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"At some distance from our tent we found the corpse of a Calmuc woman, laid out in a fur dress, and covered with coarse felt. Wooden drinking vessels and other unimportant utensils were laid by her side. This is the common way of disposing of the dead among the Calmucs of inferior rank, so that the bodies are usually devoured by dogs and vultures. A few days after this time, the bones of this corpse were pretty well stripped of flesh, and scattered about here and there on the ground. The dogs which had partaken, however, paid dear for the feast, for being betrayed on their return by the smell, they were chased from home as unclean by their masters. The custom is different as respects the Princes and Lamas. Their bodies are burnt with great solemnity, aud the ashes, mixed with mortar, are employed in building a chapel or tomb on the site of the funeral pile."-p. 122.

The whole narrative is written with great simplicity, and the scenes described are chiefly of a domestic nature. The author appears to have been always guided by fidelity in his representations, through which we are introduced to a barbarous state of society, advanced only a few degrees from savage life in its rudest forms. The most prominent feature of this book may be found in the spirit which dictated the mission, the readiness with which it was undertaken, and the persevering zeal with which it was laudably though unsuccessfully accomplished.

REVIEW.—The Pillar of Divine Truth, immoveably fixed on the Foundation of the Apostles and Prophets, Jesus Christ himself being the chief corner-stone, &c. 8vo. pp. 292. Bagster, London, 1831.

THIS pillar, though not of colossal stature, stands on a firm foundation, is formed of sterling materials, and exhibits in its various members those fair proportions which give symmetry and beauty to the whole. In a

part of the title, not quoted, we are informed that the whole of the arguments and "illustrations are drawn from the pages of Bagster's Comprehensive Bible, by the editor of that work" It is to these arguments and illustrations, and others resembling them in importance, character, and sterling worth, that Bagster's Comprehensive Bible is indebted for the fame it has so justly, and so extensively acquired; and no one can suppose that they will suffer any deterioration from being transplanted into the pages of this volume.

The great truths which this pillar has been erected to support, are, that the writings of the Old and New Testament are genuine; that their authors were divinely inspired; and that they teach every thing necessary for man to know, in order to his final salvation. The arguments adduced in favour of revelation are derived from a variety of topics, both extrinsic and intrinsic, strength2D. SERIES, NO. 2.-VOL. I.


ened by numerous coincidences, which history, and the observations of travellers, supply. These are laid down in consecutive order, and illustrated by existing customs which still remain, with little variation, in the countries, and among the communities, to which the sacred records allude. The style and character of each sacred book are distinctly noticed; prophecy and miracle are examined, and produced, to give evidence; and whatever appears either important or extraordinary, is made the subject of serious investigation.

To the general and peculiar doctrines of the inspired books, and also to the morals which they inculcate, specific references are made; and from their inherent excellency, the divine source whence they emanated is most obviously inferred. Compared with these, every other system of ethics that has been presented to the world, sinks into insignificance. Hence, the sacred origin of the bible appears written in everlasting characters, on the decided superiority which its principles inculcate.

In some of its chapters, which conduct us into the regions of historical research, this volume is not less entertaining than instructive. The remarks of voyagers, tra vellers, and naturalists, excite considerable interest, and by their variety and combinations command our assent to numerous facts, that are in almost every respect repugnant to domestic manners, and to modern times.

For the original work, the collection of the materials must have been a laborious task; but the specimens transferred to this epitome, evince, that the editor has been richly rewarded for all his toil.

REVIEW. Edwin; or Northumbria's Royal Fugitive Restored; a Metrical Tale of Saxon Times. By James Everett. pp. 192. Everett, Manchester, 1830.

Ar the present time, when all our great poets are writing prose, and the smaller fry are compelled to suffer their genius to sink into dissuetude, because forsooth nobody cares for verse now-a-days,-in such a state of things, it is a pleasant occurrence, in going through our monthly duty of criticism, to meet with a bard who neither gives himself the insolent airs of the profession, nor presents the whining petition of the mere rhymester. Mr. Everett, whatever he may be beside, is, we are sure, a healthy, independent, honest, open-hearted individual, and if the mention of these apparently personal qualities may expose us to the suspicion of having been "accessories be


146.-VOL. XI.

fore the fact" of publication, we are in truth only guilty of having by chance seen this poem in manuscript some months ago, since which period it has repeatedly undergone the revision of the author, and is not therefore any hasty production. The personal peculiarities of the poet may be said to characterize his poem-there is a frank, manly, and withal a moral terseness, so to speak, pervading the matter of almost every page. It is, as the writer justly calls it, "a Tale of Saxon Times," a rapid narrative of events occurring out of doors, as it were, at a time and under circumstances but remotely allied to "aught present," yet certainly very favourable for the purposes of the narrative poet.

