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readers to explain their nature, especially as we have referred to them ourselves in some instances. The existing Targums are ten in number, containing paraphrases and expositions of different parts of the Old Testament. The principal of these are-1. The Targum of Onkelos, confined to the five books of Moses, and supposed to have been written by a disciple of the celebrated Hillel, above-mentioned it is preferred to all the others for the purity of its style, and its adherence to the true meaning of the Text.-2. The Targum of the Pseudo Jonathan, is also on the Pentateuch, but much inferior to the former, of little esteem, and certainly not written by Jonathan Ben Uzziel, as the title imports.-3. The Jerusalem Targum is also confined to the books of Moses-is much inferior in stile, and full of fables.-4. The Targum of Jonathan Ben Uzziel on the Prophets: this is a genuine work, and ranks next to Onkelos, with whom he is reported to have been a fellow student. This work includes both the former and latter prophets. The other Targums are confined to particular books, and are of less note, and lower antiquity. (For a fuller account of these, see Horne's Crit. Introd., 4th edit. vol. 11. pp, 163–170.)
There are two other ancient Jewish authors frequently referred to by Christian writers, one of whom has furnished much of this Connecting Essay, namely, Flavius Josephus, who was born about A. D. 37, and early distinguished by his learning and zeal as a Pharisee. He had a command in the Jewish army against the Romans, and was taken prisoner by them; but he had the address so to ingratiate himself with Titus, the Roman general, that he became his friend and protector; under whose patronage he wrote the History of the Jewish War, Jewish Antiquities, &c. which have been well ranslated into English by Mr. Whiston.
Philo-Judæus, a Jew of Alexandria, of an illustrious and sacerdotal mily, was sent by his countrymen to plead their cause before Caligula against opion, about A. D. 40, or soon after, and wrote an account of their mission, I also of the sect of Essens, above mentioned, and became a zealous disciple Plato, the philosopher.
PRINCIPAL PLACES MENTIONED IN SCRIPTURE.
ABARIM, a ridge of mountains between the rivers Arnon and Jordan, including Nebo and Pisgah. See Deut. xxxii. 49, 50; xxxiv. 1; compared with Numb. xxxiii.
Abel signifies mourning, and is applied to several places remarkable for great lamentation; as Abel-Misraim, the mourning of the Egyptians; Gen. L. 11.
Abilene, the tetrarchy of Lysanias, of which Abila was the capital. Luke iii. 1.
Accho, a sea-port of Galilee; when rebuilt by Ptolemy Philadelphus, it was called Ptolemais, and is now called Acre, or St. John d'Acre.
Aceldama, the field of blood; a certain field without the south wall of Jerusalem. Compare Matt. xxvii. 7, 10; Acts i. 19.
Achaia Proper, was a province running westward along the bay of Corinth; but the term Achaia is often used to include the whole of Greece.
Achor, a valley near Jericho. See Josh. vii. 1-26; xv. 7.
Adam, a city (or town) near Jericho. Josh. iii. 16.
Adamah and Adami, two towns in the tribe of Judah. Josh. xix. 33, 36.
Adria, a city of Italy, which gives its name to the Gulf of Venice, or Adriatic Sea. It was formerly given to the whole of the Mediterranean. Acts xxvii. 27.
Alexandria, a city of Egypt, built by Alexander the Great, and made the capital of the kingdom under the Ptolemies.
Amalekites, the children of Amalek, which dwelt in Arabia Petræa; but frequently wandering like the Arabs. See Gen. xxxvi. 12, 16; 1 Chron. i. 36; 1 Sam. xv. 5, 7.
Ammonites, a people like the preceding, who inhabited, in distinct tribes, probably, the mountaius of Paran and Gilead. See Josh. xiii. 25; Judges xi. 13-23.
Amorites, a race of giants who peopled the mountains west of the Dead Sea, and some parts of the east. Numbers xiii. 29; Josh. v. 1.
Anathoth, a city of the Priests in the tribe of Benjamin, about three miles north from Jerusalem. 2 Kings ii. 16.
