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rity, not over death and the grave, for that would be mere tautology, but over death and all those, who have passed into the unseen state. It is not used in this place, in a sense which is inconsistent with its having, for a primary and literal meaning, the mansion or world of the dead. "And I looked and behold a pale horse, and his name that sat on him was death: and hades followed with him." Death on a pale horse, is an emblem of a destructive pestilence. But it is not so easy, to determine the signification of hades. It probably means, that vast multitudes became victims of the disease, or were drawn down to the mansions of the dead. This is a sense, which suits the passage, and which renders it altogether unnecessary, to apply to hades a different meaning from that, which it ordinarily bears.

"And I saw the dead, small and great, stand before God: and the books were opened: and another book was opened, which is the book of life, and the dead were judged out of those things, which were written in the books, according to their works. And the sea gave up the dead, which were in it; and death and hades delivered up the dead, which were in them: and they were judged every,man accord

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ing to their works." This is an account of the last judgment. The dead all appeared before the tribunal of Christ. The sea and death and hades gave up the dead which were in them. This is a familiar mode of expressing a general resurrection. All who had suffered death from any cause whatever, appeared before the judgment seat," And they were judged every man according to their works. By this it is not determined, whether hades means the mansion of the dead, or simply the grave. is only affirmed, that there was a general resurrection of men, whether they had perish



ed in the sea or by disease, or in some other form But it is immediately added, that death and hades were cast into the lake of fire. This, it has been supposed means, that no death shall occur after the judgment day. Such an interpretation, however, poorly accords with the succeeding declaration,-"This is the second death." For if casting death and hades into the lake of fire only denotes, that those who had once been victims of them, shall never be again, there is no propriety in calling it the second death. Another interpretation is much better. Death is put for the authors of death, and hades, for the inhabitants

of tartarus, for Satan and all the enemies of Christ. The authors of death and the powers of darkness are thus represented as cast into the lake of fire. "This is the second death."*

All the passages in which hades occurs in the New Testament have now been noticed. In every instance it has reference, more or less direct, to the mansions of the dead. In cases where it is used figuratively, the force of the language depends upon this literal and primary sense. But in this examination, the most important paragraph in which it is found, requires more consideration. I refer to the parable of the rich man and Lazarus in the sixteenth chapter of Luke. had overheard a discourse in which Christ had taught his disciples the impossibility of serving God and mammon; and being covetous, they derided him. In illustration of what he had said he tells them,-" There was a certain rich man, which was clothed in purple and fine linen, and fared sumptuously every day: and there was a certain beggar named Lazarus which was laid at his gate,

The Pharisees

See Eichhorn on Revelations.

full of sores, and desiring to be fed with the crumbs which fell from the rich man's table:

And he cried,

moreover, the dogs came and licked his sores. And is came to pass, that the beggar died, and was carried by angels into Abraham's bosom. The rich man also died, and was buried: And in hell he lifted up his eyes, being in torments, and seeth Abraham afar off, and Lazarus in his bosom. and said, Father Abraham, have mercy on me and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue: for I am tormented in this flame." By this he teaches them, what is the consequence of relying upon riches. Men who serve wealth, or seek their supreme good in it, cannot serve God. The consequence is, that after death, they will be sent into a place of misery; while many of the poor, who were not under such a temptation, will be admitted to a happy life. Whether Dives and Lazarus are fictitious persons or not, is immaterial, in deciding the sense which the sacred writers have attached to hades. No hypercriticism has ever been able to explain this parable, so as to weaken the evidence which it affords in favor of future punishment, In accordance with this

undeniable example, hades may be translated the abode of the dead, except in a few passages where it is used figuratively, and in evident allusion to this sense. In confirmation

of this, I would refer to an additional source of evidence. The sacred writers employ, in the place of hades, a word which they considered precisely synonymous. In our version, it is rendered, the deep, the pit, the bottomless pit. It occurs in the tenth chapter of Romans. "But the righteousness which is of faith, speaketh on this wise: say not in thine heart, who shall ascend into heaven? that is, to bring Christ down from above: or, who shall descend into the deep? that is, to bring Christ up again from the dead?" When the Jews wished to describe any thing as above human power, they compared it with the impossibility of ascending into heaven, or of descending into the deep, the receptacle of the dead. The apostle declares, that no such impossibility attends salvation by faith. St. Luke also informs us, that a legion of devils besought Christ not to command them to go into the deep. The word occurs repeatedly in Revelations. "And the fifth angel sounded, and I saw a star fall from heaven unto the earth:

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