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the border of Hamath. And this is the north side. 18 And the east side ye shall measure from Hauran, and from Damas1 cus, and from Gilead, and from the land of Israel by Jordan, from the border unto the east sea. And this is the east side. 19 And the south side southward, from Tamar even to the waters of strife in Kadesh, the river to the great sea. And this is the south side southward. 20 The west side also shall be the great sea from the border, till a man come over against Hamath. This is the west side. 21 So shall ye divide this land unto you according to the tribes of Israel.

22 And it shall come to pass, that ye shall divide it by lot for an inheritance unto you, and to the strangers that sojourn among you, which shall beget children among you: and they shall be unto you as born in the country among the children of Israel; they shall have inheritance with you among the tribes of Israel. 23 And it shall come to pass, that in what time the stranger sojourneth, there shall ye give him his inheritance, saith the Lord GOD.


NOW these are the names of the tribes.

From the north end to the coast of the way of Hethion, as one goeth to Hamath, Hazar-enan, the border of Damascus northward, to the coast of Hamath; for these are his sides east and west; a portion for Dan.

2 And by the border of Dan, from the east side unto the west side, a portion for Asher. 3 And by the border of Asher, from the east side even unto the west side, a portion for Naphtali. 4 And by the border of Naphtali, from the east sile unto the west side, a portion for Manasseli. 5 And by the border of Manassch, from the east side unto the west side, a portion for Ephrain. 6 And by the border of Ephraim, from the east side even unto the west side, a portion for Reuben. 7 And by the border of Reuben, from the east side even unto the west side, a portion for Judah.

8 And by the border of Judah, from the east side unto the west side, shall be the offering which ye shall offer of five and twenty thousand reeds in breadth, and in length as one of the other parts, from the east side unto the west side: and the sanc tuary shall be in the midst of it. 9 The oblation that ye shall offer unto the LORD shall be of five and twenty thousand in

[several tribes.

length, and of ten thousand in breadth, 10 And for them, even for the priests, shall be this holy oblation; toward the north five and twenty thousand in length and toward the west ten thousand in breadth, and toward the east ten thousand in breadth, and toward the south five and twenty thousand in length: and the sanctuary of the LORD shall be in the midst thereof. 11 It shall be for the priests that are sanctified of the sons of Zadok; which have kept my charge, which went not astray when the children of Israel went astray, as the Levites went astray. 12 And this oblation

of the land that is offered shall be unto them a thing most holy by the border of the Levites. 13 And over against the border of the priests, the Levites shall have five and twenty thousand in length, and ten thousand in breadth all the length shall be five and twenty thousand, and the breadth ten thousand. 14 And they shall not sell of it, neither exchange, nor alienate the first fruits of the land for it is holy unto the LORD.

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15 Aud the five thousand, that are left in the breadth over against the five and twenty thousand, shall be a profane place for the city, for dwelling, and for suburbs. and the city shall be in the midst thereof. 16 And these shall be the measures thereof; the north side four thousand and five hundred, and the south side four thousand and five hundred, and on the east side four thousand and five hundred, and the west side four thousand and five hundred. 17 And the suburbs of the city shall be toward the north two hundred and fifty, and toward the south two hundred and fifty, and toward the east two hundred and fifty, and toward the west two hundred and fifty. 18 And the residue in length over against the oblation of the holy portion shall be ten thousand eastward, and ten thousand westward and it shall be over against the oblation of the holy portion; and the increase thereof shall be for food unto them that serve the city. 19 And they that serve the city shall serve it out of all the tribes of Israel. 20 All the oblation shall be five and twenty thousand by five and twenty thousand ye shall offer the holy oblation foursquare, with the possession of the city.

21 And the residue shall be for the prince, on the one side and on the

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other of the holy oblation, and of the possession of the city, over against the five and twenty thousand of the oblation toward the east border, and westward over against the five and twenty thousand toward the west border, over against the portions for the prince: and it shall be the holy oblation; and the sanctuary of the house shall be in the midst thereof.

