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Bibles in Arabic, Syriac, ancient and modern-a very public place, and well known in the city. Copies of the Scriptures sold during the last year: 217 books, of which 34 were Scriptures and parts of Scriptures. Call upon Mrs Rassam, wife of the English consul-fine house, large court, garden in the centre, slabs from Nineveh in the pavement, and beautiful sedab or alabaster underground apartment below. Then visit the dispensary and see Dr Haskell in his labours of love, prescribing for the crowd of patients of all classes, Moslems, Christians, and Jews, women, men, and children, who daily come to him. They average forty or fifty each day. The system is first to preach the gospel to them, and then give them medicine for their diseases-Arabs from the desert, Koords from the mountains, Moslems and Christians from the city.
"Mosul has a population of 45,000-Moslems 36,000; Christians 7,500; 1,500 Jews; about two-fifths ancient Syrians or Jacobites; two-fifths Chaldeans or Papal Nestorians; one-fifth Papal Syrians; 180 enrolled in the Protestant community; fifteen church members; attendance at service, average, fifty-five; language used entirely Arabic. A Bible class of twenty or thirty; two boys' schools, numbering sixty pupils; three natives are employed in going from house to house to teach the men and women to read the Bible in the families; have three preachers— Jeremiah Shemmas, deacon, Kos Machiel, (formerly a Papal Nestorian priest,) Behnan, from the seminary of Aleih; three teachers; have three out-stations at Jezerch, a village near Nahauan, where the Nestorian priest and his people are Protestant, numbering 100. He teaches the people to read the Bible.
"Spend a very pleasant evening with the French consul,
his adopted daughter, and Mrs R; quite like an American evening party, save the variety of languages spoken, English, French, Italian, Turkish, Arabic, and Greek.
"After the rain it is mild and genial this morning. This morning the Pasha, according to appointment, calls to visit us, accompanied by his defterdar and an interpreter. He brings his own chibouque and fingaw, says that one American friend has brought him two others, and he is now rich. I tell him that I hope the ships sailing from America on the chart before him will bring him many more. He smiles approbation, and says that he felt in his heart that there was something good near him, but he was not aware of so great an affair so close beside him. He remarked that some physicians give a medicine to cure one disease, others give a medicine to heal and renew the system. So a good government should seek for gradual reforms. I remarked, his views entirely coincided with the ideas of the Sultan, in the Hatti Sheriff. I told him that we were so much pleased with his liberal sentiments, we would be happy to present him with a copy of the Bible, that he might learn what we in England and America believed. He expressed his thanks, and said it would be valuable in two particulars; it would always remind him of his true friend; and it would be good for instruction, as being the Book of God. He was exceedingly affable and gracious-remarkably intelligent, and ready at repartee a good specimen of an active-minded Turk.
The conversation continued for a half hour more, and he took his leave in Oriental style. His secretary, when we inquired with regard to fine Arab horses, said, the son
of the Pasha had one, and his own were the best in Mosul.
He invited us, in the court, to see his, a noble animal of full blood and breeding, whereupon he gave us the favour of riding her to visit ancient Nineveh, and he himself volunteered to accompany us, as he was acquainted with Mr Layard and his excavations. We rode out in grand style, six in our party. Crossing the floating bridge over the Tigris, we galloped across the plain and along the line of the ancient walls which are distinctly traceable to the mound of one of the palace gateways. Here we dismounted and descended into the trenches under ground. I was amused to find here one of the largest humanheaded winged bulls standing in its original site at the entrance of a temple. And near by was a full-length figure of a priest, holding in his hand the sacred cone in offering sacrifice to the deity before him. Both were cut in solid stone, and were of huge dimensions. On the opposite side stands another of similar size, to guard the porch of the temple. Then we walk in and examine the sides of the room. Slabs are inlaid, exceedingly interesting. We then walked to the exterior top of the mound, and traced the line of the ancient walls of the city seven miles in circuit. Yonder is the buried ruin of the temple palace of Koyunjuk, and beyond, the mound and tomb of the prophet Jonah, over which a splendid Moslem mosque is now erected, and a little Moslem village built around it, which has not been excavated underneath. Descending, we mounted our horses and galloped within the city walls. It is now a ploughed field; as the common houses were of sun-dried bricks, all was consumed, and crumbled to ruins. Then we came to the palace mound of Koyun
juk. This has been extensively excavated, and here the most valuable articles were found. We descend into the trenches, and come to the grand hall of the palace; here were splendid column pedestals, a finely wrought slab of pavement, and slabs. and remains of ancient art and skill extending far. Then we walked over the mound, saw various shafts and trenches, and at length descended and came to another temple-four huge bulls at the gateway; one of them at the side covered with cuneiform inscriptions, and in the hall slabs of battle and triumphal scenes, attacking a fortified town, casting up a mound, batteringrams, hurling stones; and another represents ancient Tyre, palm-trees, fish, a man carrying a banner, &c.; another represents a hill country, &c. Also we see the instruments of music played,-cymbals, tambourine, and harp. We could have wandered a whole day here. Next we rode to the village of Nebby Jonas. Ascend to the Mosque. The dignified old Moslem admits us to the Mosque. It is elegantly built in a dome style, and richly carpeted within. We walk to the tomb of the prophet underneath a small dome; here we look through a grated window, strung with many-coloured pilgrim rags. Then we ask to enter within to the tomb itself. After some
little hesitation, they light their long sacred candles, and unlock the heavy door. Solemnly they advance praying to Allah, and bow on the knee as we come in front of the tomb. It is richly carpeted with Persian carpet. We descended six steps and walked around the tomb. It is covered with rich green silk, and above a splendid gold cloth, given by the Pasha of Busru. Then we came into the court of the Mosque, and ascend the beautiful glazed brick minaret. The view was magnificent, in the clear
sunlight, of the ancient city; its walls and gateway, towers, temples-the winding Tigris stretching afar—the gardens opposite-the flocks and Arab tents, and the mountains of the Koordistan rising majestically behind—a scene of vivid interest I shall never forget. Then we descend, mount our horses and gallop over the plain and across the river to Mosul.
"Make a pleasant evening call upon the French consul, at his house-a good specimen of French politeness. Learn the news-political crisis coming on, and the prospect of another Congress at Paris.
"Have a beautiful moonlight view from the house-top of Mr Marsh. The pure and mellow light shedding over the scene. Venus just setting in the west, and Jupiter shining clear in the sky, like the views of moonlight scene from the house-top in Jerusalem. Talk late in the evening with Mr Marsh on various interesting matters.
"Call first upon our friend, the Pasha's defterdar, a Christian. He receives us in a most cordial manner, entertained us with narghile, sherbet, coffee, and preserves, &c., in Oriental style. Then he introduced his wife, a finelooking, tall woman, splendidly dressed in figured silk skirt, gold embroidered vest, golden necklace, and golden head-dress, inwrought with precious stones. Express our pleasure at seeing a native Christian lady in a social call at Mosul, far in the East.
We call our wives in America our better half, but Moslems degrade them. Thinks a Moslem would be killed by the people for becoming Christian, but not by the government. The authorities would execute the murderers. He