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utterly bald for thee, and gird them with sackcloth, and they shall weep for thee with bitterness of heart, and bitter wailing.
32 And in their wailing they shall take up a lamentation for thee, and lament over thee, saying, What city is like Tyrus, like the destroyed in the midst of the sea?
33 When thy wares went forth out of the seas, thou filledst many people; thou didst enrich the kings of the earth with the multitude of thy riches and of thy merchandise.
34 In the time when thou shalt be broken by the seas in the depths of the waters, thy merchandise and all thy company in the midst of thee shall fall.
35 All the inhabitants of the isles shall be astonished at thee, and their kings shall be sore afraid, they shall be troubled in their countenance.
36 The merchants among the people shall hiss at thee; thou shalt be a terror, and never shalt be any more. (D)
THE word of the LORD came again unto me, saying,
2 Son of man, say unto the prince
of Tyrus, Thus saith the Lord God; Because thine heart is lifted up, and thou hast said, I am a god, I sit in the seat of God, in the midst of the seas; yet thou art a man, and not God, though thou set thine heart as the heart of God:
3 Behold, thou art wiser than Daniel; there is no secret that they can hide from thee:
4 With thy wisdom and with thine understanding thou hast gotten thee riches, and hast gotten gold and silver into thy treasures:
5 By thy great wisdom and by thy traffick hast thou increased thy riches, and thine heart is lifted up because of thy riches.
6 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; because thou hast set thine heart as the heart of God;
7 Behold, therefore I will bring strangers upon thee, the terrible of the nations: and they shall draw their swords against the beauty of thy wisdom, and they shall defile thy bright
(D) Farther prophecies against Tyre, and a lamentation for her.—In this chapter the Prophet pursues his subject in the manner of the aucient laments, or funeral songs, in which the mourning women first recounted whatever was great or praiseworthy in the deceased, and then bewailed his fall. Here, the riches, glory, and extensive commerce of Tyre are first enlarged upon her downfall is then described in a beautiful allegory, in which all the maritime and commercial world are represented as grieved and astonished at her fate, and greatly alarmed for their own.
"Besides the view which this chapter gives of the conduct of Providence, and of the truth of prophecy; and besides the example it affords the critic, of a very elegant and highly finished piece of composition, it likewise affords the antiquary a very curious and interesting view of the wealth and commerce of ancient times.— And to the mind that looks for a city that hath foundations, what a picture does the whole present of the mutability and inanity of all earthly things! Almost all the places mentioned, like Tyre, are now no more: they are sunk in the deep waters of oblivion; the east wind hath carried them away."-Dr. J. Smith.
CHAP. XXVIII. Ver. 1. Prince of Tyrusnamely, Ithobel, in whose reign Nebuchadnezzar besieged and took Tyre. In the next verse we have a display of his arrogant pretensions.
Ver. 2, 6. Set thine heart as the heart of Gol.The heart is the seat of understanding; to set his
heart as the heart of God, was to magnify his own wisdom, as divine and unsearchable: see ver. 3&5 Ver. 3. Thou art wiser than Daniel.-This is said ironically, but serves to show that the prophet Daniel had, by this time, established a character for extraordinary and inspired wisdom.
Prophecies] slayeth thee, I am God? but thou shalt be a man, and no God, in the hand of him that slayeth thee.
10 Thou shalt die the deaths of the uncircumcised by the hand of strangers: for I have spoken it, saith the Lord GOD.
11 Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,
12 Son of man, take up a lamentation upon the king of Tyrus, and say unto him, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Thou sealest up the sum, full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty.
13 Thou hast been in Eden the garden of God; every precious stone was thy covering, the sardius, topaz, and the diamond, the beryl, the onyx, and the jasper, the sapphire, the emerald, and the carbuncle, and gold: the workmanship of thy tabrets and of thy pipes was prepared in thee in the day that thou wast created.
14 Thou art the anointed cherub that covereth; and I have set thee so: thou wast upon the holy mountain of God; thou hast walked up and down in the midst of the stones of fire.
15 Thou wast perfect in thy ways from the day that thou wast created, till iniquity was found in thee.
16 By the multitude of thy merchandise they have filled the midst of thee with violence, and thou hast sinned: therefore I will cast thee as profane out of the mountain of God: and I will destroy thee, O covering cherub, from the midst of the stones of fire.
