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breast, its head being conspicuous above, reminding us of Goldsmith's well-known lines,

Though round its breast the rolling clouds are spread
Eternal sunshine settles on his head."

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We reached Kusnacht, passing some of the points memorable in the life of Tell. Here we procured a carriage, and had a delightful drive along the banks of the lake to Lucerne, where we remained till the following evening, visiting all its curiosities; the most noticeable being sundry wooden bridges over arms of the lake, connecting one part of the town with another. They are of great length, and are ornamented with a series of paintings, representing the dance of death, lives of saints, and some Scripture subjects. The situation of Lucerne, however, is its great charm. The lake is altogether, perhaps, the finest in Switzerland, the Righi and Mount Pilatus being the most striking objects; but there is also a background of snowy peaks.

Our diligence, in which we had secured places for Basle, started punctually; and as the daylight departed, we took our leave of the mountains, and thought we could understand a Switzer's passionate love for his country, when we, after so short a residence, felt so much regret, and such a longing to see them again. We passed Sempach, the scene of one of the most famous battles in Swiss history; and that was the last place we saw. We did our best to sleep, and next morning arrived in Basle, a dull town, where, however, we rested a day at the Drei Kænige, a first-rate hotel, table d'hôte, and prices.

There is a choice of railway or steamboat from Basle to Strasbourg : on this occasion we chose the latter, not being acquainted with that part of the Rhine ; but we had reason to repent our choice, for the water was very

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shallow. Indeed, it was too late in the season to have attempted it. We were grounded two hours within sight of Strasbourg, and then in very bad humour had to undergo a most rigorous search. However, our good humour was soon restored again by a visit to the Cathedral, the exterior of which is very striking. Both in colour, and the firmness as well as delicacy of its construction, it looks like cast iron. The interior we thought disappointing. There is a wonderful clock, which of course we did not fail to look at, and climbed the tower; a very nervous thing to do, as the apertures all the way up in its light tracery are quite large enough to admit of a slender person falling through. There is a handsome monument to be seen in the Protestant Church ; but, of course, the sexton and key had to be sought for that, and a fee paid. From Strasbourg we took a return carriage to Carlsruhe, stopping for a few minutes at Radstadt, to look at the old palace. The road is exceedingly uninteresting, the town curious, from the manner in which it is built; all the streets, roads, &c., diverge from the palace, (which is in the centre of the town,) like the spokes of a wheel.

Arrived at Heidelberg, the country not improving, en route ; the only thing which attracted our attention was the dress of the peasants, being exactly like our own old English costume,-wide skirts, cocked hats, &c.,--and the red umbrella, which I fancy is peculiar" to Germany; indeed, red seemed to be a favourite colour both with men and women.

Heidelberg has, of course, great charms for an English visitor beyond the beauty of its ruins. It is quite the prince of ruined castles, terminating and crowning the whole of a series of old castles in every stage of decay, and topping every bill on the road from Darmstadt; at

which place, after a delightful drive, we arrived in the dusk of an October evening, so that we have only a very general idea of the place as large, handsome, and dull. We went on to Frankfort the same night, and spent a day there most pleasantly; a magnificent city," whose merchants are princes,” is the first thought which seems to strike a stranger. The streets, hotels, shops, quays, all speak of wealth,--all, save the Jews' quarter, which, if only for contrast, is well worth visiting, the squalid appearance of people and streets being something very remarkable : but down these narrow streets you see large houses in courts behind, and, indeed, there are some mansions there. The great capitalist, Rothschild, was born there ; and his mother resided there within a few years.

Mayence was our next stage; thence we took the steamer to Coblentz. All the world knows the scenery of the Rhine between these places, and on again to Cologne: suffice it therefore to say, that we had beautiful weather, and saw everything to perfection, and did not descend to the two o'clock table d'hôte (as I have more than once witnessed all the passengers) on either day. Adhering to the plan proposed in one of my first letters, I am not going to weary you with a list of all the lions we saw at both places. We worked hard, and saw everything, I believe ; and then went on to Aix-la-Chapelle, and so into Belgium. But though I propose, in a subsequent letter, to give you a hasty sketch of what we did there, I will, in my next, take you back to Coblentz, and up the Moselle to Treves; as I think that is a less frequented route, and at least as interesting.

Yours, &c.,

C. A. B.

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129

CHAPTERS ON CONVOCATION.

CHAPTER V.

THE ARCHBISHOP AS PRESIDENT.

“Whereas our Bishops, Deans of our Cathedral Churches, Arch. deacons, Chapters and Colleges, and the other Clergy of the Province of Canterbury, being summoned and called by virtue of our Writ directed to the Most Reverend Father in God, John, late Archbishop of Canterbury, did at the time appointed and within the Cathedral Church of S. Paul, assemble themselves and appear in Convocation for that purpose before the Right Reverend Father in God, Richard, Bishop of London, duly authorized, appointed, and constituted, by reason of the said Archbishop of Canterbury his death, President of the said Convocation, to execute those things which by virtue of our first Writ did appertain to him the said Archbishop to have executed, if he had lived: We for divers urgent and weighty causes,” &c.— Preface to the Constitutions and Canons Ecclesiastical of 1604.

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THE Archbishop is the President of the Convocation by virtue of his position as Metropolitan : the Archbishop of Canterbury presides in the Convocation of Canterbury, and the Archbishop of York in that of York. He is the President of the whole Convocation, when it is assembled; not the speaker of the Upper House merely, but the moderator of both the houses as forming one Church Synod. But the extent of the President's authority in Convocation is rather undefined ; and some points in it have been the subject of much doubt and disputing, and are still left unsettled. I will endeavour then, to point out those rights of the Archbishop and President which are unquestioned; and when I come to touch on those which are matters of controversy, to describe with as much fairness as I can the arguments which have been

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used, and the precedents which exist on both sides of the question.

The original title of the Archbishop or Metropolitan, was that of Chief Bishop, Primus Episcopus, and his office is, as I have before remarked, one of human institution, and not of divine authority ; it was instituted for the convenience of the Church, and not like that of Bishop, by divine ordinance; there is therefore no inherent right in the archiepiscopal character to any peculiar functions, but its powers are the result of ancient custom, and are such as have been assigned and marked out by the

usage of the Church. In England, as in most other Christian countries, the Archbishop has always possessed the power of calling the provincial Convocation together, and of presiding in it; and this power he still retains, although under the limitations contained in the Act of Submission : but the national Synods in England were often called by the Pope's legate, and in them the legate present took the office of President, and in that capacity sat above the Archbishops, although perhaps himself a mere priest. The Archbishop of Canterbury too, about A.D. 1127 obtained the office of legate, Legatus Natus, and retained it until the Reformation, and often held his provincial councils under that character. It is likely that some of the difficulty connected with the subject has arisen from the confusion of the legatine and archiepiscopal powers.

The Archbishop used to assemble, prorogue, and dissolve the Convocation formerly at his own will, but now, because he is directed and required to do so by the royal writ. When the Convocation meets, he is at once without any formality of election, the President of the Synod; the returns are made to him of the execution of his mandates by the Bishop of London ; he pronounces those

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