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Farther prophecies]


in the land, which shall not visit those that be cut off, neither shall seek the young one, nor heal that that is broken, nor feed that that standeth still: but he shall eat the flesh of the fat, and tear their claws in pieces.

17 Woe to the idol shepherd that leaveth the flock! the sword shall be upon his arm, and upon his right eye: his arm shall be clean dried up, and his right eye shall be utterly darkened. (L)



HE burden of the word of the LORD for Israel, saith the LORD, which stretcheth forth the heavens, and layeth the foundation of the earth, and formeth the spirit of man within him.


[respecting Israel,

2 Behold, I will make Jerusalem a cup of trembling unto all the people round about, when they shall be in the siege both against Judah and against Jerusalem.

3 And in that day will I make Jerusalem a burdensome stone for all people all that burden themselves with it shall be cut in pieces, though all the people of the earth be gathered together against it.

4 In that day, saith the LORD, I will smite every horse with astonishment, and his rider with madness: and I will open mine eyes upon the house of Judah, and will smite every horse of the people with blindness.

5 And the governors of Judah shall say in their heart, The inhabitants of EXPOSITION.

(L) Farther prophecies with respect to Judea and Jerusalem. - The three first verses of this chapter have been thought to refer to the destruction of Jerusalem and the temple, either by Nebuchadnezzar, or by the Romans; but we confess we are not certain that it refers to either; it may predict the destruction of the forest itself, of whose mighty cedars scarcely any now remain. Or if it refers to Judea, in being blended with the destruction of the woods that grew on the banks of Jordan, it may metaphorically apply to laying waste the country at a future period, as we have seen it long since fulfilled. In the 14th verse, the disappointed Prophet, discouraged by the ill success of his labours, breaks the staves, or crooks, which must be considered as the badges of his pastoral office, to signify his resignation of it, and the disannulling of God's covenant with the nation; and he is ordered to take in their stead the instruments of a foolish shepherd;" that is, weapons of violence and de

struction; implying, that those who refused to submit to the divine government, should be subjugated to governments of a muca severer character.

It is obvious, that the latter chapters of this book are highly symbolical. The Prophet himself appears as a type of the good Shepherd, the Messiah, and in the ungrateful treatment which himself received, strongly prefigures the treatment of his divine Master. On the resigning his prophetic office, he appeals to them for wages, as the means of ascertaining the estimation in which his services had been held; they then insult him by offering the the price of a slave, and which he resents by casting it to the potter, as intimating that it was the price only of the lowest of labourers; those that tread the clay, or the morter (Nahum iii. 14). In this, however, he is chiefly to be considered as a type, the Evangelist Matthew comparing this with the far more criminal conduct of the Jews in the rejection of our Saviour. (See Matt. xxvii. 9, 10.)

NOTES-Chap. XI. Con.

Ver. 15. The instruments of a foolish shepherd, -What could these be? Certainly what were unsuitable and improper; intimating, that the idolatrous teachers and rulers took wrong means to fulfil their duties, for which they would be called upon hereafter to give account.

Ver. 16. I will raise up-that is, I will permit such an one to come forward, whose character and fate is here described.

Ver. 17. Wo to the idol shepherd.-This will apply equally to king or priest, who may be an idolater. See Ezek. xxxiv. 3, 4.-Their clans-or "hoofs." CHAP. XII. Ver. 1. The burden. -See Note on Isa. xvii. 1.

Ver. 2. A cup of trembiing—“An inebriating and stupifying potion.... Jerusalem shall strike the nations with dread and astonishment." Newcome.

Ver. 3. A burdensome stone-Heb. " A stone of burden." "Jerom has explained this, by informing us that it was an ancient custom, and then observed in the cities, towns, and villages, to have large round stones, which the young men took up, as an exercise of their strength; some raising them as high as the knee, some as high as the breast, and others abore the head, with their arms." Dr. Boothroyd.