17 Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, thou hast corrupted thy wisdom by reason of thy brightness: I will cast thee to the ground, I will lay
thee before kings, that they may behold thee.
18 Thou hast defiled thy sanctuaries by the multitude of thine iniquities, by the iniquity of thy traffick: therefore wil! I bring forth a fire from the midst of thee, it shall devour thee, and I will bring thee to ashes upon the earth in the sight of all them that behold thee.
19 All they that know thee among the people shall be astonished at thee: thou shalt be a terror, and never shalt thou be any more.
20 Again the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,
21 Son of man, set thy face against Zidon, and prophesy against it;
22 And say, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold I am against thee, O Zidon; and I will be glorified in the midst of thee: and they shall know that I am the LORD, when I shall have executed judgments in her, and shall be sanctified in her.
23 For I will send into her pestilence, and blood into her streets; and the wounded shall be judged in the midst of her by the sword upon her on every side; and they shall know that I am the LORD.
24 And there shall be no more a pricking brier unto the house of Israel, nor any grieving thorn of all that are round about them, that despised them; and they shall know that I am the Lord GOD.
25 Thus saith the Lord GOD; When I shall have gathered the house of Israel from the people among whom they are scattered, and shall be sanctified in them in the sight of the heathen, then shall they dwell in their
Ver 9. Wilt thou yet (or indeed) say, &c. Ver. 10. The death of the uncircumcised-that is, remain unburied. See chap. xxxi. 18; xxxii. 19, &c. Ver. 12. Thou sealest up the sum - Newcome, "Thou (art like) a signet of curious engraving." So the ancient versions. Dr. Boothroyd confidently "No sense (whatever) can be made of the says, present text." Bp. Lowth, however, thought otherwise, and rendered the first clanse, "Thou art the confrmed exemplar of measures." (Lect. xxi.) which we understand as parallel to " thou art the model of perfection." It must be confessed, that these various readings differ but in the corner of a letter, or in the difference between Caph and Beth. This
Ver. 13. Thou hast been in Eden- and hast brought thence all the precious productions of Paradise!
Ver. 14. The anointed cherub that covereth-the ark of God. See Exod. xxv. 18, 21; xxx. 26.
Ver. 14, 16. The stones of fire-are supposed to be the precious glittering stones in the high priest's breastplate, deposited in the most holy place; but we should rather refer to the sapphire pavement. Exod. xxiv. 10, and Note.
Ver. 24. A pricking briar.-See Num. xxxiii. 55; Josh. xxiii. 13,
land that I have given to my servant
26 And they shall dwell safely therein, and shall build houses, and plant vineyards: yea, they shall dwell with confidence, when I have executed judgments upon all those that despise them round about them; and they shall know that I am the LORD their God. (E)
N the tenth year, in the tenth month, in the twelfth day of the month, the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,
2 Son of man, set thy face against Pharaoh king of Egypt, and prophesy against him, and against all Egypt:
3 Speak, and say, Thus saith the Lord GoD; Behold, I am against thee, Pharaoh, king of Egypt, the great dragon that lieth in the midst of his rivers, which hath said, My river is mine own, and I have made it for myself.
4 But I will put hooks in thy jaws, and I will cause the fish of thy rivers to stick unto thy scales, and I will bring thee up out of the midst of thy rivers,
and all the fish of thy rivers shall stick unto thy scales.
5 And I will leave thee thrown into the wilderness, thee and all the fish of thy rivers: thou shalt fall upon the open fields; thou shalt not be brought together, nor gathered: I have given thee for meat to the beasts of the field and to the fowls of the heaven.
6 And all the inhabitants of Egypt shall know that I am the LORD, because they have been a staff of reed to the house of Israel.
7 When they took hold of thee by thy hand, thou didst break, and rend all their shoulder: and when they leaned upon thee, thou brakest, and madest all their loins to be at a stand.
8 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I will bring a sword upon thee, and cut off man and beast out of thee.
9 And the land of Egypt shall be desolate and waste; and they shall know that I am the LORD: because he hath said, The river is mine, and I have made it.
