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The idolatries of]


thou hast loved, with all them that thou
hast hated; I will even gather them
round about against thee, and will discover
thy nakedness unto them, that they may
see all thy nakedness. 38 And I will
judge thee, as women that break wedlock
and shed blood are judged; and I will
give thee blood in fury and jealousy. 39
And I will also give thee into their hand,
and they shall throw down thine eminent
place, and shalt break down thy high
places they shall strip thee also of thy
clothes, and shall take thy fair jewels, and
Teave thee naked and bare. 40 They
shall also bring up a company against
thee, and they shall stone thee with stones,
and thrust thee through with their swords.
41 And they shall burn thine houses with
fire, and executé judgments upon thee in
the sight of many women; and I will cause
thee to cease from playing the harlot, and
thou also shall give no hire any more.
42 So will I make my fury toward thee to
rest, and my jealousy shall depart from
thee, and I will be quiet, and will be no
more angry.
43 Because thou hast not
remembered the days of thy youth, but
hast fretted me in all these things; behold,
therefore, I also will recompense thy way
upon thine head, saith the Lord GOD and
thou shalt not commit this lewdness above
all thine abominations.

44 Behold, every one that useth proverbs shall use this proverb against thee, saying, As is the mother, so is her daughter. 45 Thou art thy mother's daugh ter, that lotheth her husband and her children; and thou art the sister of thy sisters, which lothed their husbands and their children: your mother was an Hittite, and your father an Amorite. 46 And thine elder sister is Samaria, she and her daughters that dwell at thy left hand: and thy younger sister, that dwelleth at thy right hand, is Sodom and her daughters. 47 Yet hast thou not walked after their ways, nor done after their abominations: but, as

[Judah and Samaria.

if that were a very little thing, thou wast corrupted more than they in all thy ways. 48 As I live, saith the Lord GoD, Sodom thy sister hath not done, she nor her daughters, as thou hast done, thou and thy daughters. 49 Behold, this was the iniquity of thy Sister Sodom, pride, fulness of bread, and abundance of idleness was in her and in her daughters, neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy. 50 And they were haughty, and committed abomination before me: therefore I took them away as I saw good. 51 Neither hath Samaria committed half of thy sins; but thou hast multiplied thine abominations more than they, and hast justified thy sisters in all thine abominatious which thou hast done. 52 Thou also, which hast judged thy sisters, bear thine own shame for thy sins that thou hast committed more abominable than they: they are more righteous than thou: yea, be thou confounded also, and bear thy shame, in that thou hast justified thy sisters, 53 When I shall bring again their captivity, the cap; tivity of Sodom and her daughters, and the captivity of Samaria and her daughters, then will I bring again the captivity of thy captives in the midst of them: That thou mayest bear thine own shame, and mayest be confounded in all that thou hast done, in that thou art a comfort unto them. 55 When thy sisters, Sodom and her daughters, shall return to their former estate, and Samaria and her daughters shall return to their former estate, then thou and thy daughters shall return to your former estate. 56 For thy sister Sodom was not mentioned by thy mouth in the day of thy pride, 57. Before thy wickedness was discovered, as at the time of thy reproach of the daughters of Syria, and all that are round about her, the daughters of the Philistines, which despise thee round about. 58 Thou hast borne thy lewdness and thine abominations, saith the LORD. 59 For thus saith the

NOTES-Chap. XVI. Con,

the accused woman might be required to drink. See
Deut. v. 17, and Note; and compare Rev. xvi. 6.
Ver. 39. Thine eminent place. See ver. 24, 31.
Thy fair jewels- Heb. "The instruments of

thine ornament."

Ver. 41. Many women-that is, nations.

Ver. 43, Fretted-Newcome, "Provoked."-This lewdness above all thy abominations or, "(which is) above all thine (other) abominations." Idolatry is the crime here referred to, which being high treason against their God and King, was the highest crime in the Jewish code: but of this crime they seem long since cured.

Ver. 44. As is the mother, &c.-that is, the whole family are idolators.

Ver. 46. Her daughters at thy left hand. The Jews, in reckoning the points of the compass, place their face toward the east, when consequently Samaria, in the north, was on their left hand, and Sodom, in the south, upon their right.-Younger sister-Beb. "Sister less than thou."

Ver. 47. But as, &c.-Newcome, a Eng. Marg.

"(That was loathed as a small thing) but thou hast been corrupted," &c.

