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15 So again have I thought in these days to do well unto Jerusalem and to the house of Judah: fear ye not.
16 These are the things that ye shall do; Speak ye every man the truth to his neighbour; execute the judgment of truth and peace in your gates: 17 And let none of you imagine evil in your hearts against his neighbour and love no false oath for all these are things that I hate, saith the LORD.
18 And the word of the LORD of hosts came unto me, saying,
19 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; the fast of the fourth month, and the East of the fifth, and the fast of the seventh, and the fast of the tenth, shall be to the house of Judah joy and gladess, and cheerful feasts; therefore ove the truth and peace.
20 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; t shall yet come to pass, that there hall come people, and the inhabitants f many cities:
21 And the inhabitants of one city shall go to another, saying, Let us go speedily to pray before the LORD, and to seek the LORD of hosts: I will go also.
22 Yea, many people and strong nations shall come to seek the LORD of hosts in Jerusalem, and to pray before the LORD.
23 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; In those days it shall come to pass, that ten men shall take hold, out of all languages of the nations, even shall take hold of the skirt of him that is a Jew, saying, We will go with you: for we have heard that God is with you. (H)
THE burden of the word of the
LORD in the land of Hadrach, and Damascus shall be the rest thereof: when the eyes of man, as of all the tribes of Israel, shall be toward the LORD.
2 And Hamath also shall border
(H) Prophetic assurances of the restotion of Israel, with great additims from e Gentiles.-God's zeal on the behalf of 5 people operates in two ways; first, in e reproof and punishment of enemies, to had taken advantage of their depressed ation under divine chastisement, (see ap. i. 14, 15); and, secondly, as it reects his people, in promoting their intet and prosperity, so long as they live obedience to his commands. In the pter before us, the Lord promises inase of population; health, and length of s; success in all their labours; favoure treatment from the surrounding nas, who had formerly oppressed them; E, eventually, a large accession from n. The consequence of their prosty should not be envy (as often is the
case), but a desire of others to unite with them in their holy festivities and devotions. "In those days," as Abp. Newcome renders the concluding verse, "ten men shall take hold, from all the languages of the nations; they shall even take hold of the skirt of him that is a Jew, saying,
We will go with you; for we have heard that God is with you.' """To take hold of another's skirt," observes the learned Prelate just quoted, " is a gesture naturally used to entreat assistance and protection. This and the three foregoing verses refer to the great accession of converts which the Jewish church received between the captivity and the coming of Christ; to the number of Christian disciples which the first preachers made, and to the future conversions, of which the restoration of the Jews will be an eminent mean.
CHAP. IX. Ver. 1. In (or on) the land of Hadrach-a place near, or in, the valley of Damascus. Newcome. When the eyes, &c.-" I cannot conceive how these words can be made to signify the eyes of Jehovah over man,' as represented by Honbigant and the ancient versions. The order of the words leads plainly to our present English translation. And this implies that a time would come, when men, and the tribes of Israel in particular,
The heathen threatened,]
thereby; Tyrus, and Zidon, though it be very wise.
3 And Tyrus did build herself a strong hold, and heaped up silver as the dust, and fine gold as the mire of the streets.
4 Behold, the LORD will cast her out, and he will smite her power in the sea; and she shall be devoured with fire.
5 Ashkelon shall see it, and fear; Gaza also shall see it, and be very sorrowful, and Ekron; for her expectation shall be ashamed; and the king shall perish from Gaza, and Ashkelon shall not be inhabited.
6 And a bastard shall dwell in Ashdod, and I will cut off the pride of the Philistines.
7 And I will take away his blood out of his mouth, and his abominations from between his teeth: but he that remaineth, even he, shall be for our God, and he shall be as a governor in Judah, and Ekron as a Jebusite.
8 And I will encamp about mine house because of the army, because of him that passeth by, and because of him that returneth: and no oppressor shall pass through them any more: for now have I seen with mine eyes.
