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laid the foundation of this house; his hands shall also finish it; and thou shalt know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me unto you.

10 For who hath despised the day of small things? for they shall rejoice, and shall see the plummet in the hand of Zerubbabel with those seven; they are the eyes of the LORD, which run to and fro through the whole earth.

11 Then answered I, and said unto him, What are these two olive trees upon the right side of the candlestick and upon the left side thereof?

12 And I answered again, and said unto him, What be these two olive branches which through the two golden pipes empty the golden oil out of themselves?

13 And he answered me and said, Knowest thou not what these be? And I said, No, my lord.

14 Then said he, These are the two anointed ones, that stand by the LORD of the whole earth. (D)


[a Aying roll. The


THEN I turned, and lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a flying roll.

2 And he said unto me, What seest thou? And I answered, I see flying roll; the length thereof is twenty cubits, and the breadth thereof t cubits.

3 Then said he unto me, This is the curse that goeth forth over the face of the whole earth; for every one that stealeth shall be cut off as on this side according to it; and every one that sweareth shall be cut off as on that side according to it.

4 I will bring it forth, saith the LORD of hosts, and it shall enter into the house of the thief, and into the house of him that sweareth falsely by my name: and it shall remain in the mid of his house, and shall consume it with the timber thereof and the stones thereof.

5 Then the angel that talked with


(D) The vision of the golden candlestick and two olive trees.-The Prophet, overpowered by his last vision, is roused by the angel to behold another, intended farther to assure Joshua and Zerubbabel of their success in finishing the temple; that they should surmount every obstacle, and at length, by the good providence of God, bring forth the top-stone, amidst the joyful acclamations of the spectators. It is plain that the golden candlestick is the Jewish state; the oil, the spirit or power of God, in opposition to human efforts; and the two anointed ones, Joshua and Zerub

babel, the sole appointed instruments of the great work in hand. Neither was the high priest, nor the temporal governor, endowed with coercive authority or human

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strength; but they were assisted by "the eyes of the Lord (chap. iii. 9.), which ru to and fro throughout the whole earth, show himself strong in the behalf of the whose heart is perfect towards him. (2 Chron. xvi. 9.)-The application of this prophecy (in its typical sense) to the Mes siah, is, like that of the preceding ones, plain and obvious. Jesus Christ unites in his person both the kingly and priestly offices. He is anointed with the Spirit above measure. (John iii. 34.) He is the light of the church and of the world, (John i. 4, 9.)-and by his union with the divine nature, possesses an inexhaustible fund or supply of every thing necessary to fulfil his different offices as "a priest upon his throue," as represented in chap. vi. 13.

to the curses in Deut. xxvii. and xxviii., and te Ezekiel's scroll, chap. ii. 9, 10.

NOTES-Chap. IV. Con. Ver. 10. With these seven-namely, the eyes of the Lord, mentioned chap. iii 9. See Exposition. Ver. 12. Two olive branches. These appear to have overhung the lamp-bearer, and to have emptied their oil into the golden bowl at tɔp.-Which through, &c.-Heb. Which by the hand (i.e. by means of) two golden pipes (or tubes) empty out of themselves oil into the golden (candlestick), &c.

Ver. 14. Two anointed ones-Heb. "Sons of oil;" meaning, Zerubbabel and Joshua, who were appointed, qualified, and enabled to execute the ar

duous task.

CHAP. V. Ver. 1. A flying roll-i. e. a large sheet of parchment, written on both sides with the curses of God's law against wickedness; alluding, probably,

Ver. 2. The length twenty cubits, and the breadth ten: that is, on the lowest calculation, feet by lå Ver. 3. For every one that stealth, &c.—To wi appears, that on one side was written the cures against fraud and oppression, and on the other, thes against perjury, profaneness, and idolatry, or swearing by false gods. We would therefore read the following clause (omitting the particle as), “Every one that stealeth shall be cut off, according to it (the writing) on this side; and every one that sweareth, according to it on that side."

Ver. 4. It shall consume it.-It shall be like the dry rot.

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me went forth, and said unto me, Lift up now thine eyes, and see what is this that goeth forth.

6 And 1 said, What is it? And he said, This is an ephah that goeth forth. He said moreover, This is their resemnblance through all the earth.

7 And, behold, there was lifted up a talent of lead: and this is a woman that sitteth in the midst of the ephah. 8 And he said, This is wickedness. And he cast it into the midst of the ephah; and he cast the weight of lead upon the mouth thereof.