Ver. 49. Fuliness of bread, &c.—See Gen. xiii. 18. Abundance of idleness - Heb. " Prosperity of rest.” N. B. A superabundance of the blessings of Providence often tends to luxury and idleness, which lend to every other vice.

Ver. 53. When I shall bring, &c.-Secker, Newcome, and Boothroyd, render this whole passage as promise; "Yet I will bring again,....and I will bring again thy captivity in the midst of them."

Ver. 54. Thou art a comfort.--See ch. xiv. 22, A Ver. 55. When thy sisters - Newcome," And thy sisters," &c. Then thou-Newcome," And


Ver. 56. For thy sister: - Newcome, “ Although thy sister Sodom was not heard of from thy mouth." Ver. 58. Thou hast borne-Thou hast already began to receive the punishment! See ver. 59.

Ver. 61. Not by thy covenant-the old covenant of Sinai, which thou hast broken, but by the new covenant, under the gospel dispensation." Newcome


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The parable]


Lord God; I will even deal with thee as thou hast done, which hast despised the oath in breaking the covenant.

60 Nevertheless I will remember my covenant with thee in the days of thy youth, and I will establish unto thee an everlasting covenant. 61 Then thou shalt remember thy ways, and be ashamed, when thou shalt receive thy sisters, thine elder and thy younger: and I will give them unto thee for daughters, but not by thy covenant. 62 And I will establish my covenant with thee; and thou shalt know that I am the LORD:

63 That thou mayest remember, and be confounded, and never open thy mouth any more because of thy shame, when I am pacified toward thee for all that thou hast done, saith the Lord God.


AND the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,

2 Son of man, put forth a riddle, and speak a parable unto the house of Israel;

3 And say, Thus saith the Lord GOD; A great eagle with great wings, longwinged, full of feathers, which had divers colours, came unto Lebanon, and took the highest branch of the cedar:

4 He cropped off the top of his young twigs, and carried it into a land of traffic; he set it in a city of merchants.

5 He took also of the seed of the land, and planted it in a fruitful field; he placed it by great waters, and set it as a willow tree.

6 And it grew, and became a spreading vine of low stature, whose branches turned toward him, and the roots thereof were under him: so it became a vine, and brought forth branches, and shot forth sprigs.

7 There was also another great eagle with great wings and many fea

[of two great eagles.

thers: and, behold, this vine did bend her roots toward him, and shot forth her branches toward him, that he might water it by the furrows of her plantation.

8 It was planted in a good soil by great waters, that it might bring forth branches, and that it might bear fruit, that it might be a goodly vine.

9 Say thou, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Shall it prosper ? shall he not pull up the roots thereof, and cut off the fruit thereof, that it wither? It shall wither in all the leaves of her spring, even without great power or many people to pluck it up by the roots


10 Yea, behold, being planted, shall it prosper? shall it not utterly wither, when the east wind toucheth it? It shall wither in the furrows where it grew.

11 Moreover the word of the LORD came unto me, saying,

12 Say now to the rebellious house, Know ye not what these things mean? tell them, Behold, the king of Babylon is come to Jerusalem, and hath taken the king thereof, and the prince thereof, and led them with him to Babylon;

13 And hath taken of the king's seed, and made a covenant with him, and hath taken an oath of him: he bath also taken the mighty of the land:

14 That the kingdom might be base, that it might not lift itself up, but that by keeping of his covenant it might stand.

15 But he rebelled against him in sending his ambassadors into Egypt, that they might give him horses and much people. Shall he prosper ? shall he escape that doeth such things? or


CHAP. XVII. Ver. 2. A riddle.-See Jud. xiv. 12. Newcome renders it "a dark saying," as in Psalm Ixxviii. 2.

Ver.3. With great wings-Heb. "Great of wings." It is said that they are frequently seven feet in extent-Divers colours-“ An allusion to the various nations which composed the Babylonian empire." Michaelis. Came to Lebanon.-A modern traveller (La Roque) found there a large number of eagles' feathers. Orient. Lit. No. 1021.

Ver. 5. Seed of the land.-As the parent verb sig

nifies to plant, Newcome thinks the noun here used may signify a scion, or shoot; and by this last word Boothroyd renders it, since the vine is thus propagated, and not by seed.

Ver. 13. Taken an oath of him—Heb. "Brought him to an oath."

Ver. 14. Base - Newcome, "Low, or humble." -That by keeping of his covenant it might stand. Newcome, "That it might keep his covenant, and might stand."

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shall he break the covenant, and be delivered?

16 As I live, saith the Lord God, surely in the place where the king dwelleth that made him king, whose oath he despised, and whose covenant he brake, even with him in the midst of Babylon he shall die.

