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Shepherds the first notable defeat; and we accordingly find him in the subsequent dynasty to the Shepherds. Next to him stands his son Themosis, who drove them out of the country. The Israelites came soon after, in the reign of Amenophis, who gave them a place of habitation. In conformity to this, we find that Amenophis comes in the list immediately after Themosis, or Tethmosis; all which is perfectly consonant to the history before given. This people resided in the country about two hundred and fifteen years, and departed in the reign of Amenophis, the father of Rameses 99 Sethon. We find that the eleventh king is Amenophis, and he is succeeded by Sethos; by which one might be induced to think that this was the person alluded to. But, upon due examination, we shall find, that this could not be the king mentioned, for he was not the father of the person who succeeded him. We

9) Τον ύιον Σεθων τον και Ραμεσσην απο Ραμψσως το πατρος (τε Αμένωφιος) ωνομασμενον. Josephus contra Ap. 1. 1. p. 460. Rhamesses seems to have reigned with his father. He is called Rhameses, and Rhamasis, and is undoubtedly the person alluded to by Clemens and others, under the name of Amasis; in whose time they suppose the Exodus to have been. See Strom. 1. 1. p. 378. Of Rhamasis they formed Amasis, which they changed" to Amosis, and thus raised the era of Moses to an unwarrantable height.

find, in Eusebius and Syncellus, that at Sethos Ægyptus a new dynasty commenced, which is: properly the third. Josephus takes no notice of this circumstance; yet he gives a true list of the first kings, who are

100 Sethon Ægyptus.
Rampses.
Amenophis.

Ramases Sethon.

The third of these is the Amenophis spoken of by Manethon, in whose reign the Israelites left Egypt; for he is the father of the Ramases, called Sethon. In respect to the numbers annexed to each king's name, they are so varied by different writers, that we cannot repose any confidence in them. I therefore set them quite aside; and only consider the numbers of the kings who reigned from Amenophis the first to Amenophis the father of Rhamases. I find them to amount to twelve inclusive. If then we allow twenty years to each king, the reigns will amount to two hundred and forty years. And as we do not know the year of the first Amenophis, in which the Israelites entered Egypt, nor the year of the latter king, in

* Sethon Ægyptus. Cont. Ap. 1. 1. c. 460.

which they departed; if we make proper allowance for this, the sum of the years will correspond very well with the sojourning of the people in that country, which was two hundred and fifteen years.

Manethon tells us, as I have observed before, that the Amenophis, in whose reign the Israelites left Egypt, preceded Rhamases Sethon. In his reign they were led off, under the 'conduct of Moses. It is to be observed that Manethon styles this king the father of Sethon. This is the reason why I do not think that the former Amenophis was the person spoken of. Sethon Ægyptus, who succeeded that Amenophis, was of another dynasty, consequently of another family, and could not be his son; for new dynasties commence with new families. This, I imagine, was the prince, who is alluded to in Scripture, where it is said that * there arose up a new king over Egypt, who knew not Joseph. He was not acquainted with the merits of Joseph, because he was the first king

'Manethon has confounded the history of Joseph and Moses, of which I have before taken notice. He allows that a person called Moses led off the Israelites, but supposes that this was a secondary name. Μετετέθη τένομα, και προσηγορεύθη Μωϋσης.

Ibid.

2 Exodus. c. 1. v. 8.

of a new dynasty, and of a different family from those who had been under such immediate obligations to the Patriarch. In the antient histories there is a distinction made between the Mizraïm and the Egyptians; and the former were looked upon as prior in time. Thus, in the Old Chronicle, the reigns of the kings are divided into three classes: the first of which is of the Auritæ ; the next of the Mizraim; and the third of the Egyptians. Here is a difference expressed between the two latter, and it may not be easy to determine wherein it consisted. Those so particularly styled Egyptians were probably of Lower 3 Egypt, and of a more mixed family than those Mizraïm, who were of the superior region, called Saït. Of these the Cunic, or Royal, Cycle consisted, and the supremacy was in their family for some generations. But a change of government ensued, and the chief rule came into the hands of the AyTIO, Egyptians, of whom Se

The region of Delta seems to be particularly denoted under the name of Egyptus. The words θαλασσα γαρ ην Αίγυπτος, relate only to Lower Egypt. In like manner Ayuttos dwęor të ποταμό, Αίγυπτος ποταμοχωστος, expressions used by Herodotus and Diodorus, have a like reference to the same part of the country, and to that only.

4Ο μεν Σέθωσις εκαλείτο Αίγυπτος. Josephus cont. Ap. 1. 1. P. 447.

thon, called Ægyptus, was the first monarch. This new dynasty was the third; but according to the common way of computation, it was reputed the nineteenth. Hence, in the Latin version of the Eusebian Chronicle, the author tells us very truly, Ægyptii per nonam decimam dynastiam suo imperatore uti cœperunt; quorum primus Sethos. We find that the genuine race of Egyptian monarchs did not commence before Sethon. He was of a different family from the former, and undoubtedly the person styled a new king; who was not acquainted with the merits of Joseph, and who unjustly enslaved the children of Israel. To him succeeded Rampses; and next after him came that Amenophis, in whose reign I have shewn that the Exodus happened under Moses.

I wish that I could proceed, and with any degreee of accuracy settle the dynasties downward; that the whole of the Egyptian chronology might be established. But as this is a work which will require much time, and more sagacity than I can pretend to, I shall leave it to be executed by others. I flatter myself, that it may one day be

Αίγυπτος δε ἡ χώρα εκλήθη απο το Βασιλέως Σεθως το γαρ Σεθώς, Φασιν, Αιγυπτος καλείται. Theophil. ad Autol. 1. 3. p. 392. "Euseb. Chron. Lat. p. 17.

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