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succeeded by Cyriacus, who though by no means inclined to relinquish the title and authority of “ Universal Bishop,'' was very desirous of settling the matter with Gregory, and sent a Responsal or Ambassador to treat on the subject. Gregory's answer, which he afterwards put into writing, and sent to Cyriacus was, Ego fidenter dico, quod quisquis se universalem sacerdotem vocat, vel vocari desiderat, et electione sua Antichristum præcurrit."

Shortly after, Eulogius Patriarch of Alexandria, who not having been at the Council which had inconsiderately bestowed that unfor. tunate title on the Patriarch of Constantinople, proposed to accord it also to the Bishop of Rome.

Gregory wrote peremptorily—“I beg of you not to salute me in such language for the future: by giving another more than belongs to him you lessen yourself. I do not reckon that an honour to myself which is paid me at the expense of my brethren: my reputation is in the honour of the Universal Church, and in preserving the dignity of the rest of the prelates. If your holiness treats me with the title of Universal Bishop, you exclude yourself from an equality of privilege. Pray let us have none of this. Your holiness may remember that this style of Universal Bishop was offered to my predecessors by the Council of Chalcedon, and by some other prelates since, but none of them would ever accept the compliment, or make use of the title, but chose rather to maintain the honour of the whole Episcopal College, looking upon this as the best expedient to preserve to themselves the love of Almighty God.

Our present arrangement of musical notes into octaves we owe to Gregory, who was himself a great musician. Before his time the Greek notation had been used, which continued the notes through the whole alphabet, marking the sharps and flats by leaving out or doubling portions of the letters. Gregory, remarking that the successive octaves were simply repetitions, dispensed with all except the first seven as we have it now. Whether he wrote any original music we have no means of knowing, but he was at least a great collector and arranger of ancient Greek chants, for the Greek was the only music then in use ; his collection being called by John Diaconus, the cento of antiphons, rather leads us to imagine that these chants, very properly called after him, were not actually composed by himself.

This seems to have been the occupation of the later years of his life, when he was confined to his bed by the gout, from which disease

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he seems to have suffered very much. Indeed, indirectly, it was the cause of his death at the age of sixty-one, it having been accelerated at all events, if not actually caused, by his insisting on performing the service personally on holidays, while he was suffering under its attacks.

The passage quoted in the postil occurs in one of his homilies on the book of Ezekiel : but the work for which he is the most celebrated, and which, as an Ecclesiastical Reformer he was best qualified to write, is his Pastoral or Treatise on the duties of a Pastor.



“God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor crying, neither shall there be any more pain."-Rev. xxi. 4.

Faith can discern the radiant land beyond the setting sun,
Where pilgrims wear their golden crowns when victory is won ;
The past deceit and present pain, and range of earth below,
Reflected in a mirror clear though washed with tears of woe.
Faith supplicates --" Thy Presence bright I crave to seek forgiven-
Weeping no more: the loved, the lost, for ever mine in Heaven.”

Faith breathes an atmosphere of love—the voice of living prayer
And tastes the bliss ineffable no mortal tones declare ;
Through trial's weeping years conducts to the sleep of that last hour,
When Mighty Comfort prevails to quell the enemy's dread power.
Faith supplicates—“ Thy Presence bright I crave to seek forgiven-
Weeping no more : the loved, the lost, for ever mine in Heaven.”

Sin grieves the Holy One and Just—the world is sin's own home-
And blinded senses cannot see the Hand that beckons "come ;'
But sorrow's revelation chants His blest eternal Word,
And shadowed by His Wings, faith views the glories of the LORD.
Faith supplicates—" Thy Presence bright I crave to seek forgiven-
Weeping no more: the loved, the lost, for ever mine in Heaven.”





At the desolating period when heathen Saxons swept like a desolating simoom across the country, great numbers of the ancient British Christians driven from hearth and home, were compelled to "flee unto the mountains" for shelter and security. Hence, the hoary peaks of the west, and the clustering summits of the north, became known as the “land of the Cumbrae (or Cymbri :") a nomenclature which the manifold inflections of language have gradually metamorphosed into "Cambria," with regard to the Snowdon-crowned territory, and into “Cumberland (or Cumbrae-land), with regard to the region around the border-fells.

