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Messiah Ben Joseph, a man of straw of their own setting up; but it is easy to manifest, were that our present work, that scarce any one expression in this prophecy, much less all, do or can agree to any one, or all of them named, so that it must be brought home to its proper subject: of this at large in the ensuing digression against Grotius.
2. That to us it is evident above all contradiction, that the whole belongs to Jesus Christ; because not only particular testimonies are taken from hence in the New Testament and applied to him, as Matt. viii. 17. Mark. xv. 28. Luke xxii. 37. Rom. x. 16. but it is also expounded of him in general for the conversion of souls; Acts viii. 28. The story is known of Philip and the eunuch.
3. This is such a prophecy of Christ, as belongs to him not only properly, but immediately: that is, it doth not in the first place point out any type of Christ, and by him shadow out Christ, as it is in sundry psalms, where David and Solomon are firstly spoken of, though the Messias be principally intended: but here is no such thing. Christ himself is immediately spoken of. Socinus says indeed, that he doubted not but that these things did primarily belong to another, could he be discovered who he was, and that from him was the allusion taken, and the accommodation made to Christ and if,' saith he, 'it could be found out who he was, much light might be given into many expressions in the chapter. But this is a bold figment, for which there is not the least countenance given either from Scripture or reason; which is evidently decried from the former arguments, whereby the impudency of the Jews is confounded; and shall be farther in the ensuing digression, where it shall be proved, that it is impossible to fix on any one but Jesus Christ, to whom the several expressions, and matters expressed in this prophecy may be accommodated.
2. Now there are three general parts of this prophecy, to consider it with reference to the business in hand. As the seat of this truth in the Old Testament,
1. A description given of Christ, în a mean, low, miserable condition, from ver. 14. of chap. lii. to ver. 5. of chap. liii. His 'visage was marred, and his form, more than the sons of men, he hath no form, nor comeliness,' ver. 2. 'No beauty, a man of grief and sorrows, despised, neglected, ac
quainted with grief;' ver. 3. looked on 'as stricken and afflicted of God,' ver. 4.
2. The reason is given of this representation of the Messias, of whom it is said in the entrance of the prophecy, that he should deal prudently, and be exalted, and extolled, and be very high. To which this description of him seems most adverse and contrary. The reason, I say, hereof is given from ver. 5. to the 10. it was on the account of his being punished, and broken for us, and our sins.
3. The issue of all this from ver. 10. to the end, in the justification and salvation of believers.
It is the second that I shall insist upon, to prove the death of Christ, to have in it the nature of punishment, properly and strictly so called.
Not to insist upon all the particular passages, that might be done to great advantage, and ought to be done, did I purpose the thorough and full handling of the business before me (but I am in transitu,' and pressing to somewhat farther), I shall only urge two things.
1. The expressions throughout, that describe the state and condition of Christ as here proposed.
2. One or two singular assertions, comprehensive of much of the rest.
For the first, let the reader consider what is contained in the several words, here setting forth the condition of Christ; we have, 'despising and rejecting, sorrow and grief;' ver. 4. He was 'stricken, smitten, afflicted;' or there was striking, smiting, affliction on him, 'Wounded, bruised, chastised with stripes; ver. 5. wounding, bruising, chastising unto soreness, oppressed, stricken, cut off, killed, brought to slaughter; ver. 7-9. Bruised, sacrificed, and his sout made an offering for sin;' ver. 10.
Now certainly for the material part, or the matter of punishment, here it is abundantly: here is 'malum passionis' in every kind. Immission of evil, subtraction of good in soul and body: here is plentiful measure heaped up, shaken together, and running over.
But it may be said, though here be the matter of punishment, yet it may be all this was for some other end; and so it may be it was νουθεσία, οι δοκιμασία, or παιδυσία, not τιuwpía, or punishment properly so called.
Consider then the ends of punishment before insisted on, and see what of them is applicable to the transaction between God and Christ here mentioned.
1. Was it for his own correction? No, says the prophet, ver. 9. He had done no violence, neither was any deceit in his mouth.' He was perfectly innocent. So that he had no need of any chastisement for his amendment; and so signally in sundry places, where mention is made of the death of Christ, his own spotless innocency is often pleaded. Neither was it for his instruction that he might be wise, and instructed in the will of God; for at the very entrance of the prophecy, chap. lii. 13. he says, he shall deal prudently and be exalted. He was faithful before in all things. And though he experimentally learned obedience, by his sufferings, yet habitually to the utmost his ears were bored, and himself prepared to the will of God, before the afflictions here principally intended. Neither,
3. Was he apádayμa; punished for example; to be made an example to others, that they might not offend: for what can offenders learn from the punishment of one who never offended. He was 'cut off, but not for himself:' and the end assigned, ver. 11, 12. which is not the instruction only, but the justification and salvation of others, will not allow this end. 'He shall justify many, for he shall bear their iniquities;' he set us an example in his obedience; but he was not punished for an example. Neither,
4. Was it uaprvpía, a suffering to bear witness and testimony to the truth. There is no mention of any such end in this place. Yea, to make that the main intendment here, is a monstrous figment. The expressions all along as we shall see in the next place, are, that all this was for our transgressions, for our sins, for our iniquities, for our peace. God wounded, bruised, killed him, for our iniquities; that is, he died to bear witness to his doctrine. Credat Apella.'