17 Neither shall Pharaoh with his mighty army and great company make for him in the war, by casting up mounts, and building forts, to cut off many persons:

18 Seeing he despised the oath by breaking the covenant, when, lo, he had given his hand, and hath done all these things, he shall not escape.

19 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; As I live, surely mine oath that he hath despised, and my covenant that he hath broken, even it will I recompense upon his own head.

20 And I will spread my net upon him, and he shall be taken in my snare, and I will bring him to Babylon, and will plead with him there for his trespass that he hath trespassed against

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[and restoration.

they that remain shall be scattered toward all winds: and ye shall know that I the LORD have spoken it.

22 Thus saith the Lord GoD; I will also take of the highest branch of the high cedar, and will set it; I will crop off from the top of his young twigs a tender one, and will plant it upon an high mountain and eminent:

23 In the mountain of the height of Israel will I plant it: and it shall bring forth boughs, and bear fruit, and be a goodly cedar: and under it shall dwell all fowl of every wing; in the shadow of the branches thereof shall they dwell.

24 And all the trees of the field shall know that I the LORD have brought down the high tree, have exalted the low tree, have dried up the green tree, and have made the dry tree to flourish: I the LORD have spoken and have done it. (R)

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(R) God's judgments on Judea represented by the parable of two eagles and a vine. In the fable before us Nebuchadnezzar is represented as a great eagle which perched on the highest branch of one of the mighty cedars of Lebanon. This branch represents king Jehoiachim, whom he carried off to Babylon, "a land of traffick;" he took also a young shoot, meaning Zedekiah, and, planting it in a fruitful soil, it flourished and became a spreading tree, like a willow growing by the waters. Another eagle is now introduced, to represent the king of Egypt, and the tree just mentioned (Zedekiah) spreads forth its branches toward this second eagle: yet it prospers not; but, being

smitten by an eastern wind, withers in the soil wherein it grew. Such is the outline of this allegory, which is more fully explained in the following part of the chapter. But in the last three verses we read of another branch, which shall be planted in a lofty mountain, and become a lefty cedar, in whose boughs birds of every wing should lodge. Newcome thinks "these verses may have a reference to Zerubbabel, to the Maccabees, to the Messiah, and to the future restoration of the Jews:" but Boothroyd remarks, that no king of the house of David, since the captivity, ever answered this description, or was able to afford that protection to the neighbouring po vers here implied: he therefore refers the whole exclusively to the Messiah.

NOTES-Chap. XVII. Con.

Ver. 17. By casting up mounts, &c.-See ch. iv. 2. Ver. 18. Given his hand.-See Lam. v. 6.

Ver. 19. Mine oath.- Zechariah doubtless swore by the name of the God of Israel.-My covenant:The Lord regards himself as a party to every covenant made in his name.

Ver. 20. Spread my net.-See chap. xii. 13. Ver. 24. The high tree, &c.-The high free and the green tree refer to Nebuchadnezzar (Dan 12.) The low tree and the dry tree, to the Jews Newcome.Have done it: What God decretty may be considered as certain as if done.

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A vindication]


grapes, and the children's teeth are set on edge?

3 As I live, saith the Lord GOD, ye shall not have occasion any more to use this proverb in Israel.

4 Behold, all souls are mine; as the soul of the father, so also the soul of the son is mine: the soul that sinneth, it shall die.

5 But if a man be just, and do that which is lawful and right,

6 And hath not eaten upon the mountains, neither hath lifted up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel, neither hath defiled his neighbour's wife, neither hath come near to a removed woman;

7 And hath not oppressed any, but hath restored to the debtor his pledge, hath spoiled none by violence, hath given his bread to the hungry, and hath covered the naked with a garment;

8 He that hath not given forth upon usury, neither hath taken any increase, that hath withdrawn his hand from iniquity, hath executed true judgment between man and man,

9 Hath walked in my statutes, and hath kept my judgments, to deal truly; he is just, he shall surely live, saith the Lord GOD.

10 If he beget a son that is a robber, a shedder of blood, and that doeth the like to any one of these things,

11 And that doeth not any of those duties, but even hath eaten upon the mountains, and defiled his neighbour's wife,

12 Hath oppressed the poor and needy, hath spoiled by violence, hath not restored the pledge, and hath lifted up his eyes to the idols, hath committed abomination,

13 Hath given forth upon usury, and hath taken increase: shall he then

[of God's judgments.

live? he shall not live: he hath done all these abominations; he shall surely die; his blood shall be upon him.

