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the sense of the word miλáßero, if not in the effect, yet in the cause; Heb. ii. 16.


The rise and use of this word, in this business of our deliverance by Christ we have, Lev. xxv. 25. if any of his kin come to redeem it.' ' redimens illud propinquus ; the next who is goel too, [goel is to redeem it, or vindicate the possession out of morgage. On this account Boaz tells Ruth, that in respect of the possession of Elimelech, he was goel; Ruth iii. 13. a redeemer, which we have translated, a kinsman,' because he was to do that office by right of propinquity of blood, or nearness of kin, as is evident from the law before-mentioned. Christ coming to vindicate us into liberty, by his own blood, is called by Job his goel; so also is he termed; Isa. xli. 14. a thyredeemer,' or thy next kinsman; and chap. xliv. 6. in that excellent description of Christ, ver. 24. chap. xlvi. 4. xlviii. 17. xlix. 26. liv. 5. lix. 20. lx. 16. lxiii. 16. and in sundry other places; neither is the church of God at all beholding to some late expositors, who, to shew their skill in the Hebrew doctors, would impose upon us their interpretations, and make those expressions to signify deliverance in general, and to be referred to God the Father, seeing that the rise of the use of the word plainly restrains the redemption intended, to the paying of a price for it, which was done only by Jesus Christ; so Jer. xxxii. 7, 8. Hence they that looked for the Messiah, according to the promise, are said to look for, or to wait for Xúrpwow, redemption in Israel;' Luke ii. 28. and in the accomplishment of the promise; the apostle tells us, that Christ by his blood obtained for us eternal redemption; Heb. ix. 12. and he having so obtained it, we are justified freely by the grace ofGod, διά τῆς ἀπολυτρώσεως τῆς ἐν χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, by the redemption that is in Jesus Christ, ἐν for dia, in him,' for, by him,' or wrought by him; and this being brought home to us, we have redemption through his blood, even the forgiveness of sin; Eph. i. 7. Col. i. 14. whence he is said to be 'made unto us,' aroλúrowσis, or 'redemption; 1 Cor. i. 30.



How this is done, will be made evident, by applying of what is now spoken, to what was spoken of the death of Christ, as a price; Christ giving himself or his life λúrρov and avríλurpov, a price of redemption, as hath been shewed,

a ransom; those for whom he did it, become to have λúτρωσιν and ἀπολύτρωσιν, redemption thereby, or deliverance from the captivity wherein they were. And our Saviour expresses particularly, how this was done as to both parts, Matt. xx. 28. He came δοῦναι τὴν ψυχὴν λύτρον ἀντὶ πολλῶν, that is, he came to be an dvrípuxos, one to stand in the room of others, and to give his life for them.

To make this the more evident and clear, I shall give a description of redemption properly so called, and make application of it in the several parts thereof, unto that under consideration.

Redemption is the deliverance of any one from bondage or captivity, and the misery attending that condition, by the intervention or interposition of a price or ransom, paid by the redeemer, to him by whose authority he is detained, that being delivered, he may be in a state of liberty, at the . disposal of the redeemer.

And this will comprise the laws of this redemption, which are usually given. They are on the part of the redeemer. 1. Propinquus esto,' 'Let him be near of kin.’

2. Consanguinitatis jure redimito,' Let him redeem by right of consanguinity.'

3. 'Injusto possessori prædam eripito;' 'Let him deliver the prey from the unjust possessor.'

4. Huic pretium nullum solvito;' to him let no price be paid.'


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5. Sanguinem pro redemptionis pretio vero domino offerto;' Let him offer, or give his blood to the true Lord for a ransom, or price of redemption.'

2. On the part of the redeemed.

1. Libertatis jure felix gaudeto;'Let him enjoy his liberty.'

2. Servitutis jugum ne iterum sponte suscipito;' ' Let him not again willingly take on him the yoke of bondage.' 3. Deinceps servum se exhibeto redemptori;' 'Let him in liberty be a servant to his redeemer.'

The general parts of this description of redemption, Socinus himself consents unto; for whereas Covel had a little inconveniently defined 'to redeem,' saying, 'Redimere aliquem est debitum solvere creditoris ejus nomine, qui solvendo non erat, sicque satisfacere creditori;' which is a proper

description of the payment of another man's debt, and not ofhis redemption. Socinus, correcting this mistake, affirms, that, Redimere aliquem, nihil aliud proprie significat, quam captivum e manibus illius qui eum detinet pretio illi dato liberare.' 'To redeem any one properly, signifies nothing else, but to deliver him out of his hands that detained him captive, by a price given to him who detained him.' Which as to the general nature of redemption, contains as much as what was before given in for the description of it; (Socin. de Jes. Christo Servatore, lib. 1. part. 2. cap. 1.) With the accommodation, therefore, of that description to the redemption which we have by the blood of Christ, I shall proceed desiring the reader to remember, that if I evince the redemption we have by Christ to be proper, and properly so called, the whole business of satisfaction is confessedly evinced.

