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3. Distinguish man in relation to himself, either upon a natural or moral account, as his kindred and relations, or strangers, and they will appear to be all engaged; but this is so comprised in the former distinction of Jews and Gentiles, that it need not be insisted on.
2. On a moral account, as they were either his friends or his enemies, he suffered from both.
1. His friends, all his disciples, forsook him, and fled; Matt. xxvi. 56. the worst of them betrayed him, ver. 14. and the best of them denied him, ver. 10. and so there was 'none to help,' Psal. xxii. 11.
And if it were thus with him in the house of his friends, what may be expected from
2. His enemies; their malice and conspiracy, their implacableness and cruelty, their plotting and accomplishment of their designs, take up so great a part of the history of his crucifying, that I shall not need insist on particular in
Yea, mankind was engaged, as distinguished into sexes. Of men of all sorts you have heard already; and the tempting, ensnaring, captious question of the maid to Peter manifests, that amongst his persecutors, there were of that sex also, Matt. xxvi. 69.
Of men's distinction by their employments, of soldiers, lawyers, citizens, divines, all concurring to this work; I shall not add any thing to what hath been spoken.
Thus the first order of creatures, those that are intellectual, were universally, at least with a distributive universality, engaged in the suffering of the Lord Jesus; and the reason of this general engagement was, because the curse, that was come upon them for sin, had filled them all with enmity one against another. 1. Fallen man and angels were engaged into an everlasting enmity, on the first entrance of sin; Gen. iii. 15, 16. 2. Men one towards another were filled with malice, and envy, and hatred; Tit. iii. 3.
3. The Jews and Gentiles were engaged by way of visible representation of the enmity which was come on all mankind; John iv. 9. Eph. ii. 15-17. and therefore he who was to undergo the whole curse of the law, was to have the rage and fury of them all executed on him. As I said before, all their persecution of him concerned not his death,
as it was a sacrifice, as he made his soul an offering for sin; but as it was a punishment, the utmost of their enmity was to be executed towards him.
2. The residue of the creatures concurred thus far to his sufferings, as to manifest themselves at that time, to be visibly under the curse and indignation that was upon him, and so withdrew themselves, as it were, from yielding him the least assistance. To instance in general, heaven and earth lost their glory, and that in them which is useful and comfortable to the children of men, without which all the other conveniences and advantages are as a thing of nought: 'the glory of heaven is its light;' Psal. xix. 1, 2. And the glory of the earth, is its stability: he hath fixed the earth, that it shall not be moved.
Now both these were lost at once. The heavens were darkened, when it might be expected, in an ordinary course, that the sun should have shone in its full beauty, Matt. xxvii. 45. Luke xxiii. 44, 45. And the earth lost its stability, and shook or trembled, ver. 51. and the rocks rent, and the graves opened; all evidences of that displeasure against sin, which God was then putting in execution to the utmost; Rom. i. 18.
Thus first in his suffering there was universality of efficient causes.
2. There was a universality in respect of the subject wherein he suffered. He suffered, 1. In his person, 2. In his name; 3. In his friends; 4. In his goods; as the curse of the law extended to all, and that universally in all these.
1. In his person, or his human nature in his person; he suffered in the two essential constituent parts of it; his body, and his soul.
1. His body. In general as to its integral parts; his body was broken, 1 Cor. xi. 24. and crucified; his blood was shed, or poured out.
2. His soul. His soul was made an offering for sin; Isa. liii. 10. And his soul was heavy unto death;' Matt. xxvi. 37, 38.
2. In particular: his body suffered in all its concernments, namely, all his senses, and all its parts or members. 1. In all its senses: as to instance,
1. In his feeling; he was full of pain, which made him, as he says, cry for disquietness; and this is comprised in every one of those expressions which say he was broken, pierced, and lived so long on the cross, in the midst of most exquisite torture; until being full of pain, he cried out, and gave up the Ghost; Matt. xxvii. 50.
2. His tasting. When he fainted with loss of blood, and grew thirsty, they gave him 'gall and vinegar to drink,' Matt. xxvii. 34. John xix. 29. Matt. xxvii. 48. not to stu→ pify his senses, but to increase his torment.
3. His seeing. Though not so much in the natural organ of it, as in its use. He saw his mother and disciples standing by, full of grief, sorrow, and confusion, which exceedingly increased his anguish and perplexity; John xix. 25, 26. And he saw his enemies full of rage and horror, standing round about him; Psal. xxii. He saw them passing by, and wagging the head in scorn, Matt. xxix. 39. Psal. xxii. 7, 8.
4. His ears were filled with the reproach and blasphemy, of which he grievously complains; Psal. xxii. 7, 8. which also is expressed in his accomplishment, Matt. xxvii. 39–44. Luke xxiii. 36-38. They reproached him with God, and his ministry, and his profession; as did also one of the thieves that was crucified with him. And,
5. They crucified him in a noisome place, a place of stink and loathsomeness; a place where they cast the dead bodies of men, from whose bones it got the name of Golgotha, a place of dead men's sculls; Matt. xxvi. 33.