10 Behold, therefore I am against thee, and against thy rivers; and I will make the land of Egypt utterly waste
that seem frequently to allude to the fall of Lucifer from heaven. This dirge (ver. 12
(E) Another lamentation for the king of Tyre; and a prediction of the fall of Zi-18) is of course poetical. don (or Sidon) and the restoration of Israel. -The greater part of this chapter relates to the king of Tyre, called in the Phonician annals, Ithobalus. He appears to have been a vain and impious man, who affected divine honours. The Prophet treats his foolish pretensions with severe irony, and predicts his doom. He then takes up a funeral dirge and lamentation over him, in which his former pomp and splendour are finely contrasted with his fall, in terms
The latter part of the chapter announces the fall of Zidon the mother city of Tyre; and it concludes with promises of deliverance to the people of Israel from all their enemies, and a restoration to their land after all their dispersions; promises which chiefly apply to the general restoration of the Jews, which is yet future and perhaps distant, after all the enemies of the truth and of the church are brought inte subjection.
CHAP. XXIX. Ver. 1. In the tenth year-that is, of Jehoiachin's captivity, from which epoch all Ezekiel's dates appear to be reckoned, though, at this distance of time, there is much difficulty in reconciling them with each other.
Ver. 3. The great dragon See Note on Isa. xxvii. 1.My river-that is, the Nile.
Ver. 4. Hooks. See Isa. xxxvii. 29. —— Stick unto thy scales.-Pharaoh is the crocodile, and all the fish adhering to his scales, the inferior powers dependant on him.
Ver. 5. Into the wilderness-Or," in the desert." Newcome thinks this may allude to the heavy lo which this Pharaoh (Apries) sustained in his ex pedition against the Cyrenians, toward whom he must have marched through the desert. He was taken prisoner on the face of the field," ( Heb.) and afterwards strangled by his own subjects. Ver. 6. A staff of reed.-See Isa. xxxv, 6 Ver. 7. Madest all their loins, &c.-Newcom "Didst strain all their loins."
Ver. 10. Utterly waste-Heb. "Waste of wastes."
Prophecies] CHAP. and desolate, from the tower of Syene even unto the border of Ethiopia.
11 No foot of man shall pass through it, nor foot of beast shall pass through it, neither shall it be inhabited forty
12 And I will make the land of Egypt desolate in the midst of the countries that are desolate; and her cities among the cities that are laid waste shall be desolate forty years; and I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations, and will disperse them through the countries.
13 Yet thus saith the Lord GOD; At the end of forty years will I gather the Egyptians from the people whither they were scattered :
14 And I will bring again the captivity of Egypt, and will cause them to return into the land of Pathros, into
XXIX. the land of their habitation; and they shall be there a base kingdom.
15 It shall be the basest of the kingdoms; neither shall it exalt itself any more above the nations: for I will diminish them, that they shall no more rule over the nations.
16 And it shall be no more the confidence of the house of Israel, which bringeth their iniquity to remembrance, when they shall look after them: but they shall know that I am the Lord GOD. (F)
¶ 17 And it came to pass in the seven and twentieth year, in the first month, in the first day of the month, the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,
18 Son of man, Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon caused his army to serve a great service against Tyrus:
(F) Ver. 1-16. The Judgment of Pharaoh and of Egypt.-This chapter foretels the conquest of Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar, which took place B. C. 573, seventeen years after the prediction, which was evidently delivered before several of the preceding chapters. The same event we have seen foretold by Jeremiah. (ch. xlvi. 13.)
The chapter opens by charging Pharaoh Hophra (commonly called Apries) with the same pride and profaneness as was in the chapter preceding alleged against the prince of Tyre. He was so confident of the strength of his kingdom, that, according to Herodotus (lib. 2.), he impiously boasted, that neither God nor man was able to dispossess him. Wherefore, the Prophet, addressing him under the image of a crocodile, the "great dragon" of Egypt, tells him that with as much ease as a fisher drags the fish he has hooked, God would drag him and his people into captivity, where their carcasses would fall a prey to wild beasts and ravenous birds. The figure is then dropped, and God denounces judgments against him and his people by subjecting them to the Babylonian yoke till that empire should fall: and
after that pericd, it is declared, that Egypt should always remain the basest of kingdoms; a prophecy which has been hitherto most remarkably fulfilled. It became first subject to the Babylonians, and then successively to the Persians, Macedonians, Romans, and Saracens ; then to the Mamelukes (or slave-usurpers), and after them, to the Ottoman Empire, of which it now forms a province governed by a Turkish Bashaw and 24 Begs, Beys, or chiefs, advanced from among the slaves to the administration of public affairs; the Egyptians being possessed with a superstitious notion that fate has decreed, that slaves must always rule, and the natives be in subjection. "Surely," says the late Editor of Calmet, the country be-lorded by slaves, may be justly considered as "the basest of kingdoms:" Frag. No. lxxxix. And though it was well known, as Mr. Prebend. Townsend has remarked, to have been a favourite project with the late, Emperor Napoleon to raise Egypt again to cousequence; and though at first heaven seemed to favour his design, and his success for a time appeared certain, Providence remarkably interfered to disappoint him, and to protect the credit of the sacred prophecies. (See Towns. O.T. Arr. vol. ii. p. 579.
