandram, the Rev. Dr. Dealtry, Captain Gordon, the Rev. Rowland Hill, the Rev. Lundy Foote, the Rev. John Burnet, Sir Lancelot Shadwell, the Hon. and Rev. Baptist Noel, the Rev. Washington Philips, Mr. Luke Howard, Mr. Hughes Hughes, M. P. Lord Lifford, and Henry Drummond, Esq.
When Captain Gordon began his address, it was obvious that he intended to introduce alterations calculated to subvert the fundamental principles of the Society. The purport of his arguments was, that the Bible Society was a Christian institution; but that Arians and Socinians were not Christians, and that they should therefore be excluded. His propositions, however, were so far from being pleasing to the assembly at large, that innumerable voices were lifted against him, and the utmost confusion prevailed. Several times he was called to order, but nothing could deter him from persevering; and even at last he was compelled to desist by the incessant clamour which his indiscretion had raised. One or two among the speakers appeared to approve his proceedings, but the greater part were