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2. Here is further to be considered the design and end of this act upon their understandings, "That they might understand the Scriptures:" where let it be marked, reader, that the teachings of Christ and his Spirit were never designed to take men off from reading, and studying, and searching the Scriptures, as some have vainly pretended. God never intended to abolish his word by giving his Spirit; and they are true fanatics (as Calvin upon this place calls them) that think or pretend so. Hence we observe,

The opening of the mind and heart, effectually to receive the truths of God, is the peculiar prerogative and of. fice of Jesus Christ.

One of the great miseries under which fallen nature labors, is spiritual blindness. Jesus Christ brings that eye-salve which only can cure it. "I counsel thee to buy of me eye-salve, that thou mayest see." Rev. 3 18. Those to whom the Spirit hath applied it, can say, as 1 John, 5 : 20, "We know that the Son of God is come, and hath given us an understanding that we may know him that is true; and we are in him that is true, even in his Son Jesus Christ: this is the true God and eternal life."

"For the spiritual illumination of a soul, it is not sufficient (says Reynolds) that the object be revealed, nor yet that man, the subject of this knowledge, have a due use of his own reason; but it is further necessary that the grace and special assistance of the Holy Spirit be superadded, to open and mollify the heart, and so give it a due taste and relish of the sweetness of spiritual truth."

In explaining this part of Christ's prophetical office, I shall, as in the former, show what is included in the opening of their understanding, and by what acts Christ performs it.

I. What is included in this act of Christ?

1. It implies the transcendant nature of spiritual things, far exceeding the highest flight and reach of natural reason. Jesus Christ must, by his Spirit, open the understandings of men, or they can never comprehend such mysteries. Some men have strong natural parts, and by improvement of them are become eagleeyed in the mysteries of nature. Who more acute than the heathen sages? Yet, to them, the Gospel seemed foolishness. 1 Cor. 1 18. Austin confesses, that before his conversion he often felt his spirit swell with offence and contempt of the Gospel; and despising it, said, Dedignabar esse parvulus; "I scorned to become a child again." Bradwardine professes, that when he read Paul's Epistles he contemned them, because he found not in them metaphysical subtleties. Surely it is possible a man may, with Berengarius, be able to dispute on every point of knowledge; to unravel nature, "from the cedar in Lebanon to the hyssop on the wall," and yet be blind in the knowledge of Christ. Yes, it is possible a man's understanding may be improved by the Gospel to a great ability in the literal knowledge of it, so as to be able to expound the Scriptures correctly, and enlighten others by them, as we find, Matt. 7: 22, that the scribes and pharisees were well acquainted with the Scriptures of the Old Testament; and yet, notwithstanding, Christ truly calls them "blind guides." Matt. 23 16. Till Christ open the heart, we can know nothing of him, or of his will, as we ought to know it. So experimentally true is it, that "the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness to him; neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. But he that is spiritual, judgeth all things; yet he himself is judged of no man." 1 Cor. 2: 14, 15. The spiritual man can judge and discern the carnal man, but the carnal man wants a faculty to judge of the spiritual man: as a man that

carries a dark lantern can see another by its light, but the other cannot discern him. Such is the difference between persons whose hearts Christ hath or hath not opened.

2. Christ's opening the understanding, implies the insufficiency of all external means, how excellent soever they are in themselves, to operate savingly upon men, till Christ by his power opens the soul, and so makes them effectual. What excellent preachers were Isaiah and Jeremiah to the Jews! The former spake of Christ more like an evangelist of the New than a prophet of the Old Testament: the latter was a most convincing and pathetical preacher: yet the one complains, "Who hath believed our report? and to whom is the arm of the Lord revealed ?" Isa. 53: 1. The other laments the ill success of his ministry: "The bellows are burnt, the lead is consumed of the fire, the founder melteth in vain." Jer. 6: 29. Under the New Testament, what people ever enjoyed such choice helps and means as those that lived under the ministry of Christ and the apostles? Yet how many remained still in darkness! We have piped to you, but ye have not danced; we have mourned unto you, but ye have not lamented." Matt. 11 17. Neither the delightful airs of mercy, nor the doleful tones of judgment, could affect or move their hearts.

