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545. 544.

A. C. the Romans: almost all Italy abandons them; and the A. R last resource of the republic seems cut off in Spain with the two Scipio's. In such extremities Rome ow ed its preservation to three great men. The constancy of Fabius Maximus, who despising popular clamours, made war by way of retreat, was a bulwark to his country. Marcellus, who raised the siege of Nola, 212 and took Syracuse, inspired the troops with new vig. 542 our, by those actions. But Rome, though she admired these two great men, thought she saw somewhat still greater in the young Scipio. The wonderful success of his counsels, confirmed the entertained opinion, that he was of race divine, and that he conversed 210. with the gods. At the age of four and twenty, he undertakes to go into Spain, where his father and uncle had just before lost their lives: he attacks New-Carthage, as if he had acted by inspiration, and his soldiers carry it at the first assault. All that see him are won'over to the Roman people: the Carthaginians give up Spain to him: upon his arrival in Afric, kings submit 205. to him: Carthage trembles in her turn, and sees her 551. arinies defeated. Hannibal, sixteen years victorious, is in vain called home, and cannot defend his country: Scipio gives law to it; the name of Africanus is his reward. The Roman people having bumbled the Gauls and Africans, see nothing more to fear, and henceforth make war with hazard.






In the middle of the first Punic war, Theodotus, governor of Bactria, withdrew a thousand cities from 504. the obedience of Antiochus, surnamed Theus, son of Antiochus Soter king of Syria. Almost all the East followed this example. The Parthians revolted under the conduct of Arsaces, chief of the house of the Arsacidæ, and founder of an empire, which extended by degrees over all the upper Asia.

The kings of Syria and Egypt, bloodily set against each other, meditated nothing but mutual destruction, either by force or fraud. Damascus and its territory, called Celo-Syria, which was frontier to both king

A. c. doms, was the subject of their quarrels, and the affairs A. R. of Asia were entirely distinct from those of Europe.

'During all these times philosophy flourished in Greece. The Italic and Ionic sects stored it with great men, among whom crept in a number of extravagants, whom, however, Greece, fond of novelty, honoured with the name of Philosophers. In the time of Cyrus and Cambyses, Pythagoras commenced the Italic sect in great Greece, in the neighbourhood of Naples. Much about the same time Thales the Milesian formed the Ionic sect. Thence sprung those great philosophers, Heraclitus, Democritus, Empedocles, Parmenides; Anaxagoras, who a little before the Peloponnesian war, demonstrated the world framed by an eternal spirit; Socrates, who a little after brought back philosophy to the study of good manners, and was the parent of moral philosophy; Plato his disciple, head of the academy; Aristotle, Flato's scholar, and preceptor to Alexander, chief of the Peripatetics; under Alexander's successors, Zeno, called the Cittian, from a town in the isle of Cyprus, where he was born, chief of the Stoics; and Epicurus the Athenian, head of the philosophers named after him : if, indeed, we may stile those men philosophers who openly denied a providence, and quite ignorant of moral duty, defined virtue by pleasure. We may reckon among the greatest philosophers Hippocrates, the father of physic, who shone amidst the rest in those happy days of Greece. The Romans had at the same time another kind of philosophy, which did by no means consist in disputations, and discourses; but in frugality, in poverty, in the labours of a ru al life, and in the toils of war, they placing their glory in that of their country, and of the Roman name: which at IX. E-length rendered them masters of Italy and Carthage. Scipio, IN the 552d year from the foundation of Rome, about conquest250 years after the Persian monarchy, and 202 before of Car Jesus Christ, Carthage was subjected to the Romans. 202. Hannibal, however, continued to raise them up ene--5524