9 Then lifted I up mine eyes, and looked, and, behold, there came out two women, and the wind was in their wings; for they had wings like the vings of a stork: and they lifted up he ephah between the earth and the


10 Then said I to the angel that alked with me, Whither do these bear he ephah?

11 And he said unto me, To build an house in the land of Shinar: and


[and the chariots.

it shall be established, and set there upon her own base. (E)


AND I turned, and lifted up mine

eyes, and looked, and, behold, there came four chariots out from between two mountains; and the mountains were mountains of brass. 2 In the first chariot were red horses; and in the second chariot black horses;

3 And in the third chariot white horses; and in the fourth chariot grisled and bay horses.

4 Then I answered and said unto the angel that talked with me, What are these, my lord?

5 And the angel answered and said unto me, These are the four spirits of the heavens, which go forth from standing before the LORD of all the earth.

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6 The black horses which are therein go forth into the north country; and the white go forth after


(E) The flying roll, and the woman ickedness) in an ephah.-The first vision, the representation of a large flying roll, otes that God's judgments against the ked are great and swift. The vision ms to intimate farther, that the Baby. ian captivity happened in consequence the wickedness committed by the Jews ore that period, and that a like calamity cht befal them, if they relapsed into Er former crimes; some of which are itioned. The chapter may be conred altogether as a solemn admonition, a multitude of curses, and particu

larly dispersion and captivity, should be the punishment of national depravity.

The woman in the ephah is wickedness personified, with a particular reference to idolatry, which had been hitherto their master sin. The cake of lead which covered the ephah, may denote the wrath of God against this sin; and the two women with wings powerful as those of storks, may represent (as the Chaldee Paraphrase seems to intimate) Israel and Judah, carrying back idolatry to the land of Shinar, which is Babylon, where it probably originated, and always reigned.


T. 6. An ephah-a dry measure of about three , so that the figure of wickedness must appear diminutive hag, or pigmy, covered over with ent of lead in a three peck measure. This is resemblance.-Dr. Stonard renders it "their "aspect," or appearance; but Newcome, by the ancient versions, reads, " This is their ty," and Boothroyd, "This (shows) their ini. We think, however, that there is no ne. for either alteration.

7. A talent of lead -3000 shekels, or 125 lb. hould call it a pig of lead. Dr. Stonard ren"a cake."

9. Came out-Newcome, "Went forth."

of a stork-whose wings are so strong that il not only fly far, being birds of passage, but mes carry the parent birds (when old and in

firm) upon their backs. Dr. Harris's Nat. Hist.

Ver. 10. To the land of Shinar-that is, Babylon. We are perfectly aware that Rome is, in the New Testament, called Babylon; but we are not aware it is so called in the Old, or during the existence of the ancient Babylon; nor can we persuade ourselves that the predictions of this chapter have any reference to Europe; much less that "the north country" (ch. vi. 6.) can possibly intend "the great western empire." Stonard's Comm. p. 387, &c.

Ver. 11 Upon her own base-that is, as we conceive, where it originated, or was founded.

CHAP. VI. Ver. 5. Four spirits-Marg. "winds;" so Blayney. But winds do not stand; besides, the like figure is elsewhere explained in reference to spiritual beings, as chap. i. 10, So Newcome, &e.

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them; and the grisled go forth toward the south country.

7 And the bay went forth, and sought to go that they might walk to and fro through the earth: and he said, Get you hence, walk to and fro through the earth. So they walked to and fro through the earth.

8 Then cried he upon me, and spake unto me, saying, Behold, these that go toward the north country have quieted my spirit in the north country. 9 And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,

10 Take of them of the captivity, even of Heldai, of Tobijah, and of Jedaiah, which are come from Babylon, and come thou the same day, and go into the house of Josiah the son of Zephaniah;

11 Then take silver and gold, and make crowns, and set them upon the head of Joshua the son of Josedech, the high priest;


[is The Branch

12 And speak unto him, saying, Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, saying, Behold the man whose name is The BRANCH; and he shall grow up out of his place, and he shall build the temple of the LORD:

13 Even he shall build the temple of the LORD; and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon throne; and he shall be a priest upo his throne: and the counsel of peace shall be between them both.

14 And the crowns shall be to He lem, and to Tobijah, and to Jedaal, and to Hen the son of Zephaniah, fi a memorial in the temple of the LORD.