22 Moreover from the possession of the Levites, and from the possession of the city, being in the midst of that which is the prince's, between the border of Judah and the border of Benjamin, shall be for the prince.

23 As for the rest of the tribes, from the east side unto the west side, Benjamin shall have a portion.

24 And by the border of Benjamin, from the east side unto the west side, Simeon shall have a portion.

25 And by the border of Simeon, from the east side unto the west side, Issachar a portion.

26 And by the border of Issachar, from the east side unto the west side, Zebulun a portion.

27 And by the border of Zebulun, from the east side unto the west side, Gad a portion.

28 And by the border of Gad, at


[of the city.

the south side southward, the border shall be even from Tamar unto the waters of strife in Kadesh, and to the river toward the great sea.

29 This is the land which ye shall divide by lot unto the tribes of Israel for inheritance, and these are their portions, saith the Lord God.

30 And these are the goings out of the city on the north side, four thou sand and five hundred measures.

31 And the gates of the city shall be after the names of the tribes of Israel: three gates northward; one gate of Reuben, one gate of Judah, one gate of Levi.

32 And at the east side four thou sand and five hundred and three gates; and one gate of Joseph, one gate of Benjamin, one gate of Dan.

33 Aud at the south side four theusand and five hundred measures: and three gates; one gate of Simeon, one gate of Issachar, one gate of Zebulun.

34 At the west side four thousand and five hundred, with their three gates; one gate of Gad, one gate Asher, one gate of Naphtali.


35 It was round about eighteen thousand measures: and the name of the city from that day shall be, The LORD is there. (Y)


(Y) Ver. 21-35. The division of the land, and the gates of the city.-There is as much prudence as modesty, in not attempting to explain what we cannot com prehend; and those commentators who have been most anxious to remove all obscurities. have been compelled to confess themselves non-plussed in the visions of Ezekiel. The great outlines of the allegory are as much as we dare hope to understand; but the fulfilment of these predictions, may, as in other instances, render intelligible what now seems mo-t obscure. Though the return from the Babylonish captivity included but a very small part of the ten tribes of Israel, there is reason to believe a remnant of them is still preserved in some of the Eastern countries, and will be forthcoming whenever the God of Israel shall give the word. What is meant by the "Holy oblation" it is difficult to explain, since it is neither confined to the Temple, nor the holy city; nor does it extend to the whole of the holy

land. The best idea we can form of its extent (as Dr. Boothroyd suggests) is by conceiving a square of 25,000 cubits each way, or about seven English miles in length and breath; and this square divided lengthwise into three parts (or rectangles) thus: 10,000 for the priests, 10,000 for the Levites, and 5000 for the city: with the temple in the midst of the whole plot of ground. A part also was to be added for the king's palace and pleasure grounds. The rea ous of this proportion are to us far from evident; but the portions of the prie-t and Levites probably included pasture grounds, and perhaps vineyards, for the use of the Temple. The increase of the number of gates (double those of the former city) is a circumstance we by no means understand; but it is copied by St. John in his Apocalyptical description of the New Jerusalem. (Rev. xxi. 21.) The descriptive name here given to the city, JEHOVAH SHAMMAH, is sufficiently definite as implying God's continual presence with his church, under every dispensation.





DANIEL is the last of those usually called the four greater Prophets, not for their superior excellence or authority, but for their contents: the book of Daniel is, however, much shorter than either of the other three. Indeed, some of the minor Prophets, as Hosea and Zechariah, contain more chapters than Daniel though not more matter.

Daniel was of noble descent, and probably, as the Jews assert, related to the royal family of Judah. He was carried captive to Babylon at an early age, and in the 606th year before the Christian era. Having been initiated into the mysterious learning of the Chaldeans, he was found qualified for the highest offices in the courts of Babylon and Persia, but did not defile himself with their idolatries. He was contemporary with Ezekiel; and in one of his prophecies (Ezek. xiv. 14, 20,) is associated with Noah and Job, as three of the wisest and best of men.

