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obtained a peaceable possession of the kingdom. Induced by bribery, he removed the good Onias from the Jewish high-priesthood, and placed his unworthy brother Jason in his stead; but with him also he dealt deceitfully, and on receiving a second bribe, gave the office to another brother. He then "came up" to Egypt with a small company, and by his artifices, obtained footing there, and plundered several of the provinces. After this he raised a powerful army, and by some means got into his possession his nephew Ptolemy Philometor. They often ate and drank together, and formed a covenant or treaty; hut both practised great duplicity, and each deceived the other.
At length Antiochus returned to Syria with spoils of immense value (1 Macc. i. 19, 20.); and then his heart was (set) against the holy covenant:" for Jason (above mentioned) hearing a report of his death, attempted to recover the highpriesthood; and for that end raised 1000 men, and took possession of the temple. Antiochus, supposing that the Jews had all rebelled, beseiged and took the city, slew 40,000 of the inhabitants, and set up an idol in the sanctuary.
After this he made another attempt on Egypt, but without success; the haughty Romans ordering him instantly to leave that country. He then again turned his revenge upon the Jews: slew many, wasted their city, and built a fortress near the emple to prevent them from attending on ts worship. (1 Mac. i. 41. &c.) Thus was he temple deserted, and the daily sacrifice iscontinued. Soon after this Antiochus sued a decree for a uniformity of worship, id (of course) the suppression of the :wish religion. Many commentators wever extend this (at least in a secondary w) to the final pollution of the temple, d its destruction, by the Romans; and the persecutions which then followed, well on the Christians as the Jews. When it is here said "they that underad shall instruct many," it is naturally ed, how can this be applied to the pious s in the time of Antiochus? Did they ur to make proselytes to Moses? Pers not: but did not their example instruct y? and did not, in fact, many Chris
tian Martyrs and Confessors, in after times, derive much hope and consolation from the history of these Jewish Martyrs? As to the character of Antiochus, it is difficult to name any feature of wickedness to which it does not correspond. He neither feared God, nor regarded man.
Yet it must be confessed, that there are some points in which this "wilful king" far more resembles the Antichrist of St Paul and St. John, than the tyrant now before But as there are many prophecies which have a double reference to David and to Christ; so we see no absurdity in considering this abandoned monarch as a type of Antichrist, whose character, however, will fall more properly under our notice in the New Testament, and particularly in the book of the Revelation. In the mean time, we must confess that we can neither find, nor form, any satisfactory, interpretation of the last verses of this chapter. Some expositors have brought them down to our own times, particularly Mr. Faber, and still more recently, the Rev. Ed. Cooper, of whose hypothesis the following is an outline.
He refers the character now before us to the celebrated Napoleon Bonaparte, whose exploits are still fresh in every memory. Educated a Catholic, he renounced all revealed religion, though he liberally tolerated all. "The God of forces," however, was the idol of his idolatry, and he is said to have dedicated a military chapel to the god Mars. In 1799, he turned his arms against the holy land, and invaded Syria. He then, by a series of rapid successes, made himself master of Egypt, where he professed the faith of Mahomet and imposed taxes to maintain his army, which was recruited from all the conquered countries. Here he is alarmed by the preparations of the Turks and the Pacha of Damascus : hence he passes to the holy land, and pitches his camp between the Dead Sea and the Mediterranean.-In 1808, he is resisted by the Spaniards in the south, and driven beyond the Pyrennees; he is afterwards attacked by Austrin on the south, Russia and Germany on the north, and dies in exile at St. Helena, — (See Brit. Rev. No. 48, p. 450.)
3 And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever.
4 But thou, O Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book, even to the time of the end: many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall be increased.
5 Then I Daniel looked, and, behold, there stood other two, the one on this side of the bank of the river, and the other on that side of the bank of the river,
6 And one said to the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, How long shall it be to the end of these wonders?
7 And I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a time, times, and an half; and when he shall have ac
[and last judgment.
complished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished.
8 And I heard, but I understood not: then said I, O my Lord, what shall be the end of these things?
9 And he said, Go thy way, Daniel for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end.
10 Many shall be purified, and made white, and tried; but the wicked shall do wickedly: and none of the wicked shall understand; but the wise shall understand.
11 And from the time that the daily sacrifice shall be taken away, and the abomination that maketh de solate set up, there shall be a thousand two hundred and ninety days.
12 Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days.