Antioch, a city on the banks of the Orontes, the metropolis of Syria, and, according to Josephus, the third city of the Roman empire. See Acts xi. 26.
Antioch, in Pisidia. Acts xiii. 14. There were several other cities of this name not mentioned in Scripture.
Antipatris, a city in the road from Jerusalem to Cæsarea, and 17 miles from Joppa, according to Josephus. Acts xxiii. 31.
Appii-forum. See Note on Acts xxviii. 15. Ar, Areopolis, or Ariel of Moab, a chief city of the Moabites, on the south of the river Arnon. Numb. xxi. 28.
Arabia, an extensive country, reaching from the Euphrates to Egypt, and from the Red Sea to the Persian Gulf. It is usually divided into three parts-1. Arabia Deserta, lying nearly to the east of Judes, and whose inhabitants dwell in tents. 2. Arubia Petræa, or the rocky, including mount Sinai. 3. Arabia Felix, or the Happy; so called from its fertility: this was the southern part of Arabia.
Ararat, the mount on which the ark rested. Gen. viii. 4.
Arimathea, a city between Lydda and Joppa, or, as others think, between Jopps and Jerusalem. Luke xxiii. 50.
Armenia, a province of Asia, in which are the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates; and, as many think, it included Eden. See Gen. ii. 10, &c.
Ashdod, or Azotus, a city of the Philistines. Josh. xi. 22; xv. 46; 1 Sam. v. 1.
Ashtaroth, a city of Moab, where that idol was worshipped, allotted to the half tribe of Manasseh. Deut. i. 4; Josh. ix. 10.
Asia, one of the four quarters of the world, as they are usually called; but, in the New Testament, usually confined to Asia Minor, or the Proconsular Asia, comprising Phrygia, Mysia, Caria, and Lydia, in which were planted the seven churches mentioned in the Revelation of St. John.
Assyria, an ancient and immense empire, of which Nineveh was the capital. It was bounded on the north by Armenia, south by Susiana (or Persia), west by the IND. Tigris, and east by Media.
Athens, a celebrated city of Greece, the capital of Attica, and the seat of learning, science, and the arts. Here Paul preached; Acts xvii. 16-22.
Baul-peor, a mountain to which Balak brought Balaam, that he might curse Israel; Numb. xxiii. 28. The name of this Idol (Baal) is also prefixed to several other places where he was worshipped.
Babel, and Babylon; the former name describes a tower built soon after the flood, Gen. x. 1-9. It originally formed the centre of the great city of Babylon. Dan. iv. 30.
Bashan, the country of Og, which lies between Gilead and the Jordan. Numb. xxxii. 33.
Beersheba, a city of Syria, in the south extremity of Canaan, about 20 miles from Hebron, where Abraham made a covenant with Abimelech. Gen. xxi. 22-34.
Berea, a city of Macedonia, in the neighbourhood of Athens. Acts xvii. 11.
Bethesda, a pool in the east of Jerusalem. See our Exposition of John v. 1-16. Bethsaida, the town of Peter, Andrew, and Philip, on the borders of the lake Gennesareth, where our Lord wrought many miracles. Luke x. 13.
Bethabara, a village beyond Jordan, where John baptized, and whither Jesus ometimes withdrew. John i. 28; x. 39, 40. Bethany, a village on Mount Olivet, -here Lazarus dwelt. John xi. 28-44. Bethel, the place where Jacob was faDured with a heavenly vision, supposed be on the north border of Benjamin. -n. xxviii. 19.
Bethlehem of Judah, the city of David d of Christ, formerly called Ephrath, or hrata. Micah v. 2; Matt. ii. 1, 6. It bout six miles south of Jerusalem: but re was another Bethlehem in the tribe Zebulon; and the word Beth, which ifies a house or temple, is prefixed to y other names, as Beth-shemosh, or Fity of the sun; which auswers to the Heliopolis.
chim, a place of weeping. Judges
Roman Proconsul, and the metropolis of Judea.