From the tower of Syene.-Marg. "From Migdol to Syene ;" i. e. from the north to the south of Egypt. So Preb. Lowth, Newcome, &c.
Ver. 13. At the end of forty years-from the defeat of Apries, just mentioned, probably at the settlement of the kingdom by Cyrus. Comp. Isa. xlvi. 26.
Ver. 14. Pathros-according to Bochart, Thebais, or upper Egypt. See Jer. xliv. l.
Ver. 18. Every head was made bald-by the helmet, or by disease. Every shoulder peeled-that is, galled by carrying heavy burdens.
Ver. 22. The opening of the mouth-that is, an opportunity to open thy mouth in the midst of them.
every head was made bald, and every shoulder was peeled: yet had he no wages, nor his army, for Tyrus, for the service that he had served against it:
19 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, I will give the land of Egypt unto Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon; and he shall take her multitude, and take her spoil, and take her prey; and it shall be the wages for his army..
20 I have given him the land of Egypt for his labour wherewith he served against it, because they wrought for me, saith the Lord God.
21 In that day will I cause the horn of the house of Israel to bud forth, and I will give thee the opening of the mouth in the midst of them; and they shall know that I am the LORD. (G)
THE word of the LORD came again unto me, saying,
2 Son of man, prophesy and say, Thus saith the Lord GoD; Howl ye, Woe worth the day!
3 For the day is near, even the day of the LORD is near, a cloudy
day; it shall be the time of the heathen.
4 And the sword shall come upon Egypt, and great pain shall be in Ethiopia, when the slain shall fall in Egypt, and they shall take away her multitude, and her foundations shall be broken down.
5 Ethiopia, and Libya, and Lydia, and all the mingled people, and Chub, and the men of the land that is in league, shall fall with them by the sword.
6 Thus saith the LORD; They also that uphold Egypt shall fall; and the pride of her power shall come down: from the tower of Syene shall they fall in it by the sword, saith the Lord God.
7 And they shall be desolate in the midst of the countries that are deselate, and her cities shall be in the midst of the cities that are wasted.
8 And they shall know that I am the LORD, when I have set a fire in Egypt, and when all her helpers shall he destroyed.
9 In that day shall messengers go forth from me in ships to make the careless Ethiopians afraid, and great pain shall come upon them, as in the day of Egypt: for, lo, it cometh.
the re-establishment of New Tyre. God therefore promises to Nebuchadnezzar, who had been the instrument of his just judgments on the Tyrians, ("Howbeit he meant not so,") that Egypt should be given to the king of Babylon as a compensation. Thus the Most High ruleth among the chil dren of men.
EXPOSITION-Chap. XXIX. Continued. (G) Ver. 17-21. A farther prophecy respecting Egypt.-By the date of this prophecy (which we have no ground to question) it appears to have been the last which Ezekiel delivered, and delivered only just before its accomplishment, which took place, according to Prideaux, 573 years before Christ. For the prophetic writings are evidently arranged, not according to chronological order, but rather with a regard to the connection of the subjects; those relative to Egypt, for instance, being here placed together.
It appears that Nebuchadnezzar was greatly disappointed in the capture of Tyre, in finding that the principal inhabitants had retired by sea to an adjacent island and taken with them all their valuable property, which was the founding, or rather
It is remarkable that most of God's judgments against the heathen conclude with a promise of mercy to his people Israel; and such is the case with the short portion of prophecy now before us, though commentators are not agreed whether the budding of Israel's horn referred to the promotion of Daniel and his brethren in Babylon, or to the appointment of Zerubbabel. Perhaps both inay be included.
CHAP. XXX. Ver. 2. Woe worth-that is, "wce be!" or alas!
Ver. 5. Chub-In Mareotis, an Egyptian province.
Grotius. Men (Heb." Sons ") of the land-that is, of every land that is in league with Egypt.