Ibid. All that burden themselves with it shall be cut-Newcome, "Wounded." Comp. Matt. xxi. 44. Ver. 4. Every horse with astonishment-orterror." We do not understand this prediction; and as it is generally reckoned among those yet accesplished, we shall not attempt to force a meaning on it Ver. 5. The inhabitants of Jerusalem, &Marg. "There is strength to me, and to the inhaletants," &c. So Newcome,


The fountain]
Jerusalem shall be my strength in the
LORD of hosts their God.

6 In that day will I make the governors of Judah like an hearth of fire among the wood, and like a torch of fire in a sheaf; and they shall devour all the people round about, on the right hand and on the left: and Jerusalem shall be inhabited again in her own place, even in Jerusalem.

7 The LORD also shall save the tents of Judah first, that the glory of the house of David, and the glory of the inhabitants of Jerusalem, do not magnify themselves against Judah.

8 In that day shall the LORD defend the inhabitants of Jerusalem; and he that is feeble among them at that day shall be as David; and the house of David shall be as God, as the angel of the LORD before them.

9 And it shall come to pass in that day, that I will seek to destroy all the nations that come against Jerusalem.

10 And I will pour upon the house of David, and upon the inhabitants of Jerusalem, the spirit of grace and of supplications: and they shall look upon


[of mercy opened.

me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as one mourneth for his only son; and shall be in bitterness for him, as one that is in bitterness for his firstborn.

11 In that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, as the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon.

12 And the land shall mourn, every family apart; the family of the house of David apart, and their wives apart; the family of the house of Nathan apart, and their wives apart;

13 The family of the house of Levi apart, and their wives apart; the family of Shimei apart, and their wives apart;

14 All the families that remain, every family apart, and their wives apart. (M)

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(M) A prophetic burden against Judah and Jerusalem.-If the siege referred to in er. 2, be that of Jerusalem by the Romans, it had a remarkable fulfilment in he effects which the scene had on the vading General (Titus) and his army, ho were shocked at the madness and obinacy of the Jews in destroying themelves and one another, as we shall hereter more particularly remark. (See on [att. xxiv.) Many commentators, hower, consider this prediction as referring an event at a far greater distance (Rev. x. 9.), when, indeed, it may be more siglly accomplished.

The tenth verse is quoted by St. Matthew referring to our Saviour, who was erced upon the cross; and such a lamen


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tation no doubt took place, when, after St. Peter had charged the Jews with killing "the Prince of Life," the Spirit of grace was poured out from on high, and many thousands were subsequently converted to Christianity. St. John however assures us, that another day is coming when every eye shall see the Saviour, they especially "who pierced him "-meaning the descendants of his murderers -" and all the kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him." The text will then receive its complete accomplishment. (See Rev. i. 7.) When this mourning is said to be of every family apart, perhaps it must not be taken literally; but implies that it shall not be a general external mourning only; but private, distinct, and individual.


Fer. 6. Like an hearth of fire-this is supposed refer to clearing the woods by fire; the common ctice in some countries.

Ver. 8. He that is feeble-Heb. "Fallen." This y imply either weakness of body, or dejection in d. As God, as the angel of the Lord.-Does this imply, that the illustrious person usually led the Angel of the Lord," was also himself ? The language, however, as applied to Judah, ■yperbolical,

Ver. 10. They shall look upon ME. - Newcome says, 36 MSS and two Editions read (with John xix. 34)," Upon HIM;" the difference only half a letter. So Dr. Boothroyd.-Dr. Pye Smith, however, remarks, that the majority of MSS, and those of the highest antiquity, and all the ancient versions, consent in the common reading, "upon ME." Smith's Messiah, voi. i. p. 327, N.As the mourning of Hadadrimmon -- probably for king Josiah See 2 Chron. xxxv. 22-25.

The shepherd smitten]


day, saith the LORD of hosts, that I will cut off the names of the idols out of the land, and they shall no more be remembered: and also I will cause the prophets and the unclean spirit to pass out of the land.

