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4. Between Mafter and Servant.


S we are many Members, fays St Paul, in one Body, and all Members have not the fame Office, but fome are defigned for nobler, and others for meaner Ufes, and yet all confpire towards the Prefervation, and more commodious Support of the whole; fo God hath ordained, that, in the civil or political Body, there fhould be fuch a Diverfity of States and Conditions, that, each supplying the Neceffities of the other, there might, as the Apostle speaks, be no Schifm in the Body, but that the Members might have the fame Care one for another. This is the true Reafon, according to God's own Appointment, of the different Conditions of Mafters and Servants: And, to give the former Precedence in this Matter, we fhall, I. Confider what in Juftice is required of them: And then, II. What in Return may reasonably be expected from the latter.


1. St Paul, treating of the Relations, wherein we ftand towards one another, has comprised the whole Duty of Mafters to their Servants in this fhort Sentence; Mafters, give unto your Servants that which is just and equal, knowing, that ye alfo have a Master in Heaven; for, though just and equal Terms be of near Affinity, yet may they be confidered, as having a different Signification, and fo to give that, which is just to a Servant, is to deal with him according to the Contract and Agreement that is between us; to give him what we have actually covenanted for, and what, in Point of Law, he may demand: But to give him what is equal, is to deal fairly, honeftly, and kindly with him; and to give him what is his Due in Reason and Confcience, although we have not formally contracted with him. So that there is this Diftinction

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tion to be made between Juftice and Equity, that Juftice makes our Contracts, and Equity our ConSciences the Measures of our Dealings with others. And accordingly,

1. In Point of Justice, every Mafter is obliged to ftand to his Agreement, and give his Servants what they have contracted for, whether it be Instruction or Wages. Inftruction is the Thing, for which Apprentices chiefly contract; for which they give their Money, their Time, and Labour; and therefore, (whether it be through Defign or Negligence) to conceal from them that Skill, which properly belongs to them, and not to let them into that full Knowledge of their Bufinefs, according to the Measure of their Understanding and Capacity, is a Piece of great Injustice, and the Master, who does this, not only breaks his Covenant, and falfifies his Truft, but deceives his Servant of what he expected, and defrauds him of the Time and Money, that he pledged in his Hand for that Purpofe, Wages are Things, for which common La"bourers and menial Servants do contract, and for which they pay down their Time and Labour; and therefore a Mafter may as well agree for Goods with any Cuftomer, receive the Price before-hand, and yet retain the Goods withal, as take his Servant's Time and Labour firft, and then either deny, or retard, or curtail the Payment of his appointed Wages. 'Tis a wife Provifion therefore, which the Jewish Law has made: Thou shalt not opprefs an hired Servant, that is poor and needy, whether he be of thy Brethren, or of thy Strangers, that are in the Land, within thy Gates. At his Day thou shalt give him his Hire, neither fhall the Sun go down upon it; for he is poor, and fetteth his Heart upon it; left he cry against thee to the Lord, and it be Sin unto thee: For bebold, fays St James, the Hire of the Labourers, who have reaped down your Fields, which is of you kept back by


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Fraud, crieth, and their Cries have entered into the Ears of the Lord of Sabbaoth; who has himself exprefsly threatened, that he will be a fwift Witness against thofe that use their Neighbour's Service for nought, and opprefs the Hireling in his Wages.

2. In Point of Equity, every Mafter is obliged to deal fairly, honeftly, and kindly with his Servants; and to give them that which is their Due in Reason and Confcience, although they have not formally contracted for it: And to this Purpose he is to treat them with Humanity and Good-nature, in order to make their Lives as eafy as he can, confiftently with the Performance of their Duty. All arbitrary and tyrannical Power over them he is to disclaim, and never put them upon any Hardships but what are agreeable to the Conditions of their Service. All his Commands must be mercifully fitted to their Strength and Capacity; all his Reproofs expreffed without Rage or Paffion, without Contumely or Infult; all his Corrections (if there be Neceffity for any) inflicted with Tenderness and Compaffion; and, though he has a Right to their whole Time and Labour, yet must not the Tasks he fets them be fo immoderate as to allow them no competent Space for Reft and Intermiffion, for Attendance on God's Worship, and, at fome proper Seasons, for innocent Sports and Recreation; that they may, for that Time, forget the Infelicity of their low Condition, and return to their Labour with more Alacrity.

