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Angels of judgment]
E cried also in mine ears with a loud voice, saying, Cause them that have charge over the city to draw near, even every man with his destroying weapon in his hand.
2 And, behold, six men came from the way of the higher gate, which lieth toward the north, and every man a slaughter weapon in his hand; and one man among them was clothed with linen, with a writer's inkhorn by his side and they went in, and stood beside the brazen altar.
3 And the glory of the God of Israel was gone up from the cherub, whereupon he was, to the threshold of the house. And he called to the man clothed with linen, which had the writer's inkhorn by his side;
4 And the LORD said unto him, Go through the midst of the city, through the midst of Jerusalem, and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry for all the abominations that be done in the midst thereof.
5 And to the others he said in mine hearing, Go ye after him through the city, and smite: let not your eye spare, neither have ye pity:
[and of mer
6 Slay utterly old and young, maids, and little children, and women: but come not near any man upon whom is the mark; and begin at my sanctu ary. Then they began at the ancient men which were before the house.
7 And he said unto them, Defile the house, and fill the courts with the slain go ye forth. And they went forth, and slew in the city.
8 And it came to pass, while they were slaying them, and I was left, that I fell upon my face, and cried, and said, Ah Lord GOD! wilt thou destroy all the residue of Israel in thy pouring outrea of thy fury upon Jerusalem ?
9 Then said he unto me, The iniquity of the house of Israel and Judah is exceeding great, and the land is full of blood, and the city full of perverse 4 The ness for they say, The LORD bath forsaken the earth, and the LORD seeth not.
10 And as for me also, mine eye out shall not spare, neither will I have pity, but I will recompense their way upon their head.
11 And, behold, the man clothed with linen, which had the inkhorn by his side, reported the matter, saying,! have done as thou hast commanded me. (K)
CHAP. IX. Ver. 1. He cried-that is, the Lord. Ver. 2. Destroying weapon Heb. "Weapon of his destruction." Which iieth-Heb." Which is turned."A slaughter weapon-Heb. "A weapon of his breaking in pieces." By his side-Heb. "Upon his loins." Dr. Shaw mentions that the Easterns wear their inkhorns suspended from their dles, (Travels, tol. p. 293.) Pococke says they used in sealing as well as writing. (Trav. i. p. 186.) r. 3. From Literally," From above the ab," where the shechinah had been accustomed side, in the most holy place.
r. 4. Set a mark - Heb. "Mark a mark," or , for Tou signifies a mark; but the Jews have
from hence inferred, that the mark consisted in this
Ver. 6. Slay utterly-Heb. "To destruction."
Ver. 9, Perverseness — judgment."
Ver. 11. Reported the matter-Heb. "Returned
The vision of the]
THEN I looked, and, behold, in
the firmament that was above the head of the cherubims there appeared over them as it were a sapphire stone, as the appearance of the likeness of a throne.
2 And he spake unto the man clothed with linen, and said, Go in between the wheels, even under the cherub, and fill thine hand with coals of fire from between the cherubims, and scatter them over the city. And he went in in my sight.
3 Now the cherubims stood on the right side of the house, when the man went in ; and the cloud filled the inner court.
4 Then the glory of the LORD went up from the cherub, and stood over the threshold of the house; and the house was filled with the cloud, and the court was full of the brightness of the LORD's glory.
5 And the sound of the cherubims' wings was heard even to the outer court, as the voice of the Almighty God when he speaketh.
6 And it came to pass, that when he had commanded the man clothed with linen, saying, Take fire from between the wheels, from between the cherubims; then he went in, and stood Beside the wheels.
his hand from between the cherubims unto the fire that was between the cherubims, and took thereof, and put it into the hands of him that was clothed with linen: who took it, and went out.
8 And there appeared in the cherubims the form of a man's hand under their wings.
9 And when I looked, behold the four wheels by the cherubims, one wheel by one cherub, and another wheel by another cherub: and the appearance of the wheels was as the colour of a beryl stone.
10 And as for their appearances, they four had one likeness, as if a wheel had been in the midst of a wheel.
11 When they went, they went upon their four sides; they turned not as they went, but to the place whither the head looked they followed it; they turned not as they went.
