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" left to keep guard at the ruins of Jerufalem. When Titus was re"turned to Cefarea by the fea-fide, Simon was brought bound before "him, who ordered him to be kept for the triumph at Rome.
"At Cefarea Titus folemnized the birth-day of his brother Dó"mitian, on the 24th day of October, in a fplendid manner, doing "honour to him in the punishment of the Jews. For the number "of those who were now flain, in fighting with beafts, or were "burnt to death, or fought with one another, exceeded two thou"fand and five hundred. Yet did all this feem to the Romans, though they were deftroyed ten thoufand ways, beneath their de"ferts. Afterwards Titus went to Berytus, a city in Phenicia, and Roman colony. There he ftayed a longer time, and exhibited a more pompous folemnity on his father's birth-day [Nov. 17]. "Here a great number of the captives were deftroyed in the like 66 manner as before.
"Having stayed fome while at Berytus, he fet forward to An"tioch, and, as he went, exhibited magnificent fhows in all the "cities of Syria, making use of the captives as public inftances of "the overthrow of the Jewish nation."
At & Antioch he was received with loud acclamations. Thence he went to Zeugma, which lies upon the Euphrates. Whither came to him meffengers from Vologefus, king of Parthia, who brought him a crown of gold, congratulating him upon his victory over the Jews, which he accepted. There he feafted the king's meffengers, and then returned to Antioch.
It does not appear, that Titus celebrated any fhows there. And when the people of that place requested him to expel the Jews out of their city, he refused to comply with them, and confirmed to them all the privileges which they had hitherto enjoyed there.
Having fent away the two before-mentioned legions, by which he had been attended, one to Myfia, the other to Pannonia; and having given orders for fending Simon and John, and seven hundred of the talleft and handfomeft of the captives, to appear in the triumph at Rome, he went to Alexandria, and thence to Rome. And paffing through Palestine, in his way to Egypt, he was much moved, as Jofephus fays, at the fight of the defolations of that country.
When ** Titus came near Rome, he was received with great rejoicings by the people, who came out to meet him, as alfo by his father Vefpafian. And though the fenate had decreed to them two feveral triumphs, they chofe to have but one. Jofephus has not informed us exactly concerning the time of it. And learned critics are now of different opinions. Some ++ place it near the end of the month of April, in 71. Others ‡‡ argue, that it must have been later.
"Many other fpoils," fays Jofephus, "were carried in great "abundance. But the most confiderable of all were those taken out of "the
+ Vid. Pagi ann. 70. n. iii. et Bafnag. ann. 70. n. xviii.
tt Vid. Pagi ann. 70. n. vi.
11 §.2, 3. Bafnag. 71. n. iii.
"the temple of Jerufalem. There was the golden table, of many "talents. And the candlestick, likewife of gold, with its feven
lamps, a number much refpected by the Jews. The laft of all "the fpoils was the law of the Jews. After which were carried "images of victory, made of gold, or ivory. After which came Vef"pafian firft, on horfeback, then Titus. Domitian alfo was there fplendidly attired, and riding upon a beautiful horse.
"The end of this pompous fhow was at the temple of Jupiter "Capitolinus. When they came thither, they ftood ftill. For it
was the ancient cuftom of the Romans to ftay, till word was "brought, that the general of the enemy was flain. This was Si"mon the fon of Gioras, who had been led in the triumph among "the captives. A rope was put about his neck, and he was led to a proper place in the Forum, where malefactors were put to death. "When tidings of his death were brought, all the people fet up the "fhout of joy. And facrifices were offered up, with the accustomed 66 prayers. The emperor then went to his palace, and feaftings 66 were made every where.
"And † now Vefpafian determined to build a temple of Peace, "which was finifhed in a fhort time, and in a fplendid manner. "Here he laid up thofe golden veffels and inftruments, that were "taken out of the Jewish temple, as enfigns of his glory. But their "law, and the purple veils of the holy place, he ordered to be depo"fited in his palace.
"That temple was adorned with paintings and statues. In it cr were collected and repofited all fuch curiofities as men are wont to wander all over the world to obtain a fight of."
The book of the law does not now appear in what is called the triumphal arch of Titus, though the table and the candlestick are very visible.
Jofephus, in his Life, fays, that when the city was taken, Titus gave him leave to afk what he pleased. One § of his requests was, to have the facred books, which were granted to him. Here, in the history of the war, he seems to say, they were depofited in the emperor's palace. Poffibly, they were placed there; but Jofephus was 'allowed to have the ufe of them when he defired it.
