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they thought themselves in some measure instructed by him, to avoid the arguments of the Christians from hence, by his application of the whole to Josiah: and I must needs say he hath put as good, yea, a far better colour of probability upon his interpretation, than he with whom I have to do, hath done on his.

How ungrateful then, and how unacceptable to all professors of the name of Jesus Christ, must the labours of Grotius needs be; who hath to the utmost of his power reached out his hand to relieve the poor blind creatures from their rack and torture, by applying (though successlessly) this whole prophecy of Jeremiah, casting himself into the same entanglements with them, not yielding them indeed the least relief, is easily to conjecture. And this is not a little aggravated, in that the Socinians who are no less racked and tortured with this Scripture than the Jews, durst never yet attempt to accommodate the things here spoken of to any other; though they have expressed a desire of so doing; and which if they could compass, they would free themselves from the sharpest sword that lies at the throat of their cause; seeing, if it is certain, that the things here mentioned may be applied to any other, the satisfaction of Christ cannot from them be confirmed. This digression then, is to cast into the fire that broken crutch, which this learned man hath lent unto the Jews and Socinians to lean upon, and keep themselves from sinking under their unbelief.

To discover the rise of that learned man's opinion, that Jeremiah is intended in this prophecy, the conceits of the Jewish Doctors may a little be considered, who are divided amongst themselves; the ancient doctors generally conclude, that it is the Messiah, who is here intended, 'behold my servant the Messiah shall prosper,' says the Chaldee Paraphrast upon the place. And Constantius l'Empereur tells from R. Simeon, in his book Salkout, that the ancient Rabbins, in their ancient book Tancluma, and higher, were of the same judgment. Rabbi Moses Alscheth is urged to the same purpose at large by Hulsius. And in his comment on

d Porro libri istius, unde hæc sectio in Esaiam desumpta est, Author perhibetur D. Simeon, concionatorum princeps, qui Francofurti olim degebat. Hic e Judæorum vetustissimis Scriptis, secundum bibliorum seriem, dicta et explicationes plurimas: magna diligentia et labore collegit: unde libre suo nomen ac si peram dicas: quia ut in pera reconduntur plurima: l'Emper.


this place he says expressly, Ecce doctores nostri laudatæ memoriæ uno ore statuunt, et a majoribus acceperunt, de rege Messia sermonem esse, et doctorum L. M. vestigiis insistemus.' And one passage in him is very admirable, in the same place, saith he; Dicunt Doctores nostri L, M. omnium afflictionum quæ mundum ingressæ sunt, tertia pars Davidi et patriarchis obtigit: tertia altera seculo excisionis, ultima tertia pars regi Messiæ incumbet.' Where he urgeth the common consent of their doctors for the sufferings of the Messiah. Of the same mind was R. Solomon, as he is cited by Petrus Galatinus, lib. 8. cap. 14. As the same is affirmed by the Misdrach Resh. cap. 2. 14. And in Beresheth Rabba on Gen. xxiv. as is observed by Raimundus Martin. Pug. fidei 3. p. Dist. 1. cap. 10. So that before these men grew impudent and crafty in corrupting and perverting the testimonies of the Old Testament, concerning the Messiah, they generally granted him, and only him, to be here intended. It was not for want of company then, that Grotius took in with the modern Rabbins, who being mad with envy and malice care not what they say, so they may oppose Jesus Christ.

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2. Many of the following Jewish doctors interpret this place of the whole people of the Jews. And this way go the men, who are of the greatest note amongst them in these latter days; as R. D. Kimchi, Aben Ezra, Abarbiniel, Lipman, with what weak and mean pretences, with what inconsistency as to the words of the text, hath been by others manifested.

3. Abrabinel, or Abrabaniel, a man of great note and honour amongst them, though he assents to the former exposition of applying the whole prophecy to the people of the Jews, and interprets the words at large accordingly, which exposition is confuted by Constantine l'Empereur, yet he inclines to a singular opinion of his own, that Josiah is the man pointed at, and described: but he is the first and last, that abides by that interpretation.

4. Grotius interprets the words of Jeremiah in the first place; not denying them (as we shall see) to have an accommodation to Christ. In this he hath the company of one Rabbi; R. Saadias Gaon, mentioned by Aben Ezra upon the 52d chap. of this prophecy, ver. 13. But this fancy of

Saadias is fully confuted by Abarbinel: which words because they sufficiently evert the whole design of Grotius also, I shall transcribe as they lie in the translation of 'Hulsius. Revera ne unum quidem versiculum video, qui de Jeremiah exponi possit: qua ratione de eo dicetur, Extolletur et altus erit valde? Item illud, propter eum obdent reges os suum, nam ætas illa prophetas habere consueverat. Quomodo etiam dici potest morbos nostros portasse, et dolores nostros bajulasse, et in tumice ejus curationem nobis esse, Deum in ipsum incurrere fecisse peccata omnium nostrum: quasi ipsi pœna incubuisset, et Israel fuisset immunis. Jam illud, propter peccatum populi mei plaga ipsis, item, dedit cum improbis sepulcrum ejus, ad ipsum referri nequit; multo minus illud, videbit semen, prolongabit dies, item, cum robustis partietur spolium. In quibus omnibus nihil est quod de ipso commode affirmari possit. Unde vehementer miror, quomodo R. Hagaon in hanc sententiam perduci potuerit, et sapientes dari qui hanc expositionem laudant: cum tamen tota ista exponendi ratio plane aliena sit, et e Scriptura non facta.'