[and Messiah promis
9 Rejoice greatly, O daughter Zion; Shout, O daughter of Jerusan: behold, thy King cometh unto thee: he is just, and having salvation; busty, and riding upon an ass, and upon colt the foal of an ass.
10 And I will cut off the charis from Ephraim, and the horse from Je rusalem, and the battle-bow shal cut off: and he shall speak peace unt the heathen: and his dominion shall be from sea even to sea, and from the river even to the ends of the earth.
11 As for thee also, by the blood thy covenant, I have sent forth thị prisoners out of the pit wherein is £)
12 Turn you to the strong hold, prisoners of hope: even to day del declare that I will render double unta thee;
13 When I have bent Judah jar me, filled the bow with Ephraim, and raised up thy sons, O Zion, against thy sons, O Greece, and made thee as the sword of a mighty man.
14 And the LORD shall be seen over them, and his arrow shall go forth a the lightning: and the Lord GoD shall blow the trumpet, and shall go with whirlwinds of the south.
NOTES-Chap. IX. Con.
should turn their eyes toward Jehovah, either in hope of deriving some blessings from him, or in gratitude for favours received." Dr. Blayney. These words should, however, be read in parenthesis, as in Newcome.
Ver. 2. Shall border thereby or thereon. Abp. Newcome supplies the preposition on (from ver. 1.) to the other places named in this verse. -Though it (or she) be very wise.-See Ezek. xxviii. 2-5.
Ver. 3. As the mire.- Many towns in the East are built with bricks dried only in the sun; and Maundrell says, that "upon a violent rain at Damascus, the whole city becomes, by the washing of the houses, as it were a quagmire." Harmer, vol. i. p. 170.
Ver. 4. Power in the sea. See Ezek. xxvi. 17. "The Sidonians (according to Diodorus Siculus), on the approach of an army, sent against them by Ochus, king of Persia, first of all destroyed their shipping at sea; and then, retiring within the walls of their city, when they found they could hold out no longer, set fire to their houses, and burnt themselves and their effects together." Newcome.
Ver. 5. Ashkelon shall see, &c.—that is, the Philistines, their neighbours, shall be alarmed and tremble.
Ver. 6. A bastard shall dwell in Ashdod-Neb. "A stranger," or foreigner; Boothroyd, "A spurious race of different nations; Newcome, "Stran
blood," mixed with wine; but these were absolutely forbidden to the Jews (Levit. vii. 26; Ps x 4 and consequently to the heathen on their conversion See Orient. Lit. No. 752.
Ibid. He shall be for our God-that is, a convent to the God of Israel. As a governer—meaning, that he shall be as a citizen of Jerusalem, entled even to fill its magistracy; but the Ekronite, or tiktural born Philistine, should rank in Ashdod as a Jebusite did in Judah, that is, as an alien: so Blay Josephus mentions the conversion of many of the Philistines to Judaism. (Antiq. lib. xiii. xv. 4.
Ver. 8. Because of the army-Newcome, With an army, so that none shall pass there," namely, ne
Ver. 9. Thy king.-This term is never applied Zerubbabel, who is only called governor-Hating salvation-that is, in himself, hence all the asc versions render it" a Saviour." Compare Isa. In 11. See this fulfilled, Matt. xxi. 8, 9.
Ver. 10. I will cut off the chariot. — Israel was forbidden the employment of chariots and bacars (Deut. xvii. 16); hence the Messiah came meetly riding upon an ass. Compare Hos. ii. 18.
Ver. 1. As for thee also,-The feminine pronoun limits this to the daughter of Zion; . . to the Jews, the covenant with whom, at Sinai, was a fied by blood. Exod. xxiv. 6-8.—Out of the pot, &c.-Pits, or caves, were commonly used for pris sometimes miry ones. Isa, xxiv. 2, Jer. xxxvui é Ver. 13. When I have bent Judak, &c.-"A strong and sublime manner of expressing that God wead use Judah and Ephraim as his instruments ci d struction" against Greece. Newcotne.