The hero of this dramatised epic, for, like the wanderer of Switzerland, from which the stanza is confessedly adopted, Edwin may be said to be an epic subject, conducted on a dramatic plan, in a lyric measure, is a personage who figures at once conspicuously and amiably in our elder annals: the history of the monarchy and the church of England have together an interest in his character. "Our Edwin, of Northumbria," says Southey, "affords a rare, perhaps a solitary instance, wherein the conversion of a heathen prince was the result of long reflection, and a sincere conviction that the faith which he embraced was true."

We believe Mr. Everett is himself a native of Northumberland, and this poet will certainly not at all disparage the appropriateness of selecting, for a hero, one who, although not perhaps born in the same county with the poet, became, through his sovereignty, his adventures, and his conversion, so interestingly identified with its history. The scene of the poem is laid chiefly at Auldby, formerly a royal Saxon residence, on the banks of the Derwent, not far from York; it embraces in its retrospective details most of Cambria, Kent, Mercia, East-Anglia, Deira, and Bernicia, the separate boundaries of which places are minutely described by Sharon Turner.

The design of the author, as we have his own authority in his preface for saying, has been to delineate the rude state of the kingdom, and the manners of its inhabitants, prior to the general diffusion of christian knowledge, and the subsequent triumph of Christianity over Paganism in its Saxon form. He has, for this purpose, interwoven through the whole, the history of a man whose chequered life affords ample scope for the ground he has taken: he has likewise fixed on a period when the Saxon superstition was in its glory, and at the same time the gospel met with a ready

reception in different parts of the island. "Contrast," says he, "seldom fails to produce a powerful effect; and a single glance at the present generally cultivated state of the country, civil government, commerce, the diffusion of knowledge, benevolent institutions, and public morals, when contrasted with scenes in 'olden times,' will lead every British Christian to thank God for a DIVINE REVELATION,—a revelation which evangelizes those who imbibe its spirit, and civilizes those who are only ac quainted with its letter."

The poem consists of nineteen cantos, and almost every incident and illustration is apparently derived from historical facts, of which the author states that he has laid aside a choice collection originally intended to have accompanied the poem in the form of notes. We regret this decision, because it is evident that the poet has occasionally trammelled himself with too strict an attention to fidelity, the effect of which is diminished for want of the appropriate voucher. The narrative is much too discursive and complex to allow us to give any thing like an analysis of its several parts; and almost all the passages are so implicated with the thread of the story, as to defy separation without doing violence to propriety. there are occasionally harsh or prosaic lines, these faults we must say are frequently redeemed by beauties equally conspicuousif the ruggedness of the versification is sometimes suited to the roughness of the scenery described, ever and anon we come upon a sweet and lovely thought, like those green and flowery spots, which, even amid the wilderness state of this island in Saxon times, drank the rain and imbibed the sunshine of heaven, however little they may have been noticed by men that trrampled upon them.


With the following passage we close, and recommend Edwin-it is not by any means the most interesting portion, still less is it the most perfect as to versification, but it is perhaps a fair sample of the style: it refers to the public baptism of Edwin in the river Swale, after the notable desecration of the heathen temple at Godmundham, near Market Wrighton.

"Ere the evening sun had set,
COIFI, EDWIN's war-horse strode ;
With the king and nobles met,
Up to GOTMUND's temple rode.
Girt with sword as for the camp,
High he raised the gleaming spear;
Haughty was the charger's tramp,
Serfs beheld his coarse with fear.
Well they knew, with trembling awe,
How each sacred priest, was far
By the rites of Gothic law-
Set apart from deeds of war.


Soldiers, slaves, who knew no change,
Deem'd, at best, their priest insane;
Or that liquor, to derange
Wrought in his delirious brain.

Sol.-"Ah, thus stricken, what our state,

What-when reason is unspared ?"
Serf-" Off we fly-unknown our fate-

Like the horse by lightning scared."
Muttering thus twixt hope and fear,
Still they look'd-again-again-
COIFI brandish'd now the spear,
Threw it whizzing at the fane !
Shrieks of horror rent the air,
Chill'd was slave's and soldier's blood:-
Would their angry idol spare

When profound the temple stood?