12 And their whole body, and their backs, and their hands, and their wings, and the wheels, were full of eyes round about, even the wheels that they four had.
13 As for the wheels, it was cried unto them in my hearing, O wheel!
14 And every one had four faces: the first face was the face of a cherub, and the second face was the face of a man, and the third the face of a lion, 7 And one cherub stretched forth and the fourth the face of an eagle.
ural or angelic; one appointed to be an angel of mercy, the other five angels of estruction, to execute the sentence of the Almighty on the idolators.
To indicate likewise, that God was soon forsake the Temple, the Shechinah, or
symbol of his presence, is seen to remove from the inner sanctuary to the threshold or door of the temple, ready to depart. The Prophet intercedes in behalf of his people: but God refuses to be entreated for them. The door of mercy was shut against them.
CHAP. X. Ver. 1. In the firmament.-See Notes chap. i. 22, 26.
Ver. 2. Between the wheels the word "even," #pplied in Italies, would be. perhaps, better omitted. ewcome remarks, "The wheels were below the herubim, and the firmament above."- Fill thine and-Heb. "The hollow of thine hand." Ver. 4. Went up-Heb. "Was lifted up." Ver. 5. As the voice of the Almighty God-that is, ander. See Ps. xxix. 3-9.
Ver. 7. Stretched-Heb. "Sent."
Ver. 13. Hearing-Heb. "Ears.". O wheel!
It is observable, two words are here used. As for the wheels-Hebrew, Ophenim. This word is plural, and though used for chariot wheels, more properly signifies a sphere, as we kave remarked on chap. i; and so, Mr. Maurice says, the Targum of Jonathan there renders it, "A sphere within a sphere." But the second word (Hagalegal) is used in reference to any rolling body; and Mr. Parkhurst here explains it as implying a command to revolve. Ver. 14. Fuce of a cherub that is, of an ox. Compare ver. 22, with ch. i. 10. The whole of this description so far resembles that, as to need little distinct remark.
15 And the cherubims were lifted up. This is the living creature that I saw by the river of Chebar.
16 And when the cherubims went, the wheels went by them: and when the cherubims lifted up their wings to mount up from the earth, the same wheels also turned not from beside them.
17 When they stood, these stood; and when they were lifted up, these lifted up themselves also: for the spirit of the living creature was in them.
18 Then the glory of the LORD departed from off the threshold of the house, and stood over the cherubims.
19 And the cherubims lifted up their wings, and mounted up from the earth in my sight: when they went out, the wheels also were beside them: and every one stood at the door of the east gate of the LORD's house; and the glory of the God of Israel was over them above.
20 This is the living creature that I saw under the God of Israel by the river of Chebar; and I knew that they were the cherubims.
21 Every one had four faces apiece,
[the divine glory.
and every one four wings; and the likeness of the hands of a man was under their wings.
22 And the likeness of their faces was the same faces which I saw by the river of Chebar, their appearances and themselves they went every one straight forward. (L)
the spirit lifted me up, and brought me unto the east gate of the LORD's house, which looketh eastward: and behold at the door of the gate five and twenty men; among whom I saw Jaazaniah the son of Azur, and Pelatiah the son of Benaiah, princes of the people.
2 Then said he unto me, Son of man, these are the men that devise mischief, and give wicked counsel in this city:
3 Which say, It is not near; let us build houses this city is the caldron, and we be the flesh.
4 Therefore prophesy against them; prophesy, O son of man.
5 And the Spirit of the LORD fell upon me, and said unto me, Speak; Thus saith the LORD; Thus have ye
(L) The vision of the cherubim repeated, and the departure of the Divine glory.-The same august vision which appeared to the Prophet at first is here repeated, and coals of fire are scattered over the city to intimate that it was to be burned. The symbol of the Divine presence is represented (ver. 4, 18, 19.) as removing gradually from the Temple, to signify that God's protection was about to be wholly withdrawn from it and it requires no argument to prove the wretchedness of that nation or individual whom God forsakes.