3 And it shall come to pass, that when any shall yet prophesy, then his father and his mother that begat him shall say unto him, Thou shalt not live; for thou speakest lies in the name of the LORD: and his father and his mother that begat him shall thrust him through when he prophesieth.

4 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the prophets shall be ashamed every one of his vision, when he hath prophesied; neither shall they wear a rough garment to deceive:

5 But he shall say, I am no prophet, I am au husbandman; for man taught me to keep cattle from my youth.


[and the sheep scatter.

6 And one shall say unto him, What are these wounds in thine hands? Then he shall answer, Those with which I was wounded in the house of my friends.

7 Awake, O sword against my slep herd, and against the man that is my fellow, saith the LORD of hosts: suite the shepherd, and the sheep shall be scattered: and I will turn mine hand upon the little ones.

8 And it shall come to pass that in all the land, saith the LORD, two part therein shall be cut off and die; but the third shall be left therein.

9 And I will bring the third par through the fire, and will refine them as silver is refined, and will try then as gold is tried: they shall call on my name, and I will hear them: I wills, It is my people: and they shall s The LORD is my God. (N)


(N) Jerusalem's pardon and purifica tion." lu that day shall a fountain be opened." On this passage Dr. Blayney excellently remarks, "The blood of Christ which cleanseth from all sin (1 John i. 7.) is manifestly here intended, the Jews being, upon their repentance and conversion, to be admitted to all the privileges of the Christian covenant. Sin and uncleanness are legal terms; the former denotes sin generally, or any transgression of the law which required atonement; the latter is used for that uncleanness which secluded man from all intercourse with God and holy things. Whatever efficacy legal sacrifices had in purifying the people,

the same is ascribed to the blood of Christ in the gospel dispensation."

What follows relates to the destruction of idols, and to the expulsion from Judea of necromancy, and false pretensions to the spirit of prophecy; insomuch, that men, instead of wearing a rough garment to deceive, should renounce all pretensions of that nature, and pass only for field slaves, or labourers in agriculture. And even if any person should observe on them the marks of the idol they had been accustomed to serve, he should be ready to excuse himself, by pretending it was only the mark of his master, or received in the house of mourning-certain scars being considered as tokens of mourning:


CHAP. XIII. Ver. 2. The prophets-that is, the false prophets, or prophets of idolatry.

Ver. 4. A rough garment to deceive-Heb. "A garment of hair to lie."

Ver. 6. What are these wounds. -Dr. Blayney says, "Two ancient customs are clearly alluded to here; that of the idolatrous prophets, who sought to engage the attention of their god by cutting of themselves, 1 Kings xviii. 28. The other, that of those who cut themselves as a token of their grief and mourning for their deceased relations and friends. Jer. xvi. 6. It appears also from Jer. xlviii, 37, that these cuttings were performed on the hands in particular." See our Note on Isa, xliv. 5.

Ver. 7. Against the man that is my fellow.-The word for man implies strength, or power; that rendered my fellow, implies nearness: so Blayney renders it, "The man who is next to me in power and authority." Dr. Pye Smith renders it, "The man near to me," meaning, personally united. Dr. Boothroyd adheres to the common version; "Because (says he) I think there is the same ambiguity (in it)

as in the original. It may mean, (my) intimate friend or associate; .... my equal, as enjoying the

same nature." Phil. ii. 5.

Ibid. Smite Newcome (following the Arabic) supplies "I will," as in Matt. xxvi. 31.-7 my hand upon the little ones-that is, upon Christ's "little flock," Luke xii. 32. The apostles were all preserved, except Judas.

Ver. 8. Two parts. cut off. This, it is pro bable, was literally the case in the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans.

Ver. 9. The third part through the fire.-This was the "remnant" of which Isaiah and St. Paul speaks (Rom, ix. 27). This passing through the fire, seems to allude to those fiery ordeals which were common among the heathen, and some of which were acts of dedication to their idols; these were utterly prohibited to the Jews; but they appear to besilad ed to, Isa. xliii. 2, where the trials of God's people are compared to "walking through the fire," See also our Expos. of 2 Kings xvi. and Note an

Ezek. xvi. 21.