2. Then, the matter of punishment being expressed, see the cause of the infliction of it. It was for transgressions, for iniquities, ver. 5. for wandering and iniquity, ver. 6. for transgressions, ver. 8. for sin, ver. 12. Let us now remember the general description of punishment that was given at the beginning; it is 'malum passionis quod infligitur ob malum actionis,' and see how directly it suits with this pu
nishment of Jesus Christ. 1. Here is 'malum passionis' inflicted, wounding, bruising, killing. And 2. there is 'malum actionis' deserving, sin, iniquity, and transgression. How these met on an innocent person, shall be afterward declared. 2. Go along to the peculiar description of punishment properly so called, as managed by God. It is 'vindicta noxæ;? now if all other ends and causes whatever, as of chastisement or example, &c. be removed, and this only be asserted, then this affliction of Christ was 'vindicta noxæ,' punishment in the most proper sense; but that these ends are so removed hath been declared upon the particular consideration of them.
And this is the first argument from this place to prove that the death of Christ and his suffering, hath the nature of punishment.
2. The second is, from the more particular expressions of it to this purpose, both on the part of the person punishing, and on the part of the person punished: a single expression on each part may be insisted on.
1. On the part of God punishing, take that of ver. 6. 'The Lord hath laid on him the iniquity of us all :' of which sort also is that of ver. 10. Yet it pleased the Lord to bruise him, he put him to grief, when thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin.'
2. On the part of him punished, ver. 11. He shall bear their iniquities.' From the consideration of those expressions we shall evidently evince what we have proposed. Of these in the next chapter.
Some particular testimonies evincing the death of Christ to be
THE two expressions that I chose in particular to consider, are nextly to be insisted on.
The first relates to him, who did inflict the punishment. The other to him that was punished.
The first in ver. 6. The Lord laid on him the iniquities of us all. The person punishing, is Jehovah, the person pu
nished called 'him; that is, he who is spoken of throughout the whole prophecy; the Messiah Jesus Christ, as above declared.
For the opening of the words, that the efficacy of them to our purpose in hand may appear. Two of them are especially to be considered. 1. What is meant by that which is rendered laid on him,' 2. What is meant by 'iniquity.'
The first by our translation is rendered in the margin, 'made to meet;' he made to meet ;' 'on him the iniquities of us all;' the Vulgar Latin, 'posuit Dominus in eo.' The 'Lord put upon him,' according to our translation in the text. Montanus, Dominus fecit occurrere in eum.' God hath caused to meet on him,' according to our translation in the margin. Junius to the same purpose. Jehovah fecit ut incurrat,' the Lord made them meet, and fall on him.' The Septuagint render it, καὶ κύριος παρέδωκεν αὐτὸν τᾶις ἁμαρτίαις nuv. "The Lord delivered him to our sins,' that is, to be punished for them. By others the word is rendered 'impegit, traduxit, conjecit,' all to the same purpose, importing an act of God in conveying our sins to Christ.
The word here used is yan; its root is ywap to which all the significations mentioned, are assigned; occurrere, obviam ire, incurrere, aggredi, rogare, precari.' The first general signification of it is to meet, as the bounds of a field, or country, or house, meet with one another. Joshua xix. 34. ¡ata ya So all along in that chapter, where the bounds of one country are said to reach to another; that is, to meet with them; it is the word here used. So in voluntary agents, it is obviam ire,' or to meet, and that either for good or evil; for good it is spoken of God, Psal. Ixiv. 5. thou meetest him, &c. and so for evil, Amos v. 19. 'as if a man fled from a lion, and a bear meet him :D that is, to tear him in pieces. Hence because men that met others, went to them, to desire some help of them, the word also signifies to ask, to pray, entreat, or intercede; so the word is used Isa. lix. 16. there was no entreater, y' none to meet, to come and ask. And in this very chapter, ver. 12. he made intercession for the transgressors; the word is the same with that here used; to meet the Lord, and intercede for transgressors, to stay his hand against them, is its