The priest having thus desecrated the temple, calls upon the people present to assist in its demolition :


Quickly was the work begun,
By a mighty host assail'd;
And before that work was done,
Night the autumn sky had veil'd.
Temple and enclosures fired,
Wildly roll'd the ravening blaze;
While with strangest thoughts inspired,
Watch'd the crowd with wild amaze.

Distant in the welkin's glare,
Was the conflagration seen,
From the osier palace, where
Christians watch'd, as watch'd their queen.

On the sward PAULINUS knelt,
Joyful thanks by him were given;
While that spot the Christians felt
Was to them the "gate of heaven."
Next, the evening hymn arose,
Plaintive, solemn, heavenly, sweet;
Such each modern mission knows,
When the new-made converts meet.
Ere the Christian band adjourn'd
From the green, in open night,
EDWIN from the fane return'd,
Like a victor from the fight.
Freed from an oppressive load,
Borne in weariness of mind;
Openly he worshipp'd God,

Now, for once, the Christians join'd.

To the lavatory's stream
Willingly he now was brought;
Modestly, as might beseem,

Him in whom such change was wrought.
There a church which pride might scorn,
Timber-built, soon blest the sight;
There on Easter's sabbath morn,
He received the sacred rite.

When himself, and children dear,
With his first nobility,

All baptized in holy fear,

Blest the grace that made them free.

Others sought the "House of Prayer,"
From the villages around,

While they sought their baptism, where
The adjacent rivers wound.

Thus the ELENE and the SWALE,
TRENT and DERWENT, where they glide;
GLEVIE, winding through the vale
Sent the consecrated tide."

REVIEW.-Journal of a Tour in Italy, and also in Part of Switzerland; from October, 1828, to September, 1829. By James Paul Cobbett, 12mo. pp. 384. London. 1830.


STERNE proposes a humorous division of travellers into different classes, to each of which he assigns a name expressive of its quality. Allowing that there may be more of truth than badinage in the sentimentalist's proposition, we think a more characteristic and multitudinous division might be made, founded on each individual's peculiarities in the method of observance, and style of relation, to say nothing about disparity of intellect. The two most prominent classes which come before the public, are the imaginative, and the matter-of-fact traveller.

The first of these scorns "to journey from Dan to Beersheba, and say, 'tis all barren." He arrays nature in attractive novelty. The hues of the Italian morn, the glow of the Asiatic eve, receive a new refulgence from his words. The fire of his feelings, and the fervour of his language, throw a rich romance around the tottering ruin

"Time-rent, and worn, and ivy-grown."

The sublimities of creation-the resistless cataract, the heaving precipice, and the trackless forest, are charged with augmentations of the terrible; and in painting them his page

"Deepens the murmur of the falling floods,

And breathes a browner horror o'er the woods." But Mr. Cobbett comes not within the pale of this description. His travelling details embrace matters of fact, to the utter exclusion of imagination and sentiment, and he is a perfect antipode to our conceptions of the feeling and imaginative class of travellers.

We do not, however, wish our readers to conclude that Mr. Cobbett's volume has no redeeming qualities. On the contrary, we deem him a young man of respectable talent; and, further, we suppose him to possess a portion of that spirit which has produced the literary achievements of his distinguished father. His work will, undoubtedly, attract those who prize solidity rather than light reading; and, no doubt, his pages will meet with that acceptance from the curious in foreign agriculture, which they may fail to receive from the fastidious denizens of the drawing-room.

Our first extract is from Mr. Cobbett at Rome. It refers to his emotions whilst viewing the Colosseum :

"I was on the very spot, or very near it, where the Forum once stood, where Cicero used to harangue his countrymen; the Capitol on one side, and the Colosseum on the other; and amongst triumphal arches, the ruins of the palace of the Caesars, the Jugurthan prison, the Tarpeian rock, dilapidated temples, and a few straggling but noble columns, some now brought down to roll in the dust, others still standing on end with fragments on their heads, as if bidding defiance to all Time's power to destroy. There is enough of the Colosseum left to attest its original size. History assures us of the almost incredible acts of ferocity performed within its walls. The further speculation would be vain, yet one cannot help wishing to know

how many lives have been sacrificed, what measure of blood has been shed on its vast arena! The size, the whole appearance of this thing, is truly colossal. It gives you the idea, not merely of a wonderful race of men, but you must almost suppose that those men were giants. Every separate piece of the building is in character with the whole of the great fabric. The squared blocks of stone are so huge, that to describe their size would be risking one's character for veracity. There are three tiers of arches, from the ground to the second story, all round the building, and every one of these would be fit, in strength, height, and width, to be the gateway of an Italian city. The materials are a sort of very lasting stone, called travertino, which is found at some distance off among the Apennine mountains, and of which the greater part of the city is built, The architects of age after age have carried away a large part of the Colosseum to build houses with; and Michael Angelo, with more care to be immortal himself, than to let his predecessors remain so, was ruthless enough to lay spoiling hands on the Colosseum, and has displayed his own art in pieces of architecture framed with materials that he tore from this."