A. c. mies under-hand, wherever he could




but he did on- A. ly draw all his friends, both old and new, into the ruin of his country and his own. By the victories of the 198 consul Flaminius, Philip king of Macedon, an ally of 55 the Carthaginians, was humbled, the other kings of Macedon brought low, and Greece freed from their yoke. The Romans attempted to procure the death of Hannibal, whom they found still formidable, even 195. after his overthrow. That great captain, forced to fly 55 his country, stirred up the East against them, and drew their arms into Asia. Through his powerful persuasions, Antiochus, surnamed Magnus, king of Syria, be- 561. came jealous of their power, and made war upon them but in carrying it on he did not follow the counsels of Hannibal, who had engaged him in it. Beat by sea and land, he received the terms imposed on him by the consul Lucius Scipio, brother of Sci182. pio Africanus, and was confined to mount Taurus. 572. Hannibal having fled for refuge to Prusias king of Bithynia, escaped the hands of the Romans by poison. They were now dreaded all over the earth, and will no longer suffer any other power but theirs. Kings were obliged to give them their children as bostages of their fidelity. Antiochus, afterwards called Illustris, or Epiphanes, second son of Antiochus Magnus, king of Syria, remained a long time at Rome in that quality but about the end of the reign of Se178. leucus Philopator, bis elder brother, he was restored; 578 and the Romans would have in his stead, Demetrius 175. Soter the king's son, then ten years of age. In this 579. critical juncture Seleucus died; and Antiochus usurped the kingdom of his nephew. The Romans were intent upon the affairs of Macedon, where Perseus was disturbing his neighbours, and would no longer stand to the conditions imposed on his father 178 king Philip. Then begun the persecutions of the peo- 591, ple of God. Antiochus Illustris reigned like a madman he bent all his fury against the Jews, and attempted to destroy the temple, the law of Moses, and



a. c. the whole nation. The authority of the Romans A. R. 171. kept him from making himself master of Egypt. They made war upon Perseus, who being readier to undertake than to execute, lost his allies by his covet169. ousness, and his armies by his cowardice.




Van- 580



quished by the consul Paulus Æmilius, he was forced to surrender himself into his bands. Gentius king of Illyria his ally, reduced in thirty days by the Pretor Anicius, had just met with a like fate. The kingdom of Macedon, which had stood seven hundred years, and had near two hundred given masters, not only to Greece, but even to the whole East, was now no more than a Roman province. The fury of Antiochus increased against God's people. Then do we see, the noble stand made by Mattathias the priest, of the race 167. of Phinehas and imitator of his zeal; the injunctions he gives on his death-bed for the safety of his people; the victories of Judas Maccabeus his son, notwithstanding the infinite number of his enemies; the rise of the family of the Asmoneans, or Maccabees; the new dedication of the temple, which the Gentiles had 589. profaned, the pontificate of Judas, and the glory of the priesthood restored; the death of Antiochus befitting his impiety and pride; he feigned conversion during his last illness, and the unappeased wrath of God upon the haughty king. His son Antiochus Eupator, yet a minor, succeeded him, under the guardianship of Lysias his governor. During this minority, Demetrius Soter, who was at Rome as an bostage, thought he might get himself restored; but he could not prevail with the senate to send him back into his 163. kingdom: the Roman policy chose rather an infant 591. king. Under Antiochus Eupator the persecution of 162. God's people, and the victories of Judas Maccabeus 592continue. Division takes place in the kingdom of Syria. Demetrius makes his escape from Rome; his people acknowledge him; the young Antiochus is put to death with Lysias his tutor. But the Jews are no better treated under Demetrius, than they were un


A. C. der his predecessors; and he meets with the same A. R fortune; his generals are beat by Judas Maccabeus; and the band of the haughty Nicanor, which he had so often stretched out against the temple, is bung up be161. fore it. But not long after, Judas, overpowered by 599, numbers, was slain fighting with astonishing bravery. His brother Jonathan succeeds to his command, and supports his reputation. Though reduced to extremity, his courage never failed him. The Romans, fond to humble the kings of Syria, granted the Jews their protection, as also the alliance which Judas had sent to request of them, yet without any succours : however, the glory of the Roman name proved no small support to the distressed people. The troubles of Syria 600 increased daily. Alexander Balas, who boasted himself the son of Antiochus Illustris, was placed upon the throne by the people of Antioch. The kings of Egypt, perpetual foes to Syria, fomented its divisions, in order to profit by them. Ptolemy Philometor sup150. ported Balas; the war was bloody; Demetrius So- 60% ter was killed in it, and left to revenge his death, only two young princes, yet under age, Demetrius Nicator, and Antiochus Sidetes. Thus the usurper remained in peaceable possession, and the king of Egypt gave him his daughter Cleopatra in marriage. Balas, now fancying himself beyond all danger, plunged into de150. bauchery, and drew upon himself the contempt of all 2. his subjects. At this time Philometor judged the famous process, which the Samaritans raised against the Jews. Those schismatics, ever set against the people of God, never failed to join their enemies; and in order to please Antiochus Illustris their persecutor, 167. had dedicated their temple on mount Gerizim to Jupi- 587. ter Hospitalis. Notwithstanding this profanation, those impious wretches had the boldness, sometime after, to maintain, before Ptolemy Philometer at Alexandria, That this temple ought to be preferred to that of Jerusalem. The parties debated it before the king, and

2 Mac.


Jos. Ar

? xii.

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