ASK ye of the LORD rain in the
time of the latter rain; so the LORD shall make bright clouds, and give them showers of rain, to every one grass in the field.
2 For the idols have spoken vanity,
17 For how great is his goodness, and the diviners have seen a lie, and
(1) The Lord promises to defend his hurch, and to send them the Messiah.the Introduction to this book, we sug ested a doubt which has arisen among the arned; not as to the divine authority of ese last six chapters (for that is unimachable), but whether they were not itten by Jeremiah, or, some of them, by still earlier prophet. Such a discussion ould be very unsuitable for family read
; but the Editor takes the liberty to te, that after considering the arguents which have been advanced on botn es, he feels fully satisfied with the eviice produced by Mr. Hartwell Horne, Mr. Prebend. Townsend, that they were itten by Zechariah, though probably at much later period than the rest, and r the close of his life. The original unds of the suspicion will be seen in Note on Matt. xxvii. 9. (Horne's Crit. -od. N. Ed. vol. iv. p. 209. Townsend's Test. Arrang. vol. ii. p. 762-766.)
his chapter contains prophetic burdens tive to Syria, Phenicia, and Palestine, ch were conquered successively by Neaduezzar and by Alexander the Great. ositors differ as to which may be here nded, but perhaps both may be alluded The chief subject of this chapter is, ever, the peaceful kingdom of Messiah,
which being "not of this world," neither requires nor admits of military pomp, or secular force; but which is introduced by himself riding upon an humble ass, and thereby "pouring contempt on all earthly grandeur, and rejecting all human aid."
The address to Zion, or the daughter of Zion (ver. 11-13), may require elucida tion. The prisoners out of the pit, must be the Jews returned from the captivity; this being effected by, or in accord with, the blood of their covenant, seems to imply that this deliverance from their second bondage was in consequence of their being God's covenanted people; and that they were thereby as much bound to gratitude and obedience as were their forefathers by their miraculous deliverance from Egypt and farther, that every victory they obtained over their enemies, called upon them for obedience to his laws, and for sacrifices upon his altar.
In the close of the chapter, the God of Israel speaks of them as his sheep and his jewels, and intimates, if we mistake not, that their example may be singularly useful and ornamental, like a splendid ensign which shows from afar, and animates and encourages those who are entering upon the good fight of faith: their young men should rejoice as with the joy of harvest (Isa. ix. 3.); and their maidens praise God with all the hilarity of the vintage.
15. Filled like bowls, and as the corners of ar.-Filled, namely with blood, which some n of the blood of their enemies slain, and of the blood of the victims shed as thanksofferings. (Assembly's Ann. in loc.) If we to the former, as most do, we must refer it to ient mode of fighting (still retained in some of the world), when armies attacked each ith shouts and yells, and tore one another to like wild beasts. See Num. xxiii. 24. If we he marginal reading, "Shall fill both the nd the corners,' "&c. we may refer it to the of the sacrifices, received into bowls, and d over the corners of the altars, where the Es were deposited.
Ver. 16. The stones of a crown.-Some suppose this of "crowned trophies;" but the stones of a crown are jewels, and such does the Lord consider his faithful people (Mal. iii. 17). Nor is this inconsistent with the following metaphor, since ensigns were often highly embellished; and perhaps the lifting them as ensigns, may refer to the exhibition of their good example.
Ver. 17. Cheerful-Marg. "To grow, or speak ;" i. e. to praise the God of harvest.
CHAP. X. Ver.1. Bright clouds-Marg. "Lightnings," which generally accompanied these heavy Ver. 2. For the idols-Heb. "Teraphim," oracles,
have told false dreams; they comfort in vain: therefore they went their way as a flock, they were troubled, because there was no shepherd.
3 Mine anger was kindled against the shepherds, and I punished the goats for the LORD of hosts hath visited his flock the house of Judah, and hath made them as his goodly horse in the battle.