Cæsarea-Philippi, was first called Leshem, and afterwards Dan; Josh. xix. 47; Judges xviii. 29; and being afterwards rebuilt by Philip the Tetrarch, he called it Cæsarea in honour of Cæsar, with his own name subjoined.
Calvary, the same as Golgotha, is supposed to have been a hill, just without the city walls. Matt. xxvii. 33; Luke xxiii. 33.
Cana, a town of Galilee, where Jesus wrought his first miracle. Johu ii. 1—11.
Canaan, in its more contracted sense, as divided by Joshua, is calculated to have been not above 160 miles long by 50 broad; but in its more enlarged sense, it extended south to the desert of Kadesh, north to Lebanon, east to the Euphrates, and west to the Mediterranean. Gen. xv. 18; Deut. xi. 24, &c.
Capernaum, a town on the sea of Galilee, and chiefly inhabited by fishermen, &c. Matt. iv. 15, 16.
Cappadocia, a kingdom famous for horses and flocks. It is mentioned in connection with Pontus, Galatia, and Bythinia, to which it joined. Acts ii. 9; Peter i. 1.
Carmel, a mountain on the west side of the Holy Land, rendered famous in the history of Elijah. 1 Kings xviii. 19-46.
Chinnereth, Lake of, the same as Gennesareth, which see.
Cilicia, a country of Asia Minor, having mount Taurus on the north, and on the south the Cilisian Sea. Mentioned Acts vi. 9.
Colosse, a city of Phrygia, not far from Laodicea. Col. iv. 13.
Corinth, a rich and noble city of Achaia Proper, where many Jews resided, and had a synagogue. Acts xviii. 8.
Crete, an island in the Mediterranean Of the inhabitants, see Titus i. 12.
Cush, the ancient Hebrew name for Ethiopia.
Cyprus, a large island at the bottom of the Mediterranean, about 100 miles south of Cilicia.
Cyrene, a city of Lybia, in Africa. Acts ii. 10; xi. 21.
Dalmatia, a province of Illyrium, lying along the gulf of Venice. 2 Timothy
Damascus, a very ancient, and for many years a royal city, and the capital of Syria. It stands on the west side of the vast plain on the foot of mount Lebanon, and is surrounded by hills (as Calmet says), in the manner of a royal arch. Gen. xv. 2.
Dan, a city south of Lebanon, about a day's journey from Sidon, and the northern extremity of Canaan. Josh. xix. 47.
Decapolis, ten cities and their respective districts, lying in Iturea and Peræa, which united for their mutual security and defence. Mark vii. 31.
Derbe, a city of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor. See Acts xiv. 6, 20.
Dothan, a town about 12 miles north from Shechem. See Gen. xxxvii. 17.
Dura, an extensive plain in the province of Babylon. Dan. iii. 1.
Egypt, an ancient kingdom of Africa, called also Mizraim, or the land of Ham, and famous (or rather infamous) for idolatry and oppression.
Elam, the ancient Hebrew name of Persia.
Emims, a race of giants. Deut. ii. 10, 11. Emmaus, a village about seven miles from Jerusalem. Luke xxiv. 13-35. It is said, that it afterwards grew into the city and colony of Nicopolis.
Endor, a city of Manasseh, within the bounds of Issachar, and noted for the witch whom King Saul consulted. 1 Sam. xxviii. 7.
En-gedi, a city in the desert of Judea, famous for its palm trees and vineyards. 1 Sam. xxiv. 2; 2 Chron. xx. 2; Sol. Song, i. 14. The term En, which signifies " fountain," is prefixed to various other names of places.
Ephesus, a city of Asia Minor, famous for its image and temple of Diana. Acts xix.
Ethiopia, 1. An extensive country of Africa, anciently comprehending Abyssinia and Nubia. 2. The country on the east coast of the Red Sea, whence Moses had his wife. Numb. xii. 1.
Euphrates, the great river, which formed the eastern limit of the land of Israel, taking its rise in the north of mount Taurus.