The author, in journeying from Velletri, crosses the Pontine Marshes; of which he gives us a most interesting description, but our limits will not allow its insertion.

Our readers will perceive, that Mr. Cobbett abandons his predilections to disquisitions on agriculture as he proceeds; and that, in proportion to the antiquity of the scene, his descriptions are less prosaic. The following, though not particularly striking, is nevertheless new. It is part of the tourist's observations on the subterranean city of Pompeii, which was buried by an eruption of Mount Vesuvius :

"Some of the houses have numbers on them, and the names of some of the shopkeepers and of their trades are written up with red paint. On the outer wall of one house, supposed to have been a butcher's shop, you see the picture of a pig's head, a string of sausages, and some ribs of pork or mutton. This painting looks fresh enough to have been done only a few years back. There are marks, made with some material of red or black colour, against the outsides of the public buildings: these are all looked upon as proclamations, advertisements, &c. but they are not all legible; and some of these scribblings may, I think, be reasonably attributed to the Pompeian boys. There are houses that belonged, evidently, to bakers; for you see the ovens for baking the bread, and stone mills for grinding the corn, both together. The pantheon, and some of the temples, appear to have been magnificent places. You may now see the altars at which the heathen priests officiated, and on which they made their burnt-offerings. The temple of Isis (a goddess of the Egyptians) is very curious. Here are seen the altars to offer the sacrifice upon; places on which the devoted animal was slaughtered made rather sloping, and with a little spout at one side, in order to catch all the blood; and you may see a hiding-hole by the altar, and near to where the statue of the goddess was placed, whence the priests used to pronounce the oracles which the statue itself was supposed to utter."

Of Vesuvius, the author has nothing new to offer. In noticing this volcano, he justly ridicules the absurd idea of a Neapolitan philosopher, which has been sagely adopted by some English wiseacres, viz. Mount Vesuvius is one of the mouths of hell!" His visit to the Grotta del Cano, he thus describes :


"The Grotta del Cano is merely a large hole; guarded, however, by lock and key, in order to make the curiosity better worth seeing, by your having to pay for enjoying it. From the floor of the Grotta, which consists of a light, sandy, and rather humid earth, there is a vapour; and this vapour, which has given the Grotta its fame, kills every animal that holds its nose near the ground for more than a few seconds at one time. Many naturalists have given accounts of this vapour, Pliny kong the rest. We

found an old woman at the door, with the key, and holding a little dog in a string. This place has been called the grotto of the dog, from a dog's being the animal kept here to show the effects of the vapour. The woman took him by the legs, and held him down close to the ground. In a few seconds, the dog appeared to be dead; but on being brought out into the open air again, his animation returned, with violent convulsions and foaming at the mouth. In about a minute he had completely recovered, and began to rave at us, as if reproaching us for having been the cause of his torture. It is very curious that, though the vapour has so violent an effect on the dog, it does not injure the animal's general health. He has to act his part as many times in the day as there may be visitors to see him, and is said to be never ill. The effect of the vapour is to stop respiration almost instantaneously. When inhaled through the nose, at about eight inches from the ground, it produces just the same sensation as the fixed air of a glass of champaign, or any effervescing beverage."

It were tedious, and productive of little else besides recapitulation, were we to follow Mr. J. P. Cobbett through the whole recital of his journeyings. Before quitting the subject, he must excuse us for hinting, that a second edition of his Tour would appear to better advantage, divested of the political comments which here and there disfigure the pages, giving rise to erratic and tedious criticisms, and marring the continu. ous interest of his narrative. We would also counsel him to relinquish his disposition to sneer at the principles and practice of Dissenters; for he may rest assured, that his endeavours to dignify the Pope, and vindicate the ceremonies of the Catholic church, are not to be forwarded by carping at the creed and formula of any other denomination of professing Christians.


The Domestic Gardener's Manual, being an Introduction to Gardening, &c., &c. By a practical Horticulturist. 8vo. pp. 564. Whittaker, London, 1830.