13 But go thou thy way till the end be: for thou shalt rest, and stand in thy lot at the end of the days. (R)
(R) The prophecies summed up by a reference to the resurrection and last judgment. We have been obliged to place the concluding verses of the preceding chapter
among the mysteries which yet " remain to be fulfilled" in the latter ages: and we are here still hurried on in the vortex of Scripture prophecy to the second coming of our Lord, to the resurrection of the NOTES.
CHAP. XII. Ver. 1. Michael.-Lightfoot, Horsley, Witsius, Faber, and many others, apply this to our Saviour, Christ; but Mede, Warburton, and other learned men, explain it of a created angel. Preb. Townsend's O. T. Arr. vol. ii. p. 722. The common explanation of Michael is," one like God," but nothing can be argued from Hebrew names. Gabriel signities" The strong God;" Elijah, "God the Lord," and Elisha, "God the Saviour," &c.
Ibid. Such as never was. See Matt. xxiv. 21; Rev. xvi. 18.-Written in the book that is, of God's remembrance. See Mal. iii. 16; Luke x, 20, &c.; Rev. xx. 12.
Ver. 2. Many of them-Wintle, "Multitudes that sleep," &c. Compare John v. 28.
Ver. 3. They that be wise- Marg. "Teachers;" the same word as used chap. xi. 33. "They that understand shall instruct many."
Ver. 5. Upon the bank-Heb. “Lip," or margin. Ver. 6. Upon (Marg. "above") the waters.-It should be remembered that these are represented as angelic, or aerial beings, who could walk equally well
on water as on land.
Ver. 7. His right hand and left.-It was the usual form of swearing to lift up one hand, and usually the right; but we recollect no other instance of lifting up both; it is supposed to give emphasis.-For a time, times, &c.-Mr. Wintle has shown, that both the New Testament and Classic writers use times (or seasons) for years; so we sometimes say, so many summers, or winters. These years usually consisted of 360 days, prophetically used for years. Thus three years and a half, or 1260 days, will stand for
so many years, as in verses 11 and 12.—When be shall have accomplished to scatter, &c. -Wintle reads (and Boothroyd to the same effect), And after the accomplishment of the dispersions of the holy people (i. . Israel), all these things shall be fulfilled." This is the same period, it should be recollected, which is ascribed to "the little hore," the Roman Antichrist, in chap. vii. 25.
Ver. 11. One thousand two hundred and sinsty days. This again is the same period, differently expressed; for three years and a half, of 360 days each, make just 1260 days. As the prophecies of these two last chapters refer chiefly to the Eastern empire, while the little horn, chap. vii., refers evidenty to the west, commentators have distinguished between the east and western Antichrist, referring the former to Mahomet, and the latter to the Pope, both having arisen about the same time; that is, the western Antichrist assumed his temporal authority, which made him a prophetic beast, in 606, and Mahomet, according to Prideaux, in the same year began the forgery of his Koran. If we date 1260 years from this period (as does Bp. Newton and most modern commentators), it will bring us to A. D. 1866, toward the close of the present century, by which time many expect, and more hope, that both Popery and Mahometanism will be overthrown. If we date the 1290 days in this chapter from the same period, it will bring us to very near the close of the present century, when we hope the ruins of both establishments may be cleared away; perhaps also the Jews converted, and return to their own land; and the blessed period alluded to in ver. 12, may be the are
bed to str
I heard, u
dead, and to the day of judgment. Michael, the prince, is generally understood to be the Son of God himself, who, under the Old Testament, often appeared as captain of the Lord's hosts, and of his people's
The first verse brings us to the eve of the general resurrection and final judgment; when the books are opened, and all found written in the book of life (or mercy) shall be delivered. But hark! the trumpet sounds, and the graves are opened! And the many, the multitudes of them who sleep in the dust of the earth, are awakened, e some to " everlasting life, and some to everlasting contempt and shame." But the discovery is premature; the scene is instantly closed the words are shut up, and the book is sealed. One important fact, however, is left revealed; "Many shall run to and fro," hither and thither, like couriers in the time of war, "and knowledge shall be increased:" knowledge of the most important kind, the knowledge of God's salvation. Then, those who are wise themselves, shall endeavour to enlighten others; to "turn them from darkness to light," and from sin to righteousness; and those who are thus active, whether to instruct infants at home, or Pagans abroad, shall shine with the splendour of the firmament, and as the stars for ever. Here is Certainly the best encouragement to ministerial and missionary exertions, for whatever may be the labours and trials of such on earth, "great is their reward in hea
[to the end.
one asked the recording angel, How long shall it be to the end of these wonders? The answer is still clothed in mystical language: "For a time, times, and half a time," at the end of which, all these things shall be fulfilled.