On the mysterious wheels, or rolling
spheres here exhibited, we shall not repeat our former observations (see ch. i.); but we farther remark, that they are here addressed as in themselves intelligent, (for they were full of eyes,) and subject to the Great Supreme-Revolve, O wheel!The same almighty fiat which called the universe into being, gave it laws; and what is Providence but the superintendence of those laws? Thus roll on the wheels of nature and of providence, in obedience to that spirit by which they are animated and directed; and still will they roll on till all the prophecies shall be fulfilled-tili all God's designs of mercy to mankind shall be accomplished!
Ver. 19. And every one stood-that is, the prophet saw, in vision, the congregation gazing with astonishment at the glory now departing.
CHAP. XI. Ver. 1. The spirit lifted me up.-See Note on chap. viii. 3.-At the door (or entrance) of the gate five and twenty men.-See Note on ch. viii. 16.
Ver. 3. It is not near- that is, the destruction
of the city. Let us, therefore,' say they, 're pair and rebuild the ruins. This city is the caldron, &c. The proverb means," We will share her fate, whether we are preserved or perish." Michaelis.-This is an evident allusion to the man. ner of preparing the Jewish sacrifices, 1 Sam. 13, 14. Boothroyd.
Ver. 7. Your siain, &c.—that is, many of you perish in the city; but others shall be carried away to a foreign land, and there slain. See Jer, li..
said, O house of Israel: for I know the things that come into your mind, every one of them.
6 Ye have multiplied your slain in this city, and ye have filled the street, thereof with the slain.
7 Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; Your slain whom ye have laid in the midst of it, they are the flesh, and this city is the caldron but I will bring you forth out of the midst of it.
8 Ye have feared the sword; and I will bring a sword upon you, saith the Lord GOD.
9 And I will bring you out of the midst thereof, and deliver you into the hands of strangers, and will execute judgments among you.
10 Ye shall fall by the sword; I will judge you in the border of Israel; and ye shall know that I am the LORD.
11 This city shall not be your caldron, neither shall ye be the flesh in the midst thereof; but I will judge you in the border of Israel.
12 And ye shall know that I am the LORD: for ye have not walked in my statutes, neither executed my judgments; but have done after the manners of the heathen that are round about you.
13 And it came to pass, when 1 prophesied, that Pelatiah the son of Benaiah died. Then fell I down upon my face, and cried with a loud voice, and said, Ah Lord Gop! wilt thou make a full end of the remnant of Israel?
[shall be saved.
15 Son of man, thy brethren, even thy brethren, the men of thy kindred, and all the house of Israel wholly, are they unto whom the inhabitants of Jerusalem have said, Get you far from the LORD: unto us is this land given in possession.
16 Therefore say, Thus saith the Lord Gon; Although I have cast them far off among the heathen, and although I have scattered them among the countries, yet will I be to them as a little sanctuary in the countries where they shall come.
17 Therefore say, Thus saith the Lord GOD; I will even gather you from the people, and assemble you out of the countries where ye have been scattered, and I will give you the land of Israel.
18 And they shall come thither, and they shall take away all the detestable things thereof, and all the abominations thereof from thence.
19 And I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within you; and I will take the stony heart out of their flesh, and will give them an heart of flesh:
20 That they may walk in my statutes, and keep mine ordinances, and do them: and they shall be my people, and I will be their God.
21 But as for them whose heart walketh after the heart of their detestable things and their abominations, I will recompense their way upon their own heads, saith the Lord GOD.
22 Then did the cherubims lift up their wings, and the wheels beside
14 Again the word of the LORD them; and the glory of the God of came unto me, saying, Israel was over them above.
Ver. 12. For - Newcome, "Because " not, &c.
Ver. 13. When I prophesied. It appears from this verse, that Jeremiah did prophecy to these men, as commanded ver. 4, and that Pelatiah died as he was addressing them. See Acts v. 5.-I fell down, -See chap. ix. 8.
Ver. 15. Thy brethren, even thy brethren.- Mr. Levi understands this of those of Judah and of the ten tribes. But we rather understand the term brethren, 1. Of his countrymen the Jews, who had been carried captive into Babylon; and, 2. more strictly, of his immediate kin: "Thy brethren, the men of thy kindred." These having left Jerusalem, were
treated by the Jews who remained, as having no farther interest in the holy city.