4 Out of him came forth the corner, out of him the nail, out of him the battle-bow, out of him every oppressor together.
5 And they shall be as mighty men, which tread down their enemies in the mire of the streets in the battle: and they shall fight, because the LORD is with them, and the riders on horses shall be confounded.
6 And I will strengthen the house of Judah, and I will save the house of Joseph, and I will bring them again to place them; for I have mercy upon them and they shall be as though I had not cast them off: for I am the LORD their God, and will hear them. 7 And they of Ephraim shall be
like a mighty man, and their heart shall rejoice as through wine: yea, their children shall see it, and be glad; their heart shall rejoice in the LORD.
8 I will hiss for them, and gather them; for I have redeemed them: and they shall increase as they have increased.
9 And I will sow them among the people and they shall remember me in far countries; and they shall live with their children, and turn again.
10 I will bring them again also out of the land of Egypt, and gather them out of Assyria; and I will bring them into the land of Gilead and Lebanon ; and place shall not be found for them.
11 And he shall pass through the sea with affliction, and shall smite the waves in the sea, and all the deeps of the river shall dry up: and the pride of Assyria shall be brought down, and the sceptre of Egypt shall depart
12 And I will strengthen them in the LORD; and they shall walk up and down in his name, saith the LORD. (K)
(K) Israel reproved for seeking to idols and false prophets, and directed to look to the true God only. The promise of prosperity and plenty in the close of the preceding chapter, leads the Prophet to suggest the means of obtaining them; supplication to Jehovah, and not to idols, whose worship had already proved a fertile source of calamities. The rest of the chapter (like the preceding one) promises to the Jews returning from captivity (for they came gradually and at different times) much increase and prosperity; and this in a manner so extraordinary, that it is described by allusions to the deliverance from Egypt. This may, however, as is generally thought, have a farther reference to their still future return from their dispersion, and final restoration.
In the promise of returning prosperity to the nation, it is particularly predicted, that they should have no need to recur to foreign aid; but, under the divine provi dence, should be able to furnish from themselves every kind of ruler, from the corner stone and the nail (the chief magtrates), on whom the weight of gover ment rests (and which terms are applied to the Messiah himself, Ps. cxviii. 22; Isa. xxii. 23.), to the military commander (the battle bow), and even the exactor, or taxgather, here called the oppressor—a word of extensive import, including those whose office was least respected or beloved-bet speaking of whom it is promised to Jerssalem, I will make thine officers peace, and thine exactors (the word here used, righteousness (Isa. Ix. 17).
NOTES-Chap. X. Con.
-False dreams-Heb. " Dreams of falsehood.". Went their way as a flock-that is, followed one another in the same track.They were troubledMarg." Answered that," &c. Perhaps the sense is, that they followed one another, under the excuse that there was no oracle at Jerusalem.
Ver.3. Punished the goats-Heb. "Visited (judgments) upon the he-goats," i. e. arbitrary and wicked rulers.As his goodly horse Literally, "His horse of glory," or gorgeous horse, richly caparisoned, as the horse of a commander-in-chief in
the day of battle.
Ver. 4. Out of him (Judah) came forth the corner -Newcome, "From him (shall be) the corner-stem. See Exposition.
Ver. 5. The riders, &c. - Marg. "They shail make the riders on horses ashamed.--See ch. x 10 Ver. 8. I will hiss for them-Compare Isa. v. S Ver.9. I will son them-so that they shall greatly increase, as in the verse preceding ---Sk=1; ime with their children- Newcome, Shall preserve
Evil and good]
OPEN thy doors, O Lebanon, that the fire may devour thy cedars. 2 Howl, fir tree; for the cedar is fallen; because the mighty is spoiled: howl, O ye oaks of Bashan; for the forest of the vintage is come down.
3 There is a voice of the howling of the shepherds; for their glory is spoiled a voice of the roaring of young lions; for the pride of Jordan s spoiled.
4 Thus saith the LORD my God; Feed the flock of the slaughter;
5 Whose possessors slay them, and old themselves not guilty: and they hat sell them say, Blessed be the LORD, or I am rich: and their own shepherds ity them not.