Ezion-geber, a sea-port of Idumea, where Solomon fitted out his fleets; 1 Kings ix. 26-and near to which was lost the joint fleet of Jehoshaphat and Ahaziah. 2 Chron. xx. 35-37.
Fair Havens, a bay of Crete, near Lasea. Acts xxvii. 8.
'Gadarenes. See Girgasites.
Galatia, a province of Asia Minor, so called (as is said) from the Gauls who settled there.
Galilee, the northern division of Canaan, containing the tribes of Issachar, Zebulon, &c.; bounded by Lebanon on the north, and Samaria on the south. It was divided into Lower and Upper, the latter being mountainous, and being peopled by various nations, was called Galilee of the Gentiles but Lower Galilee was far more populous and rich, and here our Lord so much resided, that he was called a Gali
lean, both Nazareth and Capernaum being in this district.
Gath, an ancient city of the Philistines, whose King afforded to David an asylum. 1 Sam. xxvii. 5, 6.
Gaza, another chief city of the Philistines, the scene of Sampson's chief exploits. Judges xvi.
Gehinnom, the valley of Hinnom, without Jerusalem, and probably including Kidron. It was infamous for the idolatrous rites of Moloch, particularly the part called Tophet, where the idol stood. It was considered as a type of hell, and from it was formed Gehenna, which is so rendered, Matt. v. 22, 29, 30, &c. &c.
Gennesareth (called also Chinnereth), the lake of Galilee, about 20 miles long and 6 broad, surrounded by pleasant towns. See Luke v. 1, &c.
Gerar, the royal city of Abimelech. Gen.
Gerizim, a mountain near Shechem, on which the Samaritans built their temple. See John iv. 20.
Gethsemane, a garden at the foot of mount Olivet, in which were vineyards and wine-presses. Matt. xxvi. 36,
Gibeon, a city of Canaan. The Gibeonites deceived Joshua into a league with them, by which means their lives were spared, but they were made slaves for the tabernacle service. Josh. ix.
Gilead, mountain of, whence came the celebrated balm of Gilead. Jer. viii. 22. This hill lay east of the sea of Galilee, being part of the chain of mountains which extend southward from Lebanon into Judea, including the Trachonitis.
Gilgal, the place where circumcision was renewed in Canaan. Josh. v. 2, 9.
Girgasites, the inhabitants of Girgesa, a town on the east of Genesareth, near to Gadara. See Note on Matt. viii. 28.
Gomorrha, one of the five cities destroyed by fire from heaven. Gen. xix. 2 Goshen, a city and district in Egypt where Jacob dwelt. Gen. xlv. 10; xlvi.34.
Greece, in Hebrew Javan, from a son of Japheth. Gen. x. 2, 4. It is used in Daniel for Macedonia, as well as Greece Proper.
Haran, or Charran, in the north-west of Mesopotamia, the city where Terah died. Gen. xi. 27, 32.
Hebron, a very ancient city, formerly called Kirjath-Arba, or the city of Arba, where several of the Patriarchs and their wives were buried. Gen. xiii. 18; xxiii. 2.
Hermon, a high mountain in the northern extremity of Israel, its summit always covered with snow. Deut. iii. 9.
Hinnom. See Gehinnom.
Hor, a mountain on the borders of Hebron, where Aaron died.
Horeb, a part of mount Sinai. Deut. ix. 8,9.
Jabesh Gilead, a city of Gilead, to the east of the Jordan, which was besieged by the Ammonites in the reign of Saul, and relieved by him. 1 Sam. xi. 1-11. In recollection of this, when Saul was slain, and his body affixed to the walls of Bethshan, some of the inhabitants of this town went and took down the body, and gave it honourable interment. 1 Sam. xxxi. 11-13.
Iconium, the chief city of Lycaonia. See Acts xiv. 1-6.
Idumea, anciently called Edom, included the south of Judea, from the sea of Sodom to the Red sea. In process of time, the Idumeans advanced northward into Judea, nearly as far as Hebron. Under the Maccabees they were conquered, and forced to submit to circumcision.