Ver. 16. A little sanctuary-in their absence from the temple; or, as Newcome, a sanctuary for a little time." even to the end of the 70 years' captivity. The word is used Ps. viii. 5.
Ver. 19. Within you the ancients, many MSS and Editions, read, Within them." Newcome. Ver. 21. After the heart-that is, in the true spirit of their detestable idolatries. D Levi.
Ver.23. On the east-namely, the Mount of Olives. Zech. xiv. 4.
Ver. 24. The vision that I had seen-namely, in the two preceding chapters.
23 And the glory of the LORD went up from the midst of the city, and stood upon the mountain which is on the east side of the city.
24 Afterwards the spirit took me up, and brought me in a vision by the Spirit of God into Chaldea, to them of the captivity. So the vision that I had seen went up from me.
25 Then I spake unto them of the captivity all the things that the LORD had shewed me. (M)
THE word of the LORD also came unto me, saying,
2 Son of man, thou dwellest in the midst of a rebellious house, which have eyes to see, and see not; they have ears to hear, and hear not: for they are a rebellious house.
3 Therefore, thou son of man, prepare thee stuff for removing, and remove by day in their sight; and thou shalt remove from thy place to another place in their sight: it may be they will consider, though they be a rebel lious house.
[ordered to remove.
4 Then shalt thou bring forth thy stuff by day in their sight, as stuff for removing: and thou shalt go forth at even in their sight, as they that go forth into captivity.
5 Dig thou through the wall in their sight, and carry out thereby.
6 In their sight shalt thou bear il upon thy shoulders, and carry it forth in the twilight: thou shalt cover thy face, that thou see not the ground: for I have set thee for a sign unto the house of Israel.
7 And I did so as I was com manded: I brought forth my stuff by day, as stuff for captivity, and in the even I digged through the wall with mine hand; I brought it forth in the twilight, and I bare it upon my shoul der in their sight.
8 And in the morning came the word of the LORD unto me, saying,
9 Son of man, hath not the house of Israel, the rebellious house, said unto thee, What doest thou?
10 Say thou unto them, Thus saith the Lord GOD; This burden concern. eth the prince in Jerusalem, and all
(M) Judgments announced against those who neglected the Divine warnings; particularly against those rulers who made a mock of the types and predictions of the Prophets. (Comp. ver. 3, with Jer. i. 13.) When sinners go to the length of scoffing at religion, the judgments of God seldom slumber. Pelatiah, who is accused of this in the 1st. verse, is suddenly cut off in the 13th.-God promises to favour those who were gone to captivity, and intimates the general restoration and conversion of the nation in aftertimes.
Ver. 23. The Shechinah, or symbol of the Divine presence, is then represented as forsaking the city, as in the foregoing
chapter it did the Temple; and the Prophet returns to the place from which be was carried, and by the same extraordinary means, in order to communicate his instructions to his brethren of the captivity. To these he was sent with promises, not only of return, but of a new heart and a new spirit, when effectually cured of their attachment to idolatry.
From the circumstance that the glory of the Lord rested on the Mount of Olives after it had left the temple, the Jews formed an expectation that the Messiah would frequent this Mount, as in fact he did, and there predicted the last destruc tion of the city and temple. (Luke xis. 42, &c.)
CHAP. XII. Ver. 3, Prepare thee stuff-Marg. "Instruments," or utensils. SirJ. Chardiù explains this in reference to the eastern caravans. Those who were to start in the evening, brought out their goods in open day, for packing; those who starte in the middle of the night, brought out theirs in the evening. Michaelis thinks that the former refers to the removal of the greater part of the people, in the eleventh year of Zedekiah; the latter, to the subsequent captivity of the king and his adherents, who at first fled, but were overtaken by the Chaldeans,
Jer. lii. 7, 8. See Newcome and Orient. Cast.
Ver. 4. As they that go, &c.-Heb. “As the goings forth of captivity."
All the Ver. 5. Dig thou-Heb. "Dig for thee." principal houses in Jerusalem were built square, and surrounded with a wall; this digging through the wall in the evening, may therefore intimate Ze dekiah's attempt to escape clandestinely, probably, as Newcome suggests, through a breach in the wail. Ver. 6. Bear it-that is, the staff, ver. 4