Add to this, that he is to give them good Advice; fet them a good Example; afford them Opportunities of ferving God; inftruct them in the Rules of Honesty and Juftice, Truth and Faithfulness; excite them to Industry and Carefulness, and encourage their Diligence fometimes with an uncovenanted Reward. Nor muft this be his Conduct to them in their Health only; but even in their Sickness he is to take Care that they want no


thing that is fitting for their Condition, and in their Old-age, that fome competent Provifion be made for their comfortable Support: For I can hardly think, in Point of Equity, that long and faithful Services, especially in great and opulent Families, ought to be put off with the bare Payment of fipulated Wages, and not fome additional Bounty bestowed, that may contribute to the Ease of an aged Servant, and to bring his grey Hairs with Quiet to the Grave.

These are some of the chief Duties which every Master owes to his Servants: And, in order to engage the Performance of them, let him confider, that he is Master of a Man of the fame Kind with himself, who has thereupon a Right to be treated with Humanity; which, if he does not, he is no better than a Tyrant: That he is Master of a Man of the fame Civil Society, and has therefore a Right to Equity and Juftice; which, if he does him not, he is an Oppreffor: That he is Mafter of a Man, who is of the fame Religion, and has thereupon a Right to be treated religiously; which, if he neglects to do, he hath denied the Faith, and is worse than an Infidel: And, laftly, that he is Mafter of a Man who is his Fellow-Servant; for they have both one common Majter in Heaven, with whom there is no Refpect of Perfons; to whom the Bond and Free are both alike; to whom the meanest Servant is as dear as the most honourable Mafter; by whom all fhall be judged alike, and with the fame Impartiality; and by whom the unjuft and cruel Master, no less than the falfe and difobedient Servant, fhall be punished with the utmost Severity. Wherefore remember, that thou haft a Master in Heaven, who, while he was on Earth, took on him the Form of a Servant, not only to give us an Example of his great Humility and Condefcenfion, but to fanctify all Conditions, and to fhew the World that God


looks not with Man's Eyes; that he regards not Birth and Fortune, Quality and Title; but that the meanest People in the World are acceptable to him, if they obey his Laws and do his Will: That it is Virtue and Religion only which recommend Men to his Favour, of which the pooreft Servants in the World are full as capable as the most rich and mighty Masters: And, therefore, as he has made them Partakers of the fame Grace here, and capable of the fame Glory hereafter, so he commands them to treat them with all the Mercy and Humanity that their Condition requires; and therefore, If thy Brother, that dwelleth by thee, be waxen poor, thou shalt not rule over him with Rigour, but fhalt fear thy God.

II. The fame Apostle that acquaints Masters with their Duty, is very exact and copious, in what, on the other Hand, is required of Servants. Let as many Servants, says he, as are under the Yoke, count their own Mafters worthy of all Honour, that the Name of God and his Doctrine be not blafphemed ; and let them be obedient to their Mafters, and please them well in all Things, not answering again; neither with Eye-fervice, as Men-pleafers, but in Singleness of Heart, fearing God, and as the Servants of Christ, doing every Thing heartily, as unto the Lord, and not unto Men: And this they must do, not only for the Good and Gentle, but also for the Froward; because this is Praife-worthy, if a Man, for Confcience toward God, endure Grief, fuffering wrongfully. From whence it appears, that Honour and Reverence to their Master's Perfon, expreffed by all the external Signs of Words and Actions; Obedience to all his lawful Commands, without difputing; Submission to his juft Reproofs and Corrections, without murmuring; Faithfulness in Truft, without purloining or embezzling; Diligence in Bufinefs, without loitering or eye-ferving; a cautious Fear of offend



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