Now certainly if this Jew thought he had sufficient cause to admire, that the blind Rabbi should thus wrest the sense of the Holy Ghost, and that any wise man should be so fool. ish as to commend it: we cannot but be excused, in admiring that any man professing himself a Christian, should insist in his steps, and that any should commend him for so doing.

That, therefore, which here is affirmed, in the entrance of his discourse by Abarbinel, namely, that not one verse can, or may, be expounded of Jeremiah, shall now particularly be made good against Grotius.

1. He confesseth with us, that the head of this prophecy and discourse is in ver. 13. chap. 52. The words of that

verse are,

'Behold my servant shall deal prudently: he shall be exalted and extolled, and be very high.'

Of the sense of which words, thus he:

Ecce intelliget servus meus] Hæc omnia clarissime revelata cognoscet Jeremiah. Exaltabitur et elevabitur et sublimis erit valde.] In magno honore erit apud ipsos Chaldæos, Jerem. 39. chap. v. 40. My servant Jeremiah shall

have all these things clearly revealed to him, and he shall be in great honour with the Chaldeans.' So he,

First, for the words themselves: " with the Vulgar Latin, he renders 'intelliget,' shall 'understand.' The word signifies rather 'prudence' for action with success, than any speculative knowledge by revelation; 1 Sam. xviii. 30. it is used of David behaving himself wisely in the business of his military and civil employment. Its opposite, saith Pagnin, is (quod incogitantiam significat in rebus agendis et ignavam levitatem') which signifies incogitancy in the management of affairs, and idle lightness.' Whence the word is usually taken for to prosper' in affairs, as it is used of our Saviour, Jerem. xxiii. 5. a king shall reign' >>wm) and 'prosper.' Nor can it be otherwise used here, considering the connexion of the words wherein it stands: it being the precedent to his being highly exalted' who is spoken of; which rather follows his dealing prudently,' than his ‘receiving revelations.' So that in the very entrance there is a mistake in the sense of the word, and that mistake lies at the bottom of the whole interpretation.

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2. I deny that God speaks any where in the Scripture of any one besides Jesus Christ in this phrase, without any addition, my servant;' as here, Behold my servant.' So he speaks of Christ, chap. xlii. 1. 19. and other places; but not of any other person whatever. It is an expression κar' ox, and not to be applied to any, but to him, who was the great servant of the Father, in the work of mediation.

3. Even in respect of revelations, there is no ground why those made to Jeremiah, should be spoken of so emphatically, and by way of eminence above others; seeing he came short of the prophet, by whom these words are written. Nor can any instance be given of such a prediction used concerning any prophet whatever, that was to be raised up in the church of the Jews; but of Christ himself only.

4. The exposition of the close of these words, he shall be 'exalted and extolled, and be very high' (the great exaltation of the Lord Jesus Christ in his kingdom, when he was made a Prince and a Saviour, in a most eminent manner, eing set forth in various expressions, no one reaching to the

minentiæ notionem quavis formula expressit, quia illius eminentia erit sublimis ntia erit sublinis excellentia. D. Kimchi.

glory of it); is unworthy the learned annotator. "He shall be exalted and extolled, and be very high;' that is, the. Chaldeans shall give him 'victuals' and a 'reward;' Jer. xl. 5. and after awhile, he shall be carried a prisoner into Egypt, and there knocked on the head: such was the exaltation of the poor prophet. What resemblance hath all this, to the exaltation of Jesus Christ, whom the learned man confesseth to be intended in these words.

The sense then of these words is, 'Jesus Christ the Messiah, the servant of the Father,' Isa. xlii. 1. 19. Phil. ii. 7, 8. ⚫ shall deal prudently,' and prosper in the business of doing his Father's will, and carrying on the affairs of his own kingdom;' Isa. ix. 7. And be exalted far above all principalities and powers, having a name given him above every name, that at the name Jesus,' &c. Phil. ii. 7, 8.


The next verse is,

'As many were astonished at thee, his visage was so marred, more than any man, and his form more than the sons of men.'

Of the accomplishment of this, in and upon the Lord Jesus Christ, there is no difficulty. The astonishment mentioned is that of men, at his low, and despicable condition as to outward appearance; which was such, as that he said of himself, he was a worm and no man,' Ps. xxii. His condition was such, and his visage such, as all that knew any thing of him, were astonished to the purpose. The marring of his visage and form, as it may point out all the acts of violence, that were done upon his face, by spitting, buffetting, and the like; so they express his whole despised, contemned, persecuted estate and condition. But let us attend to our


Modo secunda, modo tertia persona de Jeremia loquitur, quod frequens Hebræis. Sicut multi mirati erant hominem tam egregium tam fæde tractari, in carcerem detrudi, deinde in lacum lutosum, ibique; et pædore et cibi inopia tabescere. Sic contra, rebus mutatis, admirationi erit honos ipsi habitus.' 'He speaks of Jeremiah, sometimes in the second, sometimes in the third person, which is frequent with the Hebrews. As many wondered that so excellent a person should so vilely be dealt with, be thrust into prison, and then into a miry lake, and there to pine with

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