On the numbers here given in the 11th and 12th verses, Dr. Boothroyd thus remarks: "Here is a fixed point at which to begin our calculation; but it is still difficult to determine when this period commenced. The taking away the daily sacrifice, and setting up the abomination of desolation, may be applied to various similar events. The profanation of the temple by Epiphanes is said to be this setting up, (1 Mac. i. 54), and our Lord applies it to the destruction of the temple by the Romans. (Matt. xxiv. 15.) Some date it from the rise of Antichrist, and suppose the 30 years more respected the period when the Jews will be converted, and the latter 45, the time when the fulness of the Gentiles shall be brought in."
But if Daniel heard and understood not, we surely need not blush to own our ignorance. Two things, however, are perfectly clear: 1. That the end of all the changes and revolutions in the world, is the purification of the church from error and from sin; and, 2. That at the final close of all these transactions, every good man will have an honourable lot assigned to him among those that are redeemed and purified. In the mean time, it is our duty to be diligent in studying the Scriptures, and active in promoting the great ends of providence, as there revealed, but not too curious to pry between the sacred leaves which God has "closed and sealed."
of the Millennium, which is generally expected to commence with the 7000th year of the world, as we hall have farther occasion to remark.
As to the 2300 days in chap. viii. 14, we have rearked above (see Note there), they may probably literally intended: but since men so great as
ODENDA TO CHAP. IX., Ver. 24-27. We have given the above as the most nerally received interpretation, and proly the true one, though attended with siderable difficulties. Some of these m to be avoided (though others may created) by commencing the calculain the 20th of Artaxerxes, when orders given for rebuilding the city as well e temple. The great difficulty, how regards the last week of years, when Romans destroyed the temple, and , instead of following the death of ah within seven years, was almost 40 after that event.
order to avoid this difficulty, Dr. Slodivides the prophecy into two parts,
Sir Isaac and Bp. Newton have reckoned them as prophetic years, they may possibly terminate with some of the other periods. However, we have no disposition to prognosticate; "Blessed is he that waiteth!"
and reckons the first week as completed in the building of the temple; but this week, he considers as previous to, and forming no part of the 70 weeks, which he commences from the completion, and not the foundation, of the temple; and terminates with its destruction in A. D. 70. In this view, he applies the whole of ver. 26 to the Messiah, the middle clause of which he thus renders: "And he (Messiah) shall destroy the city and the sanctuary with the leader which cometh (Titus): and his end shall be with an inundation, &c. (p. 42.)
We mention this hypothesis merely to recommend it to examination, for which we have here no room.
THE BOOK OF THE PROPHET
HOSEA, the first in order of the twelve MINOR Prophets, (whose writings sometimes made a separate volume) exercised his office in the kingdom of Israel much about the same time that Isaiah exercised his in the kingdom of Judah, and probably longer. "His prophecies are chiefly (but by no means exclusively) directed to the ten tribes, before their captivity, reproving them for their sins, exhorting them to repentance, and threatening them with destruction, in case of impenitence; but comforting the pious with the promise of the Messiah, and of the happy state of the church in the latter days. His style is so abrupt, sententious, and concise, that it borders sometimes on obscurity. And how should it not, when the subjects of 60 years' prophecy are condensed into a few pages? But it is, in many places, moving and pathetic, and, not seldom, beautiful and sublime. Hosea is a bold reprover, not only of the vices of the people, but also of their kings, princes, and priests. Like most other of the Hebrew prophets, however, he tempers his denunciations of vengeance with promises of mercy; and the transitions from the one to the other, are often sudden and unexpected. He is generally supposed to have prophecied from the year 785 to 725, before the Christian Era." Dr. Jn. Smith,
Through all the minor Prophets, we shall pay constant attention to Abp. Newcome; and upon this prophet in particular to Bp. Horsley, who is one of its latest and ablest critics and commentators. The book is poetically rendered by all the modern transiators, and the poetry is of the most ancient cast: "pointed, energetic, and concise," says Bp. Lowth.
