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appeared that Zosimus had been in Phranza's garden, much about the same time, and probably at the very same time, that Burstow and the house steward had been discussing the question where the Lady De Rushton was to be concealed : immediately after this, Zosimus, without any expressed reasons, deserts to the Turkish camp: he makes his escape from the city by an absolutely false pretext: he is next seen in communication with Leontius, the very man of all others who would gladly receive or purchase any information as to the Lady Theodora. To what suspicions did all this give rise! And then, coupling the facts he knew with the warning which Theodora had received on the preceding night, and to which Chrysolaras had always been disposed to attach more credit than Sir Edward, he became seriously alarmed; and, as we have said, set forth hastily in search of his friend. It was now nearly mid-day.


No. VII.

It is to Rome that we must look for the origin of the Renaissance style. There and in the North of Italy it appears to have been in full developement for upwards of a century before it reached our own shores. To the style itself, no praise can be given, beyond being in some instances highly picturesque. It is simply an application of the detail of ancient pagan architecture to the grander features of the Christian pointed styles. Hence we find the classic orders of architecture strangely mixed with gothic vaulting, windows, and other features.

The solemn grandeur which yet lingered about the larger churches of this bastard age, may therefore be mainly attributed to the instincts of proportion, and the vital force of the Christian element, which could not be at once. extinguished. The Renaissance was essentially a

worldly style; with few exceptions, its chief works were civilian and domestic. So much was this the case in England, that we cannot point to a complete ecclesiastical specimen of it in our own country, while it is most abundant in the mansions of our nobility, and in the monumental remains of that age. The same principle, though not to so marked an extent, holds equally true of the European continent.

The earliest ecclesiastical works of this style are probably those of Brunelleschi, at Florence; they consist of the dome and central portion of the Cathedral, c. 1420, and the churches of S. Lawrence and of the Holy Ghost, both in that city. In Spain we find some exceedingly rich examples, but the style is here known under the name of Plataresque. Amongst them may be mentioned the dome of the Cathedral of Burgos, 1567, the great church at San Sebastian, S. Juan de la Penitencia, Toledo, 1511, and the Hospital of Santa Cruz, Toledo, built between 1504 and 1512. In Germany and the Netherlands, S. Jaques, Liège, and the chapel of the Holy Blood, Bruges, exhibit a free admixture of the style. It is in France, however, that we find the best examples, and amongst them we would notice first, the most remarkable church of S. Eustache, Paris, 1532, one of the most religious interiors of the metropolis : Bron Cathedral, Burgundy, from 1511 to 1531: the very elaborate west


Amongst our English mansions in this style may be mentioned, Wollaton; Longford Castle, 1612; Audley End, 1616; Holland House, 1607; Knowle, 1570; Burleigh, 1577 ; Longleat, 1579 ; Westwood, 1590. In France, the chateaux of Gaillon, 1510; Pau, 1517; Varengeville, 1525; Chateaudun, 1530; Chenonceaux, Chambord, 1523 ; Anet, 1564; considerable portions of the Chateaux of Blois, Fontainbleau, Ecouen, Bourgtherold at Rouen, 1520, Nantouillet, 1527. The town halls of Arras, S. Quintin, Dijon, Paris, 1549, the house of Agnes Sorel, at Orleans. In Germany the best examples are the Belvidere, on the Hradschin at Prague, 1560; Heidelburg Castle, built between 1558 and 1607, the Martinsburg, Mayence, and the town halls of Antwerp, 1564; Cologne, 1570; Augsburg 1600, and Nuremburg, 1610. In Spain the examples are, if possible, more ornate and magnificent: amongst many, we may mention the Chateau at Madrid, 1541 ; the Alcazar, Toledo, 1548; town hall and Caza. Zaporta, Zaragossa, 1551, and 1560; town hall, Seville, 1559, and the Palace of Charles V., at Granada.

front of S. Michael, Dijon; considerable portions of S. Remi, Dieppe ; S. Clotilde, in Andelys; the upper stages of the western towers of the Cathedral of S. Gatien, Tours; and the churches of Gisors and Argentan. In England, as has been before observed, we have no remarkable example, the chapel of S. Peter's College, Cambridge, is probably the best that can be cited.

The monumental architecture of this age, though incorrect in taste, was exceedingly rich and elaborate in detail, most of our larger churches will furnish specimens of it, the earliest are probably those of Henry VII., in Westminster Abbey, by Torrigiana, in 1518, and of Sir Thomas Pope, in Trinity College Chapel, Oxford, 1558. The tombs of Cardinal Amboise, and of the Duke de Brézé at Rouen, of René, Duke of Lorraine, at Nancy, and of Louis XII. and Francis I., all executed prior to 1550, are probably amongst the best French examples.

