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A female statue, the size of life, was also found within the cella, clothed in a tunic falling to her feet, and above it a toga. The border of the former is gilt; the latter is edged with a red purple bandeau, an inch and a quarter wide; the right arm is pressed upon the bosom, with the hand elevated to the chin, while the left hand holds up the toga. The face of this figure has been sawn off. Some have supposed this a piece of economy of the Pompeians, who, wishing to pay a compliment to some distinguished person, had thought that the cheapest way of doing it was to substitute her face for that originally belonging to the statue.

“ It is manifest that the ancients have made excavations on this spot, and carried away the columns of the temple, and the marble with which it was covered, both within and without. Some of the capitals, however, remain to show the order of its architecture, and enough is presorved to assure us that it was rich in ornament and highly finished.

“ The street running from the Temple of Fortune to the Forum, and called the Street of Fortune, has furnished an unusually rich harvest of various utensils. A long list of these is given by Sir W. Gell, according to which there were found no less than two hundred and fifty small bottles of inferior glass, with numerous other articles of the same material, which it would be tedious to particularize.

A marble statue of a laughing faun, two bronze figures of Mercury, the one three inches and the other four inches high, and the statue of a female nine inches high, were also found, together with many bronze lamps and stands. We may add vases, basins with handles, pateræ, bells, elastic springs, hinges, buckles for harness, a lock, an inkstand, and a strigil; gold ear-rings, and a silver spoon; an oval cauldron, a saucepan, a mould for pastry, and a weight of alabaster used in spinning, with its ivory axis remaining. The catalogzie. finishes with a leaden weight, forty-nine lamps of common clay ornamented with masks and animals, forty-five lamps for two wicks, three boxes with a slit to keep money in, in one of which were found thirteen coins of Titus, Vespasian, and Domitian. Among the most curious things discovered, were seven glazed plates found packed in straw. There were also seventeen unvarnished vases of terra-cotta, seven clay dishes, and a large pestle and mortar."

One house which has been explored bears the name of the House of the Surgeon, from the variety of surgical instruments discovered in it. “In number they amounted to forty; some resembled instruments still in use, others are different from anything employed by modern surgeons. In many the description of Celsus is realized, as, for instance, in the specillum, or probe, which is concave on one side and flat on the other; the scalper excisorius, in the shape of a lancet-point on one side, and of a mallet on the other; a hook and forceps, used in obstetrical practice. The latter are said to equal in the convenieuce and ingenuity of their construction the best efforts of modern cutlers. Needles, cutting compasses (circini excisorii), and other instruments were found ; all of the purest brass, with bronze handles, and usually enclosed in brass or box-wood cases. There is nothing remarkable in the house itself, which contains the usual apartments, atrium, peristyle, &c., except the paintings. These consist chiefly of architectural designs; combinations of golden and bronze-coloured columns placed in perspective, surmounted by rich architraves, elaborate friezes, and decorated cornices, one order above another. Intermixed are ara. besque ornaments, grotesque paintings, and compartments with figures, all apparently employed in domestic occupations."