THIS volume is not more commanding in its aspect, than it is valuable in its contents. It exhibits scientific knowledge reduced to practice, and combines the philosophy of plants, trees, fruits, and flowers, with the means by which each may be reared to the highest state of perfection. From a peru

sal of this work the practical gardener may derive much valuable information without the trouble, expense, and uncertainty of experiment; while to private individuals who devote a portion of their time to this delightful occupation, its instructions and directions will be of the utmost impor


It is not to the mere ornamental branches of horticulture that the author exclusively devotes his attention. He enters the kitchen garden, and gives direction for preparing the ground, sowing seeds, and rearing to perfection the most common esculent productions; and is as much at home while raising a cabbage, or a crop of peas,


as when attending Flora, and inhaling the aromatic fragrance of her gay parterre.

REVIEW.- Time's Telescope for 1831, &c., &c. 12mo. pp. 416. Sherwood, London.

THIS work has a much longer title than we have quoted, or, from its being so well known, than we find any occasion wholly to repeat. It has now reached its eigh teenth year, and exhibits all the vigour and agility which at that age we naturally expect in its readers. The editor contrives in all his annual visits to produce something new, which will either amuse or instruct his customers, and more frequently do both.

Passing through the months of each succeeding year, both persons and events for which any particular day has been distinguished, are introduced, unless when they crowd in unmanageable clusters, and then a redundancy is lodged in the storehouse for future years. Of customs, manners, traditions, and superstitions, prevailing in various places, Time's Telescope generally traces the origin in a satisfactory manner. Every page contains something useful, ranging from the profundity of science, down through all the gradations of isolated fact, till we blush at the absurdities and

follies of mankind. This volume is deco

rated with several well-executed plates, and many useful wood engravings, tending to illustrate the subjects with which they are associated.

A more instructive annual than Time's Telescope, which blends genuine information on detached subjects with rational entertainment, has not yet, we believe, found its way into circulation.

REVIEW. Affection's Offering; a Book for all Seasons, but especially designed as a Christmas and New Year's Gift, or Birth-day Present, 12mo. pp. 176. Tilt, London, 1831.

THESE annuals are so lovely, that they all command our admiration; but at the same time they are so numerous, that we fear, like a tree overladen with more fruit than it has power to bring to maturity, one will push off another, and many will perish before they reach their teens.

Like several other annuals of more stately growth, “Affection's Offering" has its gilt-edged leaves, and elegant binding. It has also four neatly executed wood engravings; and, combining prose and verse, it


Of these

contains about forty articles. some few are humorous, but all are interesting, and strictly moral and decorous in their language and tendency.

The ground on which this volume professes to take its stand, is neither distant, profound, nor elevated. The capacities of youth, for whose amusement and instruction its articles are intended, being always kept in view; nearly every tale, incident, and narrative, assumes a familiar character. They all seem adapted for those turns of mind, habits of inquiry, and romantic vivacity, which distinguish the years between the age of six and fourteen. To all such, this captivating annual will prove an amusing companion, as well as an acceptable pre



1. The Pocket Remembrancer, &c., by Jabez Burns, (Harding, London,) will be perused with interest and advantage by every lover of instructive anecdote, and by every reader who wishes to see principle illustrated by an appeal to fact.

2. Communion with God; or, a Guide to the Devotional, by Robert Philip, (Westley, London,) is a valuable little ma nual, that will be found congenial with the feelings of all who inquire the way to Zion with their faces thitherward. It is not the theory, but the experience and practice of religion, that this book recommends, and is adapted to promote.

3. Christian Experience; or a Guide to the Perplexed, by Robert Philip, (Westley, London,) displays a kindred spirit with the preceding. Both are by the same au. thor, and evince the element in which his thoughts delight to roam. The title includes a fair character of this book, which we are glad to find has reached a second edition, The sacred writings furnish the basis on which the superstructure rests; and while this is preserved, it cannot become a delusive guide.

4. Dew Drops, (Nesbit, London,) is a beautiful little collection of texts of scripture. Perhaps it is about the size of a Liliputian duodecimo.

5. The Daily Instructor, (Religious Tract Society, London,) is another very useful publication, among the many which this institution has sent into the world. It contains a text of scripture for every day in the year, accompanied with suitable notes and brief reflections, suggested by the passages quoted, and the season when they are introduced. Its aim is to awaken the mind to serious meditation, and lead the soul to God.

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