2. He suffered in all the parts of his body; especially those, which are most tender and full of sense.
1. For his head, they planted a crown of thorns, and put it on him; and to increase his pain, smote it on (that the thorns might pierce him the deeper) with their staves; Matt. xxvii. 28, 29. as the Jews had stricken him before, chap. xxvi. 68. John xix. 2, 3.
2. His face they spit upon, buffeted, stroke, and plucked off his hair; Isa. 1. 6. Matt. xxvi. 67, 68.
3. His back was torn with whips and scourges, Matt. xxvii. 27. John xix. 1. tuaoríywoɛ; there they made long their furrows.
4. His hands, and feet, and side, were pierced with nails and spears; Psal. xxii. 16.
5. To express the residue of his body, and the condition
of it, when he hung on the cross so long by the soreness of his hands and his feet, says he, 'All my bones are out of joint;' Psal. xxii. 17. and also ver. 14, 15.
Thus was it with his body; the like also is expressed of his soul, for,
1. On his mind was darkness; not in it, but on it, as to his apprehension of the love and presence of God. Hence was his cry, Psal. xxii. 1, 'My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me?' Matt. xxvii. 46. Though his faith was upon the whole of the matter prevalent and victorious; Isa. 1. 8, 9. yet he had many sore conflicts with the sense and apprehension of God's wrath for sin, and that desertion he was then under, as to any cheering influences of his love and presence.
For the rest of his faculties, he was not only under the pressure of the most perplexing, grievous, and burdensome passions, that human nature is obnoxious unto, as, 1. Heaviness; His soul was heavy unto death;' Matt. xxvi. 37.
2. Grief; no sorrow like to his ;' Lamen. i. 12.
3. Fear; Heb. v. 7. but also was pressed into a condition, beyond what we have words to express, or names of passions or affections to set it forth by. Hence he is said to be in an agony; Luke xxii. 44. to be amazed; Mark xiv. 33. with the like expressions, intimating a condition miserable and distressed beyond what we are able to comprehend or express.
2. In his name, his repute, or credit, he suffered also. He was numbered amongst transgressors; Isa. liii. 11. Psal. xxii. counted a malefactor, and crucified amongst them; a seducer, a blasphemer, a seditious person, a false prophet, and was cruelly mocked and derided on the cross as an impostor, that saved others, but could not save himself; that pretended to be the Messias, the King of Israel, but could not come down from the cross; laid in the balance with Barrabas, a rogue and a murderer, and rejected for him.
3. In his friends. The shepherd was smitten, and the sheep scattered;' Zech. xiii. 7. All his friends distressed, scattered, glad to fly for their lives, or to save themselves by doing the things that were worse than death.
4. In his goods, even all that he had; they parted his garments, and cast lots for his vesture;' Psal. xxii. 18. Thus did he not in any thing go free; that the curse of the law in
all things might be executed on him; the law curses a man in all his concernments; with the immission and infliction of every thing that is evil, and the subtraction of every thing that is good; that is, with pæna sensus, et pæna damni,' as they are called.
In reference to the law, I say, that Christ underwent that very punishment that was threatened in the law, and was due to sinners. The same that we should have undergone, had not our surety done it for us; to clear this briefly observe,
1. That the punishment of the law may be considered two ways.
1. Absolutely in its own nature, as it lies in the law, and the threatening thereof. This in general is called death; Gen. iii. 15. Ezek. xv. 4. Rom. v. 12. And by way of aggravation, because of its comprising the death of body and soul,' death unto death;' 2 Cor. ii. 16. and the second death; Rev. xx. 14. and the curse; Deut. xxvii. 29. and Matt. xxv. 41. and wrath, &c. Hence we are said to be delivered from wrath to come; 1 Thess. i. 10. Rom. ii. 5. wrath, or the day of wrath, and in innumerable other places; all which are set out in many metaphorical expressions by those things which are to the nature of man most dreadful; as of a lake with fire and brimstone; of Tophet, whose pile is much wood, and the like.
Of this punishment in general there are two parts.
1. Loss, or separation from God, expressed in these words, Depart from me;' Matt. vii. 23. 'Go ye cursed;' Matt. xxv. 41. as also 2 Thess. i. 9.
2. Sense or pain, whence it is called fire; as 2 Thess. i. 9. Torments, &c. All this we say Christ underwent, as shall be farther manifested.
2. Punishment of the law may be considered relatively to its subject, or the person punished, and that in two regards.
1. In reference to its own attendencies, and necessary consequents, as it falls upon the persons to be punished; and these are two.
1. That it be a worm that dieth not;' Matt. ix. 44. Isa. lxvi. 24.
2. That it be a fire, not to be quenched; that it be ever