Another locality brought to light the shop of a baker,

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with his mill, workshops, cisterns, ovens, &c. Even the loaves have been found, some of them stamped, apparently with the description of their quality and value; so minute are the records furnished from this interesting source of the habits and domestic life of the Romans in the first century of our era. “ Three bakers' shops, at least,” says the author of Pompeii, “ have been found, all in a tolerable state of preservation. The mills, the oven, the kneading-troughs, the vessels for containing water, flour, leaven, have all been discovered, and seem to leave nothing wanting to our knowledge ; in some of the vessels the very flour remained, still capable of being identified, though reduced almost to a cinder. But in the centre some lumps of whitish matter resembling chalk remained, which, when wetted and placed on a red-hot iron, gave out the peculiar odour which flour thus treated emits. One of these shops was attached to the house of Sallust, the other to the house of Pansa ; probably they were worth a handsome rent. The third, which we select for description, for one will serve perfectly as a type of the whole, seems to have belonged to a man of higher class, a sort of capitalist; for instead of renting a mere dependency of another man's house, he lived in a tolerably good house of his own, of which the bakery forms a part. It stands next to the house of Sallust, on the south side, being divided from it only by a narrow street. Its front is in the main street leading from the gate of Herculaneum to the Forum. Entering by a small vestibule, the visitor finds himself in a tetrastyle atrium (a thing not common at Pompeii), of ample dimensions considering the character of the house, being about thirty-six feet by thirty. The pillars which supported the ceiling are square and solid; and their size, combined with indications observed in a fragment of the entablature, led Mazois to suppose that, instead of a roof, they had been surmounted by a terrace. The impluvium is marble. At the end of the atrium is what would be called a tablinum in the house of a man of family, through which we enter the bakehouse, which is at the back of the house, and opens into the smaller street, which, diverging from the main street at the fountain by Pansa's house, runs up straight to the city walls. The atrium is surrounded by different apartments, offering abundant accommodation, but such as we need not stop to describe.

“ The workroom is about thirty-three feet long by twenty-six. The centre was occupied by four stone mills, exactly like those found in the other two shops, for all the bakers ground their own flour. To give more room they are placed diagonally, so as to form, not a square, but a lozenge. Mazois was present at the excavation of this house, and saw the mills at the moment of their discovery, when the iron-work, though entirely rust-eaten, was yet perfect enough to explain satisfactorily the method of construction.”

Mere verbal description can convey only an imperfect idea of machinery and implements entirely strange to us, yet the following account will abundantly suffice to con trast the method of the Roman tradesman with our own: -“ The base is a cylindrical stone, about five feet in diameter, and two feet high. Upon this, forming part of the same block, or else firmly fixed into it, is a conical projection about two feet high, the sides slightly curving inwards. Upon this there rests another block, externally resembling a dice box, internally an hour-glass, being shaped into two hollow cones with their vertices towards each other, the lower one fitting the conical surface on which it rests, though not with any degree of accuracy. To diminish friction, however, a strong iron pivot was inserted in the top of the solid cone, and a corresponding socket let into the narrow part of the hour-glass. Four holes were cut through the stone parallel to this pivot. The narrow part was hooped on the outside with iron, into which wooden bars were inserted, by means of which the upper stone was turned upon its pivot, by the labour of men or asses. The


hollow cone served as a hopper, and was filled with corn, which fell by degrees through the four holes upon the solid cone, and was reduced to powder by friction between the two rough surfaces.

Of course it worked its way to the bottom by degrees, and fell out on the cylindrical base, round which a channel was cut to facilitate the collection. These machines are about six feet high in the whole, made of a rough grey volcanic stone, full of large crystals of leucite. Thus rude in a period of high refinement and luxury, was one of the commonest and most necessary machines : thus careless were the Romans of the amount of labour wasted in preparing an article of daily and universal consumption. This probably arose in chief from the employment of slaves, the hardness of whose task was little cared for; while the profit and encouragement to enterprise on the part of the professional baker was proportionally diminished, since every family of wealth probably prepared its bread at home. But the same inattention to the useful arts runs through everything that they did. Their skill in working metals was equal to ours; nothing can be more beautiful than the execution of tripods, lamps, and vases, nothing coarser than their locks; while at the same time the doorhandles, bolts, &c. which were seen, are often exquisitely wrought. To what cause can this sluggishness be referred? Here we see that a material improvement in any article, though so trifling as a corkscrew or pencil-case, is pretty sure to make the fortune of some man, though unfortunately that man is very often not the inventor. Had the encouragement to industry been the same, the result would have been the same. Articles of luxury were in high request, and of them the supply was first-rate. But the demands of a luxurious nobility would never have repaid any man for devoting his attention to the improvement of mills, or perfecting smiths' work, and there was


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