Ay, bright and smiling as are now the flock-folded valleys, and the cloud-traceried pinnacles, cruel and tumultuous was the ordeal by which those border-fells were afflicted through the stormy centuries of dispute. For“ the boundaries between England and Scotland were anciently very unsettled. After the time of the Romans, the Anglo-Saxon and Danish Kings speedily extended their dominion over the Cheviot Hills, and frequently to the Firths of Clyde and Forth ; whilst considerable tracts of the north of England, particularly in the northwest districts, were sometimes united with the Scottish lowlands, or with kingdoms which existed there. Until England and Scotland were at length united under one crown, the north of England was almost uninterruptedly the theatre of the bitterest border warfare. The blood of

many thousands of bold warriors has been spilt on


that land, which now teems with the blessings of wealth and peace."'1

It was these disputes between England and Scotland, which first caused the institution of “ Border-service ;" a part of that great principle of government-(more or less followed out wherever the great Teutonic nation had settled, and called in the old Teutonic language "fehda, or feud”—whence the term “Feudal System”%)—which recognized the duty owed by the holders of land to the land-owner. By this “ Service,” tenants of manors were obliged at a given signal—such as the firing of a beacons -to attend their lord in service of the borders, properly accoutred at their own expense : he, in his turn, being bound to follow the standard of the Lord Warden of the Marches appointed by his King. The value of the duty to be rendered varied according to the value of the tenure, some vassals being bound to serve on horseback, with a long retinue of men-at-arms; others on foot, attended only by their immediate kinsmen. (Hence the expression, nag tenements and foot tenements.) The chieftains, to whom these border-vassals owed obedience, were themselves very turbulent and unruly, and paid little respect to the commands of their Sovereigns: they usually dwelt in small fortified castles; and as they were very jealous of the prowess of an adversary, frequent outrages were committed by them upon each other, even

Worsaae's “ Danes and Northmen." 3 “ Landmarks of History."

* The places appointed for beacons in Cumberland were, Black Comb, Mulcaster Fell, S. Bee's Head, Workington Hill, Moothay, Skiddaw, Sandale Top, Carlisle Castle, Lingy Close Head, Penrith Beacon Hill, Dale Raighton, Brampton Mote, and Spade Adam Top.

• The authority of the Lord Warden of the Marches was of a mixed nature, military and civil. In his military capacity, he was when the two kingdoms were

at peace: indeed, so habituated were they to rapine, that they customarily went armed even to feasts and merry-makings; and many a raid, or foray, (as these irregular inroads upon the domains of a rival chieftain were termed,) dated its origin from the defiant gesture, or the hasty word carelessly evoked by unbridled passion over the heated wine cup.

There lay, between the two kingdoms, a certain tract of ground (about eight miles by four) known as the “Debateable Land,” which, not being subject to either government, proved an inexhaustible source of contention, and became the abode of a lawless banditti, sometimes distinguished by the name of moss-troopers, from their expertness in concealing themselves amid the intricacies of sloughs, mosses, and bogs, impassable except to those thoroughly acquainted with the difficult by-paths :


a generalissimo, to preside and give command ; to place and appoint watchmen to fire beacons and give alarm on the approach of an enemy; and, for the safety and defence of the city of Carlisle, to muster an array of armed men, as often as any danger of a siege appeared : also, he had authority to agree to cessations of arms, and conclude treaties of peace; to appoint deputies, wardens, serjeants, and other officers. In his civil capacity, he was to take cognizance of all breaches of the border laws ; to hold warden courts, wherein to hear all matters in dispute between the people of both kingdoms ; and to arrest and imprison all persons discovered to be in league with the enemies of England. In these duties, the Lord Warden was assisted by a council, chosen of discreet borderers, who were to inquire into all acts of violence, rapine and misdemeanour, and by the laws established to redress all grievances. The regulation of the borders by distinct and effective laws seems to have commenced about the time when Edward the First aspired to the sovereignty of Scotland : Robert de Clifford, Lord and Hereditary Sheriff of Westmoreland, was the first Lord Warden of the Marches, 1296,--Vide Hutchinson's History of Cumberland.

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