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And indeed if you search into the reason of it, you will be satisfied that the choicest of means can do nothing upon the heart, until Christ by his Spirit open it, because ordinances work not as natural causes do: for then the effect would always follow unless miraculously hindered; and it would be as wonderful that all who hear should not be converted, as that the three children should be in the fiery furnace so long, and yet not be burned: no, it works not as a natural, but as a moral cause, whose efficacy depends on the gracious concur

rence of the Spirit. "The wind bloweth where it listeth." John, 3: 8. The ordinances are like the pool of Bethesda. John, 5: 4. At a certain time an angel came down and troubled the waters, and then they had a healing virtue in them. So the Spirit comes down at certain times in the word, and opens the heart; and then it becomes the power of God to salvation. So that when you see souls daily sitting under excellent means of grace, and still remaining dead, you may say as Martha did to Christ of her brother Lazarus, " Lord, if thou hadst been here," they had not remained dead. If thou hadst been in this sermon, it had not been so ineffectual to them.

3. It implies the utter impotency of man, unaided, to open his own heart, and thereby make the word effectual to his own conversion and salvation. He that at first said, "Let there be light-and it was so," must shine into our hearts, or they will never be savingly enlightened, 2 Cor. 4: 4, 6. Fallen man, so far from opening his own heart, without aid from on high, cannot know the things of the Spirit, 1 Cor. 2: 14, believe, John, 6: 44, obey, Rom. 8: 7, do a good act, John, 15:5, speak a good word, Matt. 12:34, or think a good thought, 2 Cor. 3:5. Hence, conversion is in Scripture called regeneration, John, 3:3, a resurrection from the dead, Eph. 2: 5, a creation, Eph. 2:10, a victory, 2 Cor. 10:5.

4. Christ's opening the understanding imports his Divine power, whereby he is able to subdue all things to himself. Who but God knows the heart? Who but God can unlock and open it at pleasure? No mere creature, no, not the angels themselves can command or open the heart. We may stand and knock at men's hearts till our own ache, but no opening till Christ come. He can fit a key to all the cross wards of the will, and with sweet efficacy open it, and that without any force or violence to it.

II. In the next place, let us see by what acts Jesus Christ performs this work, and what way and method he takes to open the hearts of sinners.

1. He does so by his word: to this end was Paul commissioned and sent to preach the Gospel, "To open their eyes, and to turn them from darkness to light, and from the power of Satan unto God." Acts, 26: 18. The Lord can, if he pleases, accomplish this immediately; but though he can do it, he will not do it ordinarily without means, because he will honor his own institutions. You may observe, that when Lydia's heart was to be opened, there appeared unto Paul a man of Macedonia, who prayed him, saying, Come over into Macedonia, and help us." Acts, 16:9. God will keep up his ordinances among men; and though he hath not bound himself, yet he hath bound us to them. Cornelius must send for Peter. God can make the earth produce corn, as it did at first, without cultivation and labor; but he that shall now expect it in the neglect of means, may perish for want of bread.

2. But the ordinances in themselves cannot do it; and therefore Jesus Christ hath sent forth the Spirit, who is his vicegerent, to carry on this work in the hearts of his people. And when the Spirit comes down upon men in the administration of the ordinances, he effectually opens the heart to receive the Lord Jesus, by the hearing of faith. He breaks in upon the understanding and conscience by powerful convictions and compunctions; as those words, John, 16: 8, import, "He shall convince the world of sin" convince by clear demonstration, such as enforces assent, so that the soul cannot but yield it to be so; and yet the door of the heart is not opened till he has also put forth his power upon the will, and, by a sweet and secret efficacy, overcome all its reluctance, and the soul is made willing in the day of his power. When this is done, the heart is opened; saving light now shines in it; and the Spirit in the soul is,

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