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1. The general nature of it consists in deliverance ; thence Christ is called ó óvóμɛvos, 'the deliverer;' Rom. xi. 26. as it is written, there shall come out of Sion the deliverer;' the word in the prophet, Isa. lix. 20. is a that we may know what kind of deliverer Christ is; a deliverer by redemption he gave himself for our sin, örws λntai nμās, Gal i. 4. 'that he might deliver us :' he delivered us; but it is by giving himself for our sin; 1 Thess. i. 10. To wait for his Son from heaven, whom he raised from the dead ;' Ἰησοῦν τὸν ῥυόμενον ἡμᾶς ἀπὸ τῆς ὀργῆς τῆς ἐρχομενῆς, ‘Jesus, who delivered us from the wrath to come;' so Luke i. 74. Rom. vii. 6. Heb. ii. 15. Col. i. 13.


Now as redemption, because its general nature consists in deliverance, is often expressed thereby; so deliverance, because it hath the effect of redemption, is, or may be called redemption, though it be not properly so, but agree in the end, and effect only: thence Moses is said to be λurpwrns, Acts vii. 35. τοῦτον ὁ θεὸς ἄρχοντα καὶ λυτρωτὴν ἀπέστειλεν 'Him did God send a prince, and a redeemer:' that is, a deliverer; one whom God used for the deliverance of his people. And because what he did, even the delivery of his people out of bondage, agreed with redemption in its end, the work itself it called redemption, and he is termed therein a redeemer, though it was not a direct redemption that he wrought; no ransom being paid for delivery.

It is pleaded, that God being said to redeem his people in sundry places in the Old Testament, which he could not possibly do, by a ransom, therefore the redemption mentioned in the Scripture, is metaphorical; a mere deliverance: and such is also that we have by Christ without the intervention of any price.

2. Moses, who was a type of Christ and a redeemer, who is so often said to redeem the people, yet as it is known, did it without any ransom, by a mere deliverance; therefore did Christ so also.

Not to trouble the reader with repetition of words, this is the sum of what is pleaded by the Racovian catechism to prove our redemption by Christ, not to be proper, but metaphorical, and so consequently that no satisfaction can be thence evinced.


E verbo redimendi non posse effici satisfactionem hanc hinc est planum, quod de ipso Deo in novo et in prisco fœdere scribitur, eum redimisse populum suum ex Egypto, eum fecisse redemptionem populo suo; quod Moses fuerit redemptor, Act. vii. 35. Vox ideo redemptionis, simpliciter liberationem denotat.' Rac. Catec. cap. 8. de Christo.

And indeed what there they speak is the sum of the plea of Socinus as to this part of our description of redemption : ⚫ de Jesu Christo Servatore,' lib. i. part. 2. cap. 1, 2, 3.

To remove these difficulties (if they may be so called) I shall only tender the ensuing considerations.

1. That because redemption is sometimes to be taken metaphorically for mere deliverance, when it is spoken of God without any mention of a price or ransom, in such cases as wherein it was impossible that a ransom should be paid, (as in the deliverance of the children of Israel from Epypt and Pharaoh), when it is expressly said to be done bya power, and outstretched arm, therefore it must be so understood, when it is spoken of Christ the Mediator, with express mention of a price or ransom, and when it was impossible but that a ransom must be paid, is a loose consequence, not deserving any notice.

2. That all the places of Scripture, where mention is made of God being a redeemer, and redeeming his people, may be referred unto these heads:

a Deut. iv. 34.

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1. Such as call God the redeemer of his church in general, as the places before-mentioned; and these are all to be referred immediately to the Son of God (the manner of his redemption being described in the New Testament), and so proper redemption is intended in them; Isa. liv. 5, 6. with Eph. v. 25, 26.

2. Such as mention some temporal deliverance, that was typical of the spiritual redemption, which we have by Jesus Christ; and it it called redemption, not so much from the general nature of deliverance, as from its pointing out to us that real and proper redemption, that was typified by it. Such was God's redeeming his people out of Egypt. So there is no mention of redemption in the Scripture, but either it is proper, or receives that appellation from its relation to that which is so.


3. This is indeed a very wretched and cursed way of interpreting Scripture, especially those passages of it which set out the grace of God, and the love of Christ to us; namely, to do it by way of diminution, and lessening; God takes and uses this word that is of use amongst men; namely, of redemption: saith he, Christ hath redeemed you with his own blood, he hath laid down a price for you :' for men to come and interpret this, and say he did it not properly, it was not a complete redemption, but metaphorical, a bare deliverance, is to blaspheme God and the work of his love and grace. It is a safe rule of interpreting Scripture, that in places mentioning the love and grace of God to us, the words are to be taken in their utmost significancy. It is a thing most unworthy a good and wise man, to set out his kindness and benefits with great swelling words, of mighty weight and importance, which when the things signified by them come to be considered, must be interpreted by way of minoration; nor will any worthy man do so. Much less can it be once imagined, that God has expressed his love and kindness, and the fruits of it to us, in great and weighty words, that in their ordinary use and significancy contain a great deal more than really he hath done; for any one so to interpret what he hath spoken, is an abomination into which I desire my soul may never enter.

What the redemption of a captive is, and how it is brought about we know. God tells us, that Christ hath

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