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the most powerful monarchies in the world, fall one after another, at the teaching of his disciples, and before the prevailing efficacy of the new faith. A little stone becomes a mountain, and fills the whole earth. Judea swells in its dimensions till it covers half of the globe, carrying captivity captive, not by force of arms, but by the progress of opinion and the power of truth. All the nations of Europe in successive ages, Greek, Roman, Barbarian,-glory in the name of the humble Galilean; armies, greater than those which Babylon, in the pride of her ambition, led forth to conquest, are seen swarming into Asia, with the sole view of ejecting the maintainers of another creed, and getting possession of his supposed sepulchre.

The effects, too, produced on society, exceed all calculation. It is vain that we attempt to compare them to revolutions which have changed for a time the face of nations, or given a new dynasty to ancient empires. The impression made by such events soon passes away. The present condition of the world is not greatly different from what it might have been, though Alexander had never been born, and Julius Cæsar had perished in his cradle. But the occurrences that enter into the history of Palestine possess an influence on human affairs which has no other limits than the existence of the species. The greatest nations upon earth trace their happiness and civilization to the benign principles and lofty sanctions of the faith to which it gave birth. Science, freedom, and security, attend its progress among all conditions of men; raising the low, befriending the unfortunate, giving strength to justice, and breaking the rod of the


Nor is the subject of less interest to the pious Christian, who confines his thoughts to the momentous facts which illustrate the early annals of his religion. affections are bound to Palestine by the strongest associ


ations; and every portion of its varied territory, its mountains, its lakes,—and even its deserts,—are consecrated in his eyes as the scene of some mighty occurrence. His fancy clothes with qualities almost celestial that holy land,

"Over whose acres walked those blessed feet,

Which eighteen hundred years ago were nail'd
For our advantage on the bitter cross."

These momentous associations serve to conceal from us the astonishing history of this most remarkable city, even since old Hebrew rites were brought to a close, and the sceptre finally departed from Judah. Yet what other city in the world can compare with it even in the later vicissitudes of its history; its siege by Titus; its rebuilding by the Romans; the attempted rebuilding of its temple, and the wondrous arrest of the impious attempt. The wars of the Saracens, Crusaders, and Mahomedans; the pilgrimages of medieval superstition, of Hebrew piety, and of Mahometant zeal, have all marked it out as the most remarkable of cities even in those later centuries of the world's history which belong to the Christian era.

The facilities of modern civilization have removed nearly every difficulty which once made pilgrimage to Jerusalem so formidable. Travellers can, in a few weeks, explore the whole of the antiquities of Syria and Palestine, and return to publish the narrative of their travels for the succeeding season's readers. Yet while such facilities have destroyed the novelty and lessened the romance of what was once a sacred pilgrimage, supposed to secure to him who accomplished it eternal rewards, while it gave to him special favour and distinction in the eyes of his less daring or less fortunate contemporaries; yet the destruction of the novelty of a visit to Jerusalem has in no degree impaired the wondrous interest which still clings to the hallowed scenes.

How memorable are the associations which rise to the


mind of the Christian at the very name of Jerusalem. Within its walls David, the psalmist, the sweet singer of Israel, composed the songs still sung in every Christian land. There Solomon built and dedicated that first temple, within whose holy place the Most High condescended to manifest his presence. There Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and nearly all the prophets and mighty men of Old Testament history dwelt, triumphed, or suffered. There, at length, in the fulness of time, the angel of God appeared to the high priest, Zecharias, and announced to him that he should have a son, who should be the forerunner of our Great High Priest, the long-expected Messiah. Within its temple the Holy Child first manifested his divine wisdom, disputing with the doctors. Within its streets his most mighty acts were performed; and in an upper chamber there that solemn sacramental rite was instituted, which Christians of every succeeding age have practised in obedience to his commandment, and in remembrance of his dying love; and, finally, Jerusalem is the city over which Jesus wept, as he exclaimed, “O Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets and stonest them that are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!"

But not less distinguished in her overthrow than in all other respects is the glorious but doomed city of Zion, in that her destruction was the type and prefigurement of the final close of our world's being, when these elements shall melt with fervent heat. "In patience possess your souls," said Christ, addressing his disciples, and forewarning them of the approaching fulfilment of ancient prophecy, "And when ye shall see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that the desolation thereof is nigh. Then let them which are in Judea flee to the mountains; and let them which are in the midst of

it depart out: and let not them that are in the countries enter thereinto. For these be the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled. But woe unto them that are with child, and to them that give suck, in those days! for there shall be great distress in the land, and wrath upon this people. And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled. And there shall be signs in the sun, and in the moon, and in the stars; and upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; the sea and the waves roaring; men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth: for the powers of heaven shall be shaken. And then shall they see the Son of man coming in a cloud, with power and great glory. And when these things begin to come to pass, then look up, and lift up your heads; for your redemption draweth nigh."

All that is here foretold of the Jewish capital literally came to pass, and all that was forewarned of its people is being still accomplished. The time of the Gentiles is not yet fulfilled, and mount Zion, once beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth," is still trodden down of the Gentiles, after nearly eighteen hundred years have passed over its fallen palaces and walls, whose stones are still dear to the outcast Hebrew.

Immortalized by revolutions more various and destructive than have occurred in any other city of the world, Jerusalem claims a sad pre-eminence in suffering, as once she did in glory. Seventeen times has it been sacked and partially destroyed. It has been the field of the most brilliant exploits of the Jewish, Roman, and Saracen armies, and has been moistened by the blood of our ancestors during the romantic ages of the Crusades.

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During the reign of Nero, the Jews having revolted,

the city was invested by Titus, and having desperately sustained the most remarkable siege in history, from the 14th of April to the 2d of September, in the year A. D. 71, it was taken, and, together with the temple, plundered and burnt. The Jews, after having courageously defended the third and second walls, fell back upon the fortress Antonia which commanded the temple. Torn into factions among themselves, they fought madly against each other, whilst the Romans burned and laid waste the outer and lower cities of Bezetha and Acra; but Titus, after great labour, having brought the war-engines to bear upon this fortress, the Jews were ultimately driven back upon the temple itself. The principal tower having fallen, the northern portico of the temple was left defenceless. Titus, commanding in person, was anxious to save it, but, on the seventh day after the Romans had taken possession of Antonia, the outer portico having caught fire, the temple itself, together with the magnificent porticos by which it was surrounded, was totally destroyed. Being the Feast of the Passover, the city was crowded with people, and Josephus, who was present, relates that six hundred thousand perished of famine, one million by the sword, and ninety-seven thousand were sent away prisoners. The young, with the women, were sold for slaves, and thirty might be bought for a piece of silver."

One of our most eminent painters, Mr. David Roberts, has recently chosen the scene of the conflagration of Jerusalem as the subject of a large and most magnificent picture. The Roman legions encompass the doomed city; and already the overwhelming conflagration rages within its walls, lurid clouds overhang the temple and palaces of Zion, and the spectator seems, as he gazes on the advancing flames, to hear, as for the last time, the touching words: "Walk about Zion, and go round about her: tell the towers thereof. Mark well her bulwarks, consider her palaces." Few more interest

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