15 And they that are far off the come and build in the temple of the LORD, and ye shall know that the LORD of hosts hath sent me unto yo And this shall come to pass, if ye diligently obey the voice of the L your God. (F)


(F) A vision of four chariots, and a prophecy of the glory of Messiah.-The mountains of brass from which these chariots issued, are supposed to be indicative of the divine counsels and decrees, brass being the emblem both of strength and splendour. The first vision of this Prophet exhibited single horses, rode by spiritual beings: here they are yoked together in chariots, but they are said, like the former, to be sent forth into all the earth, in different directions, according to the orders of the great Supreme. These are usually explained in reference to the four great monarchies in Daniel. (chap. ii. and vii.) The red horses are supposed to represent the Assyrian Empire; but as this was now destroyed, these are named only and retire. "The black horses" says Abp. Newcome seem to denote the Persian Empire, which, by subduing the Chaldeans, and

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being about to inflict a second heavy cha tisement on Babylon, quieted God's sp with regard to Chaldea; a country alwa spoken of as lying to the north of th Jews. The white horses seem to be th Macedonian Empire; which, like Persian, overcame Chaldea. The sports bay (or brown) horses seem to be t Roman," from the variety in its forms government." These went into the country, as far as Egypt and other par of Africa.

The subsequent vision, in the close this chapter, is evidently a typical prede tion. The Prophet is directed to go w some of the principal persons who returned from the captivity, and tase from the sacred treasury sufficient and silver to make crowns or disdem probably of different forms, the printi of which were to be placed on the hea Joshua the high priest, as a type of the


Ver. 11. Set them upon the head of Joshua-this name, it is well known, means, in Hebrew, a Saviour, as Jesus does in Greek. It is evident our translators understood that more than one crown was placed on the head of Joshua, and we should surmise, that both the priestly mitre and the temporal diadem were placed on the head of the type; not only to signify the union of the two offices, but, as Bp. Chandler suggests, to avoid exciting the jealousy of the Pagan sovereigns, as Zerubbabel was then chief of the house of David. (Def. of Christ., p. 244.)

Ver. 12. The branch.-See Hag. ii. 21-23. The

learned prelate just cited shows, that the R both in the Targum and elsewhere, ascribe T to Messiah. (Def. p. 246–250.) ———— He shot (P) up out of his place-Marg. Branche him;" Newcome, Branch out from his pas

Ver. 13. Them both - Newcome, “The some divines (as Witsius, &c.) refer this the f ther and Son: but we think it rather t❤ union of these offices in Christ. So Cara, tan Poole, &c.

Ver. 14. The crowns shall be to Frim These crowns were not to be worn, but to se up in the temple, as memorials only.

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AND it came to pass in the fourth year of king Darius, that the word of the LORD came unto Zechariah in the fourth day of the ninth month, even in Chisleu;

2 When they had sent unto the house of God, Sherezer and Regemmelech, and their men, to pray before the LORD;

3 And to speak unto the priests which were in the house of the LORD of hosts, and to the prophets, saying, Should I weep in the fifth month, separating myself, as I have done these so many years?

4 Then came the word of the LORD of hosts unto me, saying,

5 Speak unto all the people of the land, and to the priests, saying, When ye fasted and mourned in the fifth and seventh month, even those seventy years, did ye at all fast unto me, even to me?

6 And when ye did eat, and when ye did drink, did not ye eat for yourselves, and drink for yourselves?

7 Should ye not hear the words which the LORD háth cried by the

[as to fasting.

former prophets, when Jerusalem was inhabited and in prosperity, and the cities thereof round about her, when

men inhabited the south and the plain?

8 And the word of the LORD came unto Zechariah, saying,

9 Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, saying, Execute true judgment, and shew mercy and compassions every man to his brother:

10 And oppress not the widow, nor the fatherless, the stranger, nor the poor; and let none of you imagine evil against his brother in your heart.,

11 But they refused to hearken, and pulled away the shoulder, and stopped their ears, that they should not hear.

12 Yea, they made their hearts as an adamant stone, lest they should hear the law, and the words which the LORD of hosts hath sent in his spirit by the former prophets; therefore came a great wrath from the LORD of hosts.

13 Therefore it is come to pass, that as he cried, and they would not hear; so they cried, and I would not hear, saith the LORD of hosts:

14 But I scattered them with a


Messiah, of whom it is said, " Behold the nan whose name is the BRANCH; and he hall branch up out of his place; and be hall build the (true) temple of the Lord," hat is, the Christian Church, and "he hall bear the glory." It is added, "he hall sit and rule upon his throne; and he hall be a priest upon his throne, and the ounsel of peace shall be between them oth." As applied to the type, this indiates the harmony between Joshua and Zeabbabel, the high priest and secular Goernor. As, however, the latter had no ›ercive power, and the influence of Joshua

as high-priest must have been considerable, with him the authority must chiefly have rested, and on his head probably was a double crown. (See Note.) In the antitype, however, we know that both the offices (the kingly and the priestly) are harmoniously united. That Messiah, who is the foundation of his church, is also the topstone thereof (the Omega as well as Alpha)-and when the building shall be completed with shoutings of "Grace! Grace!" unto it, then "He shall bear the glory."