Though Daniel's name is not prefixed to this book, he speaks so often in the first person as to leave no reason to doubt the fact; it has been almost universally admitted both by Jews and Christians. The evidence arising from his predictions in favour of Christianity, have led some Jews to speak degradingly of his authority; Josephus, however, speaks of him as one of the greatest of the Prophets ;* but to us Christians "the testimony of JESUS," who calls him "the Prophet Daniel," (Matt. xxiv. 15.) is paramount to all others. Neither this book, nor that of Jonah, is considered as poetical,† though some passages are remarkably sublime.‡

Porphyry, a learned opponent of Christianity in the third Century, was so struck with the fulfilment of Daniel's prophecies, that he pretended they were forged after the events; and in particular, after the time of Antiochus, though it is evident that they were translated into Greek 100 years before, and by the Jews themselves shewn to Alexander the Great to procure his favour.§

Some additions to this book are, indeed, found in the Vulgate Latin, and in Theodosius's Greek version, which are admitted into the Catholic Canon of the Old Testament by the Council of Trent. These are, "The History of Susanna," which, in its title, is said to be "set apart from the beginning of Daniel;" and "the History [or rather fable, as Erasmus calls it] of Bel and the Dragon," cut off from the end of it; also the Soug of the Three Children" in the fiery furnace, all which are rejected from the Canon by the learned and judicious Lardner, and by all consistent Protestants, as never having existed in the Hebrew or Chaldee languages. ||

Antiq. lib. x. cap. ii. 7.

+ Ibid. lib. xi. cap. 8. 15.

Lowth's Lect. xx.

See chap. ii. 20-23.

This is evident from a play upon some names in the Greek text, which could not have been used either in Heb. or Chaldee. See Horne's Analysis, Crit. Introd. vol. iv. p. 194, 4th ed. and Wintle's Preliminary Dissertation, p. Jyui.


In our Notes upon this book, we have paid particular attention to the "New Version" and Notes of the Rev. Thos. Wintle, B. D. (4to. 1807,) which Mr. Hartwell Horne has justly characterized as "a very valuable translation, executed on the same plan as Bp. Lowth's Version of Isaiah, and Dr. Blayney's of Jeremiah." We have also availed ourselves of the important labours of Sir Isaac and Bp. Newton, and other authors, who will he found repeatedly referred to. On the celebrated prophecy of "the Seventy Weeks," we have also consulted the learned " Dissertation " of Dr. John Stonard, very lately published. (8vo. 1825.)

We should not omit to add, that the beginning and latter parts of this book in the original are Hebrew; but the middle part, from chap. ii. 4. to the end of chap, vii, is in Chaldaic, the language of the country in which the prophet lived. Commentators generally divide the whole book into two parts; the former, comprising the first s chapters, containing the history of Daniel, and the three worthies cast into the fer furnace; also of the kings Nebuchadnezzar, Belshazzar, and Darius. The second part, including the last six chapters, contains a series of important prophetic visions, whi we shall endeavour, with the assistance above mentioned, to explain. Sir Is. Newton considered these prophecies of such importance, that he says, to reject them, “ is to reject the Christian Religion. For this religion is founded on his (Daniel's) prophecy concerning the Messiah.*

Though we cannot pretend to settle the difficult chronology of this book, we may remark, that it embraces the whole seventy years of the Babylonish captivity, and, indeed, commenced considerably before; for Daniel, being carried away with the firs Jewish captives, is thought to have interpreted Nebuchadnezzar's first dream of the mysterious image of gold, &c., several years prior to that calamity. The other historical events here contained, are supposed to succeed in the following order-H idolatrous image set up, and the three Hebrew children cast into the fiery furnace, k ́ refusing to worship it, B. C. 580. His derangement, which lasted seven years, bega about 569 B. C. Belshazzar's alarm at the hand-writing on the wall; his death, 5 the conquest of Babylon, 538. Daniel cast into the lions' den, and wonderful deliver ance, 537; after which he was promoted by Darius to the highest honours of his realm, and lived to the third year of Cyrus, King of Persia, (chap. x. i.) when he is calculare. to have been 94 years of age; the true reason probably that he returned not to Judea * Observ. on Daniel, p. 25.