The temple of peace, according to the defcription which Jofephus has given of it, appears to have resembled our British Museum, and other like rich cabinets of princes in feveral parts of Europe.
The temple of peace was burnt down in the reign of Commodus. But it is likely, that many of the curiofities depofited in it were preferved from the flames. And the Jewish fpoils were in being in the fifth century, and afterwards, though not at Rome, as we learn from **Adrian Reland.
* § 6.
Ib. § 7.
* βιβλίων ἱερῶν ἔλαβον χαρισαμένε Τίτε. Vit. § 75.
Τὸν δὲ νόμον αυλῶν, προσέταξεν ἔν τοῖς βασιλείοις ἀποθεμένες φυλάττειν. L. 7. ς. ν. 5 7. **Imperante Commodo deflagravit hoc templum Pacis, tefte Herodiano, L. I. cap. 14. "fed cum eo non periifle fpolia Hierofolymitana certum eft, quoniam feculo quinto a "Chrifto nato ea in Africam delata funt, ut mox videbimus, &c." Reland. De fpoliis Templ. Hierof. cap. 13. p. 133.
We have seen the overthrow of the city and temple of Jerufalem. But there ftill remained fome ftrong places in Judea, not yet taken by the Romans. Of which Jofephus has given an account. And it is fit we fhould trace him to the end of his hiftory of the Jewish war. For, as our Lord faid, "Wherefoever the carcafe is, there "will the eagles be gathered together," Matt. xxiv. 28. And fee Luke xxiv. 37:
Lucilius Baffus was fent into Judea by Vefpafian as lieutenant, where he received a fufficient army from Cercalis Vitellianus. He foon took Herodian, and made the garrifon prifoners.
then determined to go to Macharus. By means of an accident, well improved, he became mafter of it, without much lofs on either fide.
"Having fettled affairs there, he marched haftily to the foreft "of Jardes; where, as he was informed, many were gathered together, who during the fiege had efcaped from Jerufalem and Ma"chærus. When they engaged, the battle was fierce and obftinate 65 on both fides. Neverthelefs of the Romans there were not more "than twelve killed, and not many wounded. But of the Jews not 68 one escaped out of the battle; but they were all killed, being not "fewer in number than three thousand, and with them their general, "Judas, the fon of Jaïrus, who had been captain of a band in the fiege of Jerufalem, and by getting through a vault under ground, "had privately escaped.
"About this time the emperor fent orders to Lucilius Baffus and "Liberius Maximus, that all Judea fhould be expofed to fale. For "he founded not any city there, but referved the country to himself. "However he affigned a place for eight hundred men, whom he dif "miffed from the army, which he gave them for their habitation. "It is called Ammaus, and is diftant from Jerufalem fixty furlongs. "He alfo laid a tribute upon the Jews wherever they were, requiring "that every one of them should bring two drachmas [half a fhekel] "every year to the capitol, the fame they had been used to pay to "the temple at Jerufalem."
Baffus having died in Judea, Flavius Silva was fent to fucceed. him in the government of that country; who foon made an expedition against Massada, the only remaining fortrefs. It was in the poffeffion of Eleazar, a commander of the Sicarii. He was a defcendant of Judas, who had perfuaded many of the Jews, as formerly related, not to fubmit to the affeffment of Cyrenius, when he came into Judea after the removal of Archelaus.
When ** there was no room left for escaping, Eleazar called together the principal perfons, and confulted with them what might be beft to be done. At which time he made an oration to them, to induce them to kill themselves, rather than to fall into the hands of the Romans.
That oration had great effect upon many. Some however there were, who hefitated. He therefore went on, and made another oration to the like purpose. All now were perfuaded.
"They then chose ten men of the number by lot, to flay all the "reft. When these ten men had without fear flain all the reft, men, "women, and children, as determined, they caft lots upon them"felves; and he who had the firft lot killed the other nine, and "then himself. These people fo died, with the intention that they might not leave fo much as one man among them to be fubject "to the Romans. However, there was one ancient woman, and "another woman, related to Eleazar, who exceeded moft women "in knowledge and prudence, and five children, who had hid them
felves in a cavern under ground. They had carried water with "them for their drink, and lay quiet there, whilft the reft were in"tent upon the flaughter of each other. The whole number of "these people, including the juft-mentioned women and children, was nine hundred and fixty. This flaughter was made on the "fifteenth day of the month of April, in the year 73, as may be "computed."