The second coming]



BEHOLD, the day of the LORD cometh, and thy spoil shall be divided in the midst of thee.

2 For I will gather all nations against Jerusalem to battle; and the city shall be taken, and the houses rifled, and the women ravished; and half of the city shall go forth into captivity, and the residue of the people shall not be cut off from the city.

3 Then shall the LORD go forth, and ight against those nations, as when he ought in the day of battle.

4 And his feet shall stand in that lay upon the mount of Olives, which s before Jerusalem on the east, and he mount of Olives shall cleave in the nidst thereof toward the east and tovard the west, and there shall be a ery great valley; and half of the

[of Messiah mountain shall remove toward the north, and half of it toward the south.

5 And ye shall flee to the valley of the mountains; for the valley of the mountains shall reach unto Azal: yea, ye shall flee, like as ye fled from before the earthquake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah and the LORD my God shall come, and all the saints with thee.

6 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the light shall not be clear, nor dark:

7 But it shall be one day which shall be known to the LORD, not day, nor night but it shall come to pass, that at evening time it shall be light.

8 And it shall be in that day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem; half of them toward the former sea, and half of them toward the hinder sea in summer and in winter shall it be.


ay, so great should become the zeal gainst idolatry, that if any should persist their idolatrous profession, their own arents should be ready to execute the aw against them in its utmost severity. See Deut. xviii. 20.)

The latter part of the chapter adverts o the character and sufferings of Messiah; rather, as is remarked by Bp. Chandler, here is an obvious connection between is and the two preceding chapters, the tervening passages being of the nature E parenthesis. In the 11th chapter, we ave an allusion to the betrayment of our aviour by Judas-in the twelfth, to his ucifixion by the Jews, and their subse

quent penitence-and in this, to his high and mysterious relation to the Deity, and to his death, considered as a satisfaction to the divine justice. The 7th verse is an appeal to that justice, as if it had slept during the former dispensations, and the time was now come for it to awake against "the good Shepherd," who had engaged to "lay down his life for his sheep." was slain and the sheep were scattered, but not destroyed. And even now, after all the calamities which the children of Abraham have suffered, "a remnant according to the election of grace," is preserved, and shall eventually be restored to greater privileges than ever.


CHAP. XIV. Ver. 2. I will gather all nationsewcome, "All the nations:" if this verse be unrstood of the Romans, this must refer to the na. ons confederate with them.

Ver. 3. Then shall, &c.-that is, after the heathen tions have been made use of to correct the vices of Jews, those nations shall also be punished acrding to their demerits. This is the language of the prophets. In the day of battle.-The aldee refers this to the destruction of Pharaoh and =host at the Red Sea; but it seems a general alluon to God's manifold appearances on the behalf of = people Israel,

Ver. 4. Upon the mount of Olives, &c.-" Joseus informs us, that by the earthquake in the days Uzziah (Amos i. 1), one half of the mountain was oken off from the western side, and having rolled ur furlongs towards the eastern side, stopped, so at the roads were choked up. In a similar manr, either by an earthquake, or some other means, e valley of the mountains (i. e. between the mounns on which Jerusalem stood) should be choked ." Boothroyd.


Ver. 5. Unto Azal-a place so called because near Jerusalem. All the saints (Heb. "holy ones") with thee-or "with him." So the versions, Chaldee, and many MSS. Newcome.

Ver. 6. The light shall not be clear, nor darkNewcome, "Not a bright light and darkness." This is very obscure; we should explain," not sometimes light and sometimes dark, but all brightness, so that at even tide it shall be light."

Ver. 7. It shall be one day - Marg." The day shall be one."-Not day nor night-Heb. "Not day and not night;" which is generally understood to mean a cloudy day, neither clear, nor very dark; while some, on the contrary, understand it of a bright and perpetual day. (See Assembly's Annot.) In this view, it is parallel with Isa. Ix. 19, 20; the words, "at even tide it shall be h synonymous with Isaiah's, "Thy sun sha go down."