Before we enter upon our Exposition, we may here briefly consider a question which will necessarily meet us in the very entrance of the book. "Was Hosea directed to, and did he really, marry a wife of whoredom? or is this only to be considered as a vision, as some think, or a parable, as others?" Abp. Newcome seems to consider it as a fact, and Bp. Horsley is most decidedly of that opinion. We confess that we are not fond of resolving all the prophetic actions into mere visionary transactions, nor do we see any necessity for so doing in the present instance. The Prophet is not ordered to commit either adultery or fornication, but to marry; nor does it appear that the woman persevered in her criminality. The fact seems to us, that she had been previously married, during which connexion she had been criminal with another man; and actually had, at this time, children living with her, who had been born in adultery. This woman, who had been an adulteress, and these children of adultery, he is commanded to receive into his family; but there is no intimation of her being false to him; and a change of character may, we think, fairly be presumed. It may be said to have been an unseemly connexion; but the divine command justifies it; and all who knew of the Prophet's conduct would, of course, know the reason of it, aud the authority on which he acted.
Bp. Horsley is, indeed, of opinion, that she was also unfaithful to the Prophet afterwards, which made her the more correct type of the Jewish Church. Of this, however, we see no necessity, since the object was to teach them, not to practice, but to abbor idolatry.
HE word of the LORD that came unto Hosea, the son of Beeri, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah; and in the days of Jeroboam the son of Joash, king of Israel.
2 The beginning of the word of the LORD by Hosea. And the LORD said to Hosea, Go, take unto thee a wife of whoredoms and children of whoredoms: for the land hath committed great whoredom, departing from the LORD.
3 So he went and took Gomer the aughter of Diblaim; which conceiv, and bare him a son.
4 And the LORD said unto him, all his name Jezreel; for yet a little hile, and I will avenge the blood Jezreel upon the house of Jehu, and l cause to cease the kingdom of the use of Israel.`
And it shall come to pass at that , that I will break the bow of Israel he valley of Jezreel.
And she conceived again, and a daughter. And God said unto
him, Call her name Lo-ruhamah: for I will no more have mercy upon the house of Israel; but I will utterly take them away.
7 But I will have mercy upon the house of Judah, and will save them by the LORD their God; and will not save them by bow, nor by sword, nor by battle, by horses, nor by horsemen.
8 Now when she had weaned Loruhama, she conceived, and bare a
9 Then said God, Call his name Lo-ammi: for ye are not my people, and I will not be your God.
10 Yet the number of the children of Israel shall be as the sand of the sea, which cannot be measured nor numbered; and it shall come to pass, that in the place where it was said unto them, Ye are not my people, there it shall be said unto them, Ye are the sons of the living God.
11 Then shall the children of Judah and the children of Israel be gathered together, and appoint themselves one head, and they shall come up out of the land for great shall be the day of Jezreel. (A)
The Prophet commanded to marry an ess, that he might have children by fording figurative instruction.-Un- figure of a wife proving false to her ze vows, and bearing children likely w her example, the Prophet reprehe shameful idolatry of Israel, rovoked God to cast them off. The assage contains information by ac tead of words. The Lord had been -d unto Israel, and they owed him ty of a wife to a tender husband;
instead of this, however, they had long addicted themselves to spiritual fornication, or idolatry. The names here given to the Prophet's children, are all emblematical. The first is intended to put Israel in mind of their unrepented guilt, and the acts of cruelty committed in their palace of Jezreel. (1 Kings xxi. 1.) The second and third, signifying "Not finding mercy," and "Not my people," denote that, in consequence of their guilt, they were to be rejected and disowned by God. He promises, however, to repair the loss to his church,
Ver. 2. Great whoredom-that is, idolDeut. xxxi. 16.
d the Lord said.. Call his name Jezreel. = is differently interpreted; either, the "(which is adopted by Bp. Horsley), or, Ow, " which is preferred by Dr. Boothhing that God would scatter Israel over as a sower scatters seed. See ch. ii. 23. Not il avenge the blood of Jezreel. ezebel in Jezreel, for he was commandthe house of Ahab (2 Kings ix. 7-10); in other instances, while residing at Jezreel. (1 Kings xxi.) Newcome. seemed to be the delight of Jehu; and eyond his commission 2 Kings x. 11-14?
And will cause to cease. See 2 Kings xv. 8-12, 29. Ver. 5. Break the bow- that is, the military strength. It is supposed, either that King Zecha rial died in this valley (Jezreel), or that some signal defeat was here sustained.
Ver. 6. Lo-ruhamah - that is, according to our margin, "Not having obtained mercy."-For I will no more have mercy-Heb. "I will not add any more to," &c.- But I will utterly-Newcome, "surely;" Heb. "Taking, I will take them away. Ver. 7. Not save them by bow, &c. See 2 Kings xix. 35.
Ver. 9. Lo-ammi-Marg. " Not my people." See 1 Pet. ii. 10.
Ver. 10. Yet the number, &c.-See Rom. ix. 27, 28.