The children]



IN the third year of the reign of Jehoiakim king of Judah came Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon unto Jerusalem, and besieged it.

2 And the Lord gave Jehoiakim king of Judah into his hand, with part of the vessels of the house of God: which he carried into the land of Shinar to the house of his god; and he brought the vessels into the treasure house of his god.

3 And the king spake unto Ashpenaz the master of his eunuchs, that he should bring certain of the children of Israel, and of the king's seed, and of the princes;

4 Children in whom was no blemish, but well favoured, and skilful in all wisdom, and cunning in knowledge, and understanding science, and such as had ability in them to stand in the king's palace, and whom they might teach the learning and the tongue of the Chaldeans.

5 And the king appointed them a daily provision of the king's meat, and of the wine which he drank so nourishing them three years, that at the end thereof they might stand before the king.

6 Now among these were of the children of Judah, Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah :

7 Unto whom the prince of the eunuchs gave names: for he gave unto Daniel the name of Belteshazzar; and to Hananiah, of Shadrach; and to Mishael, of Meshach; and to Azariah, of Abed-nego.

8 But Daniel purposed in his heart

[of the captivity.

that he would not defile himself with the portion of the king's meat, nor with the wine which he drank: therefore he requested of the prince of the eunuchs that he might not defile himself.

9 Now God had brought Daniel into favour and tender love with the prince of the eunuchs.

10 And the prince of the eunuchs said unto Daniel, I fear my lord the king, who hath appointed your meat and your drink: for why should he see your faces worse liking than the children which are of your sort? then shall ye make me endanger my head to the king.

11 Then said Daniel to Melzar, whom the prince of the eunuchs had set over Daniel, Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah.

12 Prove thy servants, I beseech thee, ten days; and let them give us pulse to eat, and water to drink.

13 Then let our countenances be looked upon before thee, and the countenance of the children that eat of the portion of the king's meat: and as thou seest, deal with thy servants.

14 So he consented to them in this matter, and proved them ten days.

15 And at the end of ten days their countenances appeared fairer and fatter in flesh than all the children which did eat the portion of the king's meat.

16 Thus Melzar took away the por→ tion of their meat, and the wine that they should drink; and gave them pulse.

17 As for these four children, God gave them knowledge and skill in all learning and wisdom: and Daniel


CHAP. I. Ver. 2. Which he carried-refers not to Jehoiakim, see Note on Jer. xxii. 12. but to the vessels. The land of Shinar that is, Babylonia, a herein was the tower of Babel. The house of his god-Bel, or Belus.

Ver. 3. Master-called, ver. 7, Prince of the Euauchs, or chamberlains. See Note on Gen. xxxvii. 26. Ver. 7. Guce names. -As their Hebrew names had a reference to the God of Israel, so, possibly, these new names kad reference to their Pagan idols, as Bel, &c. (See chap. iv. 8.) It was also customary to give new names to persons appointed to offices. See Wintle.Not defile himself.-See Deut. xxxii. 37, 38; Ezek. iv. 13.

Ver. 10. Worse liking-Boothroyd, "Look worse;" Heb. "Sadder."- Of your sort-Wintle, "Your equals; properly, of the same nge and circumstances, born under the same planet.

Ver. 11. Melzar-Marg. "Steward;" his assistant, or deputy. Wintle.

Ver. 12. Pulse-that is, vegetable food, and particularly leguminous plants, as peas; or perhaps parched corn, the chief food of the poor.

Ver. 17. Daniel had understanding-Marg. "He (God) made Daniel understand." See chap. ii. 30. To him the knowledge of dreams and visions seems to have been confined,

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