Jebus, the ancient name of Jerusalem, which see. Its inhabitants were then called Jebusites.
Jericho, the first city which Joshua took after he had crossed the Jordan. Josh. vi. 1, &c. It was famous for the number of palm trees there growing. See Deut.
Jerusalem, the capital of Judea, where Solomon's temple was situated. The city vas built on two hills, mounts Sion and era, with a deep valley between. The ty of David, or the upper city, on Mount on; the lower city, on Mount Acra, and e temple occupied part of a third mount, riah. The upper and lower towns were arated by a high wall through the valand the whole encircled by a strong 1. In Herod's time, the Romans bad stle on the west, called Antonia, which looked the courts of the temple, and e they kept a garrison. "Jerusalem" nmonly explained to mean "the City ace." The Greeks called it Hiero1, or "the Holy Salem." See a i plan of this city, in a corner of our ? İsrael.
el, a city of Issachar, where Ahab palace, and Naboth a vineyard. xxi. 1, &c.
um, a province lying north and est of Macedonia, on the east coast driatic Gulf. Paul visited this and sent thither Titus. Rom. xv. D. iv. 10.
s in Scripture only mentioned in !; viii. 9.
sea-port in the Mediterranean, æsarea, and not far from Lydda, er raised Tabitha to life. Acts
the principal river of Judea, whose g covered with a forest of reeds
and shrubs, afforded shelter to wild beasts, who were, however, driven therefrom when the river overflowed its banks, sometimes to the extent of nearly a mile on each side. Jer. xlix. 19.
Italy, a well-known country of Europe, of which Rome is the capital.
Iturea, a country east of Jordan, sup posed to derive its name from Jetur, a son of Ishmael. Gen. xxv. 15. It included the kingdom of Bashan. Tiberias gave it to Philip the Tetrarch. Luke iii. 1.
Judea, or the land of Israel, has been divided into four parts:-1. The western province, along the borders of the Mediterranean, inhabited by the Philistines. 2. The mountainous district, called the Hill Country. Josh. xxi. 11; Luke i. 39. 3. The wilderness of Judea, along the shore of the Dead Sea. 4. The valley west of Jerusalem. In our Lord's time, Judea extended from the Mediterranean west, to the Dead Sea east; bounded on the north by Samaria, and on the south by Edom, or the Desart.
Kadesh, the name of a wilderness, supposed to be the same as the wilderness of Paran, and the Desart of Zin. Also a city, situated on the borders of this wilderness, west of Edom. Numb. xx. 14—16.
Kadesh Barnea, a city of Moab, bordering on the south of Judab. Num. xx. 1.
Kedar, a region so called in the desart of the Hagarens. Gen. xxv. 18; 1 Chron. i. 29.
Kidron (Kedron, or Cedron), the name of a valley, and of a stream flowing through it, between Jerusalem and the mount of Olives. 2 Sam. xv. 23; 2 Kings xxiii. 4; John xviii. 1.
Kirjath Arba. See Hebron.
Kirjath Jearim, a city of the Gibeonites, which fell to the lot of Judah. It was about nine miles west from Jerusalem, on the road to Lydda. Here the ark remained above 20 years, till David brought it up to Zion. 1 Sam. vii.; I Chron. xii.
Kishon, a river, or torrent rather, which taking its rise from the plain of Jezreel, passed on the north of mount Carmel, and discharged its waters into the Mediterranean. Judges iv. 7, 13.
Lachish, a city of Judah, rebuilt by Rehoboam; 2 Chron. xi. 9: and afterwards besieged by Senacherib; 2 Kings xix. 9. It is supposed to have la'n about eight miles south of Eleutheropolis.
Laish, or Leshem. See Dan.
Laodicea, a city of Asia Minor. See on Rev. iii. 14-22.
Lebanon, Forest of, a celebrated mountain, or rather two ridges of mountaine called Libanus and Anti-Liberous, tua