6 For I will no more pity the inhaitants of the land, saith the LORD: ut, lo, I will deliver the men every ne into his neighbour's hand, and into e hand of his king: and they shall mite the land, and out of their hand will not deliver them.
7 And I will feed the flock of slaugh, even you, O poor of the flock. ad I took unto me two staves; the e I called Beauty, and the other I led Bands; and I fed the flock. 8 Three shepherds also I cut off
in one month; and my soul lothed them, and their soul also abhorred me.
9 Then said I, I will not feed you : that that dieth, let it die; and that that is to be cut off, let it be cut off; and let the rest eat every one the flesh of another.
10 And I took my staff, even Beauty, and cut it asunder, that I might break my covenant which I had made with all the people.
11 And it was broken in that day: and so the poor of the flock that waited upon me knew that it was the word of the LORD.
12 And I said unto them, if ye think good, give me my price; and if not, forbear. So they weighed for my price thirty pieces of silver.
13 And the LORD said unto me, Cast it unto the potter: a goodly price that I was prized at of them. And I took the thirty pieces of silver, and cast them to the potter in the house of the LORD.
14 Then I cut asunder mine other staff, even Bands, that I might break the brotherhood between Judah and Israel.
15 And the LORD said unto me, Take unto thee yet the instruments of a foolish shepherd.
16 For, lo, I will raise up a shepherd
HAP. XI. Ver. 1. Open thy doors, O Lebanon. Many apply this passage to the temple (as) t with the wood of Lebanon, 1 Kings v. 18). #ney is of opinion, that " These three first verses relate only to the destruction of the city and le by the Romans; and such (he adds) was the cation made by Rabbi Johanan, when the doors e temple opened of their own accord, before the le was burnt; which circumstance is attested osephus."
-r. 2. The forest of the vintage-Marg. "Fenced t." Newcome remarks," The original word is Fed to cedars and vines." Ezek. xvij. 8, 23. T. 3. The pride of Jordan:-The wood on its s, the resort of lions. Jer. xlix. 19.
r. 4. The flock of the slaughter-or, of slaughes ver. 7; i. e. the Jewish church now devoted struction by the hand of the Chaldeans. See gs xxiv. 14-16, and sequel.
=.7. Two staves- that is, shepherds' staves; ❝ crooks.”The one I called BEAUTY come, intimate how beautiful and pleasant the land I have been, if its inhabitants had kept their ant with God."-The other I called BONDS signify the anion which ought to have subbetween Judah and Israel." Newcome.
8. Three shepherds also I cut off in one -It is, perhaps, best to confess we do not unnd this. Neither Blayney, Newcome, nor zoyd, throw any light upon it, farther than the
general remark (often made) that the prophets are in Scripture said to do what they are commanded, only to predict. See Jer. i. 10.
Ver. 9. The flesh of another Heb. "Of his neighbour," the most dreadful feature of a famine, See Deut. xxviii. 53-57.
Ver. 10. It was broken-that is, "His covenant of feeding the flock." Newcome.
Ver. 11. So the poor-"The common people, who observed this action of the prophet, understood it to be symbolical, and to represent God's conduct towards them." Boothroyd.
Ver. 12. Give me my price-" Rate my labours as a true shepherd. And they rated them contemptuously; thirty pieces of silver being the price of a slave." Newcome. See Exod. xxi. 32.
Ver. 13. I have been prized-" Jehovah calls the price of the prophet his own price, and commauds that it should not be accepted." Newcome.In the house of the Lord. It is natural to suppose that the prophet met, in some part of the temple, the potter who made the vessels for sacred use.
Ver. 14. That I might break the brotherhood.From this verse it has been inferred, that the chapter must have been written before the separation of the two kingdoms, or at least before the captivity of Israel. But this is not conclusive. These words might refer only to the disunion of the returned captives, and to the dissensions breaking out amongst them and so they are understood by Dr. Boothroyd.