When the Romans entered the place the next morning, their furprife was very great, as may be well fuppofed.
Soon after this, fome turbulent Jews were the occafion of difturbances at Alexandria, where fix hundred were flain, and after that in Cyrene, where more than three thoufand fuffered. The difturbance there was occafioned by the impofture of Jonathan, a weaver, who perfuaded many people of the meaner fort to follow him into the wilderness, where he promised to fhew them figns and wonders.,, Moreover Vefpafian fent exprefs orders, that the Jewish temple of Onias, as it was called, built in the prefecture of Heliopolis in Egypt, fhould be demolished. Which was done in the year of Chrift 74, about two hundred and twenty-four years after it had been first built, as | Prideaux computes.
We before faw, what was the number of thofe who were computed to have perifhed in the fiege of Jerufalem. "But taking in alfo thofe who had fuffered in other places out of Jerufalem, thefe, added to the eleven hundred thoufand that perifhed in the fiege, "make the whole number thirteen hundred and thirty-feven "thoufand four hundred and ninety; an innumerable company "ftill being omitted, that perifhed through famine, banishment, "and other ** miferies." Which 1 think to be no aggravation at all.
Cap. x. & xi.
* Ib. § 7.
+ Cap. ix. 1, 2.
§ ἐκ ὀλίγες τῶν ἀπόρων ἐνέπεισε προσέχειν αυτῷ, καὶ προήγαγεν εἰς τὸν ἔρημον, σημεία και φασμαία
δείξειν ὑποσχόμενος. Cap. xi. § 1.
See his Connexion, &c. year before Chrift 149, p. 266. *** See Ufher's Annals, p. 907, in English, Lond. 1658.
REFLECTIONS UPON THE PRECEDING HISSTORY.
IX. Let us now reflect.
1. All these things have we feen in Jofephus, who, at the beginning of his works, fays: "I Jofephus fon of Matthias, by birth a "Hebrew of Jerufalem, and a Prieft, who myself at first fought against the Romans, and was afterwards forced to be present at "the things that were done, have writ this hiftory.'
The conclufion of the whole work, at the end of the seventh and laft book of the Jewish War, is to this effect. "Here † we put an "end to our history, which we promifed to deliver with all accuracy "to those who are defirous to know how this war of the Romans "with the Jews was managed. Concerning the ftyle, let the readers judge. Concerning the truth, I may boldly fay, that only has "been aimed at throughout the whole work."
Perhaps likewife it may not be amifs to obferve what he says of this work in his first book against Apion, writ long afterwards, near the period of his life.
"As for myself, I have compofed a true hiftory of that war, and "of all the particulars that occurred therein: as having been "concerned in all its tranfactions. For I acted as General among "thofe among us who are called Galileans, as long as it was pof"fible for us to make any oppofition. And when I was taken cap❝tive by the Romans, Vefpafian and Titus had me kept under a "guard; but obliged me to attend them continually. At first I was "in bonds, afterwards I was fet at liberty, and was fent to accom"pany Titus, when he came from Alexandria to the fiege of Jerufalem. During which time, nothing was done which efcaped my "knowledge. What happened in the Roman camp I faw, and "wrote it down carefully. What information the deferters brought "out of the city, I was the only man that understood it. After"wards I got leifure at Rome. And when all my materials were "prepared, I procured the help of one to affift me in writing Greek. "Thus I compofed the hiftory of those transactions. And I was fo "well affured of the truth of what I related, that I firft appealed to "thofe who had the fupreme command in that war, Vefpafian and "Titus, as witneffes for me. For to them I first prefented thofe "books, and after them to many of the Romans, who had been in "the war. I alfo communicated them to many of our own men who "understood the Greek philofophy: among whom were Julius Ar"chelaus, and Herod, a perfon of great gravity, and King Agrippa "himself, who deferved the greateft admiration. All these bore tef"timony to me, that I had the ftricteft regard to truth; who would "not have diffembled the matter, nor have been filent, if through "ignorance, or out of favour to either fide, I had altered, or omitted "any thing."
* De B. Jud. in Pr. § 1.
† L. 7. cap. xi. § 5.
Contr. Ap. 1. i. § 9.