CHAP. VII. Ver. 2. To pray before the Lordeb. To entreat the face of the Lord;" doubtless offering sacrifices on the altar.

Ver. 3,5. Should I weep?-that is, keep the feast, the 5th month, when the temple was destroyed. Kings xxv. 8-10.Seventh month-when Geiah was murdered. 2 Kings xxv. 25, 26. Ver. 6. Did ye not eat, &c. for yourselves.-The t words, though not in the original, are evidently plied. When they fasted, they had not reformed, Iviii. 5; and when they feasted, it was to regale mselves, and not to rejoice in the Lord. er.7. By (Heb. "by the hand of") the former

prophets-so ver. 12.-When men inhabited the south.-See Obad. 9, and Note.

Ver. 9. True judgment-Heb. "The judgment of truth."

Ver. 11. They pulled away the shoulder-Heb. "Gave a withdrawing shoulder" like a refractory heifer, refusing the yoke. See Neh. ix. 29.-They stopped their ears-Heb. "Made their ears heavy." Ver. 12. As an adamant-stone— totally unfeeling and insensible.

Ver. 14. With a whirlwind-that is, all manner of ways.—Pleasant land-Heb. “Land of desire."

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[to rebuild Jerusalem,

8 And I will bring them, and they shall dwell in the midst of Jerusalem: and they shall be my people, and I will be their God, in truth and in righteousness.

9 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; Let your hands be strong, ye that her:

AGAIN the word of the LORD of in these days these words by the moth

hosts came to me, saying,

2 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; I was jealous for Zion with great jealousy, and I was jealous for her with great fury.

3 Thus saith the LORD; I am returned unto Zion, and will dwell in the midst of Jerusalem: and Jerusalem shall be called a city of truth: and the mountain of the LORD of hosts, the holy mountain.

4 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; There shall yet old men and old women dwell in the streets of Jerusalem, and every man with his staff in his hand for very age.

5 And the streets of the city shall be full of boys and girls playing in the

streets thereof.

6 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; If it be marvellous in the eyes of the remnant of this people in these days, should it also be marvellous in mine eyes? saith the LORD of hosts.

7 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; Behold, I will save my people from the east country, and from the west country;


of the prophets, which were in the day that the foundation of the house of the LORD of hosts was laid, that the temple might be built.

10 For before these days there was no hire for man, nor any hire for beast; neither was there any peace to him that went out, or came in, because of the affliction: for I set all men every one against his neighbour.

11 But now I will not be unto the residue of this people as in the former days, saith the LORD of hosts.

12 For the seed shall be prosperous; the vine shall give her fruit, and the ground shall give her increase, and the heavens shall give their dew; and ! will cause the remnant of this people to possess all these things.

13 And it shall come to pass that as ye were a curse among the heather, O house of Judah, and house of Israel; so will I save you, and ye shall be a blessing: fear not, but let your hands be strong.

14 For thus saith the LORD of hosts; As I thought to punish you, when your fathers provoked me to wrath, saith


(G) Judgment and mercy far preferable to ritual observances.-A deputation being sent from the Jews who still remained at Babylon, to seek the Lord, and to enquire of the Priests and Prophets at Jerusalem, whether they were still bound to observe those fasts which had been appointed on occasion of the destruction of Jerusalem, and kept during the captivity, the Prophet is commanded to take this opportunity of enforcing upon them the weightier matters

of the law, judgment and mercy; and to caution them that they might not incur such calamities as befel their fathers. He intimates withal, that in their former fasts they had regarded themselves more than God; and that they rested too much on the performance of external rites, although all the Prophets had largely insisted on the superior excellence of moral duties:

duties, however, which must always be regarded in connection with the authority by which they are enjoined-"Thou shalt delight thyself in the Lord!" (Is.lviii. 14.)

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Ver. 10. There was no hire for man, ke-that is, no agricultural employment for the poor. Ver. 12. The seed shall be prosperous - Bed "Peace," in which the Jews include every blessing. Ver. 16. Execute the judgment, &c.-Heb. “Trad, and the judgment of peace, judge."

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