The revival of church principles in this country in the earlier half of the seventeenth century, tended in some degree to check the growing taste for classical architecture. And though the church work of that age is of a debased character, it is essentially Catholic and Christian in its impressions. To English churchmen of succeeding ages, the remnants of this period are peculiarly sacred, as precious relics of such men as Laud and Andrewes, of Herbert and Hooker, of Hammond and Taylor, and San. derson, and many other venerated names. Rebellion, with its twenty years of accompanying desolation, spread like an overwhelming flood over these brighter prospects, and swept away the last vestiges of appreciation for pointed architecture.

For though we

The great find Bishop Hacket rebuilding the great central spire of Lichfield Cathedral, and Bishop Beveridge setting up a high and elaborate rood-screen in the parish church of S. Peter upon Cornhill, yet the new Cathedral of S. Paul, and the parish churches of the City of London, were rebuilt by Wren in a strictly classic style. There were some even in these degenerate days who could appreciate the works of earlier ages, as appears from the following remarkable extract from the concluding chapter of a work published in 1688, entitled, “ The faith and duty of a Church of England man.”'l “I do confess, I witness with great pain the modern corruptions which have prevailed since Signior Palladio's taste, introduced by Master Inigo Jones, hath got the upper hand here, which hath debased our church building, and bids fair to drive into utter oblivion all knowledge of Christian forms for Christian churches."

1 There is but one solitary, though that a very noble instance of a like revival in France. The Cathedral of S. Croix, at Orleans, blown up by the Hugonots in 1567, after having been previously desecrated by them for a stable, and other ignominious purposes, was (with the exception of the west front and part of the south transept, added in a mongrel style by Gabrielli, in 1764,) completely rebuilt in Middle-Pointed of so pure a style, that it can with difficulty be disa tinguished from the best works of the medieval ages. The first stone was laid by Henri IV., in 1601, who furnished the funds, and the works were carried on and completed under his successors, Louis XIII., XIV., and XV,

The consummation thus predicted, was most fully brought to pass under Wren's successors, Hawkesmoor, Gibbs, Dance, &c.; so much so, that towards the close of the eighteenth century, everything deserving the name of church architecture had died out, and our churches were reduced to mere brick rooms, bedecked with sundry Pagan but no Christian emblems. This was the state of things at the commencement of the present century, just previously to the revival. The Church of England, however, even in that dark age, was not without a witness of better things. An eminent divine, the Rev. W. Jones, of Nayland, in a treatise entitled “Reflections on the growth of Heathenism among modern Christians,"laments that the fabulous creations of Greek mythology should ever have got possession of our churches, and he instances the village church of Wharton, Northants, "where there is a monument with figures as large as life of the three fates, Clotho, Lachesis and Atropos, spinning and clipping the thread of a great man's life; by which species of memorial he is taken as it were out of the hands of the true God, whom we Christians worship in our churches, and turned over to the miserable blindness of heathen destiny, not to mention the insult and profa

Republished by Masters, 1854.



nation of bringing heathen idols into a Christian Church. In this same church the font is very mean, and removed almost out of sight, so natural is it for those improvements which exalt heathenism to debase Christianity. Again, at Stowe, in Buckinghamshire, the temples of the heathen gods conspicuously adorn the pleasure grounds, while the adjacent parish church is planted out of sight by evergreens, as an object impertinent to a spectator of modern taste."

We may conclude our chapter with another excellent quotation, “ When I see the figure of a cock upon the top of a steeple, I am reminded of that sacred bird who was a monitor to S. Peter, and through his example, is now giving a daily lesson to all believers. When I see the globe and cross at the top of S. Paul's, I rejoice in the exaltation of Him Who was humbled for our sakes, but is now the head of all principality and power, to the Church and to the world. But when I see the dragon upon

Bow steeple, I can only wonder how an emblem so expressive of the devil, and frequently introduced as such into the temples of idolaters, found its way to the summit of a Christian edifice."




AMONG the brilliant circle of Divines and Prelates which added lustre to the era of the earlier Stuarts, without a rival for eloquence, and scarcely surpassed in suffering at the hands of the Puritan faction, was the great Jeremy Taylor. Like many others of those memorable worthies, he sprang from humble parentage, being the third son of Nathaniel Taylor, a barber and

1 This warning against monumental Paganism is not without weight even in the present age of increased light and knowledge. Urns, in. 'verted torches, and other heathen symbols, still pertinaciously intrude themselves into places of Christian sepulture.

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