Ver. 8. Living waters.-See Eze Ver. 10. Turned (Marg. plain-that is, "the valleys sh hills made low;" Isa. xl. 4.


Are re

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9 And the LORD shall be king over all the earth in that day shall there be one LORD, and his name one.

10 All the land shall be turned as a plain from Geba to Rimmon south of Jerusalem and it shall be lifted up, and inhabited in her place, from Benjamin's gate unto the place of the first gate, unto the corner gate, and from the tower of Hananeel unto the king's wine-presses.

11 And men shall dwell in it, and there shall be no more utter destruction; but Jerusalem shall be safely inhabited.

12 And this shall be the plague wherewith the LORD will smite all the people that have fought against Jerusalem; Their flesh shall consume away while they stand upon their feet, and their eyes shall consume away in their holes, and their tongue shall consume away in their mouth.

13 And it shall come to pass in that day, that a great tumult from the LORD shall be among them; and they shall lay hold every one on the hand of his neighbour, and his hand shall rise up against the hand of his neighbour.

14 And Judah also shall fight at Jerusalem; and the wealth of all the heathen round about shall be gathered together, gold, and silver, and apparel, in great abundance.

15 And so shall be the plague of the horse, of the mule, of the camel, and


[the last days.

of the ass, and of all the beasts that shall be in these tents, as this plague.

16 And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left of all the nations which came against Jerusalem, shall even go up from year to year to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, and to keep the feast of tabernacles.

17 And it shall be, that whoso will not come up of all the families of the the earth unto Jerusalem to worship the King, the LORD of hosts, even upon them shall be no rain.

18 And if the family of Egypt g) not up, and come not, that have wo rain; there shall be the plague, wherewith the LORD will smite the heathen that come not up to keep the feast of tabernacles.

19 This shall be the punishment of Egypt, and the punishment of all ra tions that come not up to keep the feast of tabernacles.

20 In that day shall there be upon the bells of the horses, HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD; and the pots in the LORD's house shall be like the bowls before the altar.

21 Yea, every pot in Jerusalem and in Judah shall be holiness unto the LORD of hosts: and all they that sacrifice shall come and take of them, and seethe therein and in that day there shall be no more the Canaanite in the house of the LORD of hosts. (0)


(0) Predictions of judgment, and promises of perpetual peace and holiness.-The first verses of this chapter are usually ap plied to the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans; but as the rest of the chapter is generally referred to a far distant period, namely, that of the Millennium, probably these also may have a farther accomplishment in either the commencement or close

of that period. As to the miraculous event alluded to in ver. 4, it would be presumptuous, as well as vain, to attempt its expianation. Many have grounded hereon confident expectation of a personal appearance of the Messiah, for which we do not find sufficient warrant. The subsequent parts of the chapter, so far as they relate to God's people, appear to describe, -1. A period of remarkable light and

NOTES-Chap. XIV. Cou.

stand, that not only should all impediments to the spread of truth and righteousness be removed; but also that the whole land should become alike fertile; even the Dead Sea healed. See Ezek. xlvii. 8, 9.

Ver. 12. The Lord will smite.-Compare ver. 3. Ver. 18. That have no rain-Heb. U pon whom is not (rain)." "In lower Egypt, it rains often; in middle, seldom; in upper, not at all." See Newcome. Ver. 20. Upon the bells of the horses, &c.-" God's name shall be honoured in every circumstance." Newcome. In the East, both horses and camels

are richly caparisoned, with bells about their necks.


Ver. 21. All they that sacrifice.-This seems to indicate a period when, as in the first days of Chris tianity, all things shall be enjoyed in common. There shall be no more the Canaanite, &c.-Taking this literally, it means, that the house of the Lord shall be no more prophaned by unholy persons; er if by Canaanite, we understand (as the word mens) a merchant, or trafficker; it means, there stall no trading there. See John ii, 13-16.

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