14 Now, lo, if he beget a son, that seeth all his father's sins which he hath done, and considereth, and doeth not such like;

15 That hath not eaten upon the mountains, neither hath lifted up his eyes to the idols of the house of Israel, hath not defiled his neighbour's wife,

16 Neither hath oppressed any, hath not withholden the pledge, neither hath spoiled by violence, but hath given his bread to the hungry, and hath covered the naked with a garment;

17 That hath taken off his hand from the poor, that hath not received usury nor increase, hath executed my judgments, hath walked in my statutes; he shall not die for the iniquity of his father, he shall surely live.

18 As for his father, because he cruelly oppressed, spoiled his brother by violence, and did that which is not good among his people, lo, even he shall die in his iniquity.

19 Yet say ye, Why? Doth not the son bear the iniquity of the father? When the son hath done that which is lawful and right, and hath kept all my statutes, and hath done them, he shall surely live.

20 The soul that sinneth, it shall die. The son shall not bear the iniquity of the father, neither shall the father bear the iniquity of the son: the righteousness of the righteous shall be upon him, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon him.

21 But if the wicked will turn from all his sins that he hath committed, and keep all my statutes, and do that which is lawful and right, he shall surely live, he shall not die.


CHAP. XVIII. Ver. 2. The fathers have, &c.— See Jer. xxxi. 29.

Ver. 4. All souls are mine-that is, they originate from me, and are accountable to me.

Ver. 5. And do that, &c.-Heb. "Do judgment and justice."

Ver. 6. Not eaten upon the mountains-that is, not partaken of the idol sacritices on the high places.

22 All his transgressions that he

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A vindication ]


hath committed, they shall not be mentioned unto him: in his righteousness that he hath done he shall live.

23 Have I any pleasure at all that the wicked should die? saith the Lord GOD: and not that he should return from his ways and live?

24 But when the righteous turneth away from his righteousness, and committeth iniquity, and doeth according to all the abominations that the wicked man doeth, shall he live? All his righteousness that he hath done shall not be mentioned in his trespass that he hath tresspassed, and in his sin that he hath sinned, in them shall he die.


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[of God's judgments.

turneth away from all his transgressions that he hath committed, he shall surely live, he shall not die..

29 Yet saith the house of Israel, The way of the LORD is not equal. O house of Israel, are not my ways equal, are not your ways unequal!?

30 Therefore I will judge you, 0 house of Israel, every one according to his ways, saith the Lord GoD. Re pent, and turn yourselves from all your transgressions; so iniquity shall not be your ruin.

31 Cast away from you all your transgressions, whereby ye have transgressed; and make you a new heart and a new spirit: for why will ye die, O house of Israel?

32 For I have no pleasure in the death of him that dieth, saith the Lord Gon: wherefore turn yourselves, and live. (S)

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(S) God windicates the equity of his Providence. The Jews complain to Ezekiel (as they had before done to Jeremiah) of Gods dealing hardly with them, in punishing them for the sius of their forefathers, their calamities having been long threatened as the consequence of the national guilt. The Lord tells them that he had no respect of persons; but that every one should eventually be rewarded according to his works. (Matt xvi. 27.) This he instances by a variety of examples; such as that of a just father and his wicked sou, and the just son of this wicked father; then

a wicked man repenting, and a just man revolting.

In vindication of the equity of Providence, we have offered a few remarks in answer to the same objection made to the Prophet Jeremiah, which we need not here repeat. (See Expos. of Jer. xxxi. 27, &c.) For a fuiler discussion of this subject, See Deddridge's Lectures, cxlvii.

When the Jews are here commanded to make themselves a new heart, &c. which is elsewhere promised as the gift of God, it can only intend that they should earnestly seek it from Him who alone can give it, and who giveth his Holy Spirit to all who ask it in sincerity. (See Luke xi. 13.)


Ver. 24. Righteousness-Heb. "Righteousnesses." Ver. 30. Repent and turn..... ..from, &c. - The word" yourselves," which is not in the original, were better omitted, both here and in ver. 32.--So iniquity, &c.- Heb. "Let not iniquity be to you for a stumbling-block."

CHAP. XIX. - This chapter is poetical through out; the eleven preceding chapters are in prose. Ver. 2. A lioness.-An allusion to Gen. xix.. Ver. 3. One of her whelps-Jehoahaz, Kag

xxiii. 30, 31.

Ver. 5. Another of her whelps-Jehoiakim. Eliakim) 2 Kings xxiii. 34.

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