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tain the face of the covering cast over all people, and the vail that is spread over all nations.
8 He will swallow up death in victory; and the Lord GoD will wipe away tears from off all faces; and the rebuke of his people shall he take away from off all the earth; for the LORD hath spoken it.
9 And it shall be said in that day, Lo, this is our God; we have waited for him, and he will save us this is the LORD; we have waited for him, we will be glad and rejoice in his salvation.
10 For in this mountain shall the hand of the LORD rest; and Moab shall be trodden down under him, even as straw is trodden down for the dunghill.
of thy walls shall he bring down, lay low, and bring to the ground, even to the dust. (B)
N that day shall this song be sung in the land of Judah; We have a strong city; salvation will God appoint for walls and bulwarks.
2 Open ye the gates, that the righteous nation which keepeth the truth may enter in.
3 Thou wilt keep him in perfect peace, whose mind is stayed on thee; because he trusteth in thee.
4 Trust ye in the LORD for ever: for in the LORD JEHOVAH is everlasting strength:
5 For he bringeth down them that dwell on high; the lofty city, he layeth it low; he layeth it low, even to the ground; he bringeth it even to the dust.
11 And he shall spread forth his hands in the midst of them, as he that swimmeth spreadeth forth his hands to swim and he shall bring down their pride together with the spoils of their hands. 12 And the fortress of the high fort the needy.
6 The foot shall tread it down, ever the feet of the poor, and the steps of
(B) An ode of thanksgiving for the deliverance just announced. The short glance which the prophet gave, of the deliverance of Israel, and the Messiah's kingdom, in the close of the preceding chapter, makes him here break out into a song of praise; whereas, though he first alludes to temporal deliverances, the prophetic spirit carries out his mind in the ecstatic contemplation of the glory and blessedness of the gospel dispensation, which he compares, 1. To a rich and plentiful feast, of which all nations were in
3. He who
vited to partake, "without money and without price." 2. He compares it to the dawn of light, which "lifts the veil of darkness from all faces." brings "life and immortality to light," (2 Tim. i. 10.) will, at the same time, throw into darkness and oblivion the errors and superstitions of Paganisin; and finally, by his own death, eventually destroy (or, in the Hebrew idiom, swaliow up) death itself-wipe away all tears-and introduce into the New Jerusalem above, everlasting joy, and peace, and happiness. (See Rev. xxi. 1-4.)
NOTES-Chap. XXV. Con.
in the next verse..... The face of the covering cast over-Heb. " Covered" over-all people.
Ver. 8. Swallow up death.-Sec 1 Cor. xv, 55, The rebuke-Lowth," The reproach."
Ver. 10. Rest-Lowth," Give rest.".... Lowth, "And Moab shall be threshed in his place, as the straw is threshed under the wheels of the car." Boothroyd, however, adheres to our translation, "As straw (i. e. the refuse of it) is trodden down for the dunghill." Compare Marg. Note, and see our Note on Deut. xxv. 4, also ch. xxviii. 27 of this book. Ver. 11. Spread forth his hands--Lowth and others apply this to Moab, compared here to a man who, in the fear of drowning, spreads forth his hands to swim, but in vain, for God will enervate his bands; alluding, perhaps, to the cramp, which sometimes seizes and drowns the swimmer. This is very nearly the version of Lowth," With the sudden gripe
of his hands" meaning, that God should seize him, as a beast of prey. See Lam. iii. 10. These bet verses are extremely difficult to translate, (as 63:3ker has sufficiently shown) but of the general sense, as implying the subjugation and overthrow of Moab, there can be no doubt.
CHAP. XXVI. Ver. 1. A strong city-iu opr sition to that of the enemy overthrown, chap. xx In the land of Judah-Lowth unites this with the latter clause, instead of the preceding: “ In the land of Judah we have a strong city."
Ver. 3. In perfect peace-Heb, “ Peace, prace," the word being repeated by way of emphasis. Whose mind (Marg. imagination, or thoughts, # stayed-settled, unwavering.
Ver. 4. Everlasting strength-Heb. “The rock of
7 The way of the just is uprightness: thou, most upright, dost weigh the path of the just.
8 Yea, in the way of thy judgments, O LORD, have we waited for thee; the desire of our soul is to thy name, and to the remembrance of thee.
9 With my soul have I desired thee in the night; yea, with my spirit within me will I seek thee early: for when thy judgments are in the earth, the inhabitants of the world will learn righteousness.
10 Let favour be shewed to the wicked, yet will he not learn righteousness in the land of uprightness will he deal unjustly, and will not behold the majesty of the LORD.
11 LORD, when thy hand is lifted up, they will not see: but they shall see, and be ashamed for their envy at the people; yea, the fire of thine enemies shall devour them.
12 LORD, thou wilt ordain peace for us for thou also hast wrought all our works in us.
13 O LORD our God, other lords beside thee have had dominion over us: but by thee only will we make mention of thy name.
14 They are dead, they shall not live; they are deceased, they shall not rise: therefore hast thou visited and destroyed them, and made all their memory to perish.
15 Thou hast increased the nation, O LORD; thou hast increased the nation: thou art glorified: thou hadst removed it far unto all the ends of the earth.
16 LORD, in trouble have they visited thee, they poured out a prayer when thy chastening was upon them.
17 Like as a woman with child, that draweth near the time of her delivery, is in pain, and crieth out in her pangs; so have we been in thy sight, O LORD.
18 We have been with child, we have been in pain, we have as it were brought forth wind; we have not wrought any deliverance in the earth; neither have the inhabitants of the world fallen.
19 Thy dead men shall live, together with my dead body shall they arise. Awake and sing, ye that dwell in dust: for thy dew is as the dew of herbs, and the earth shall cast out the dead.
20 Come, my people, enter thou into thy chambers, and shut thy doors about thee: hide thyself as it were for a little moment, until the indignation be overpast.
21 For, behold, the LORD cometh out of his place to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity: the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain. (C)
This chapter, like the foregoing, is a (C) Another hymn of triumphant praise. song of praise, in which thanksgivings for
Ver.7. Uprightness-Lowth," Perfectly straight." ....Thou dost weigh-Lowth," Thou exactly levellest," the word signides to regulate, either by weight or measure. See Prov. iv 26.
Ver. 9. Will I seek-Lowth, "Have I sought." Ver. 10. Behold-Lowth, "Regard."
Ver. 11. For their envy at the people - Marg. "Towards thy people;" Lowth, "They shall see, with co fusion, thy zeal for thy people." Ver. 12. In us-Marg. "For us."
Ver. 13. By thee only—Lowth, “Th ́e only, and thy name, henceforth will we celebrate."
Ver. 15. Removed it far unto.-Read the text without the supplementary words, "Thou hadst removed far all ends, horders (or boundaries) of, not the earth, but the land."
Ver. 16. Poured st a prayer — Marg. "Secret speech," a whisper; i. e. a private prayer. But Lowth renders it," Humble supplication."
Ver. 17. Like as a woman with child - Lowth,
"That hath conceived."
Ver. 18. We have been with child-Lowth, "We have conceived." The case here stated, is that of a woman suffering under a disorder, with all the symp toms of pregnancy, arising from wind only.
Ver. 19. Together with, &c. -Lowth omits the supplementary words in Italics, and reads, "My deceased, they shall rise." All the ancient versions read in the plural. ....Dew of herbs-Boothroyd reads, "Mallows," which are said to imbibe much dew; but Lowth renders it, "Of the dawn." As dew raises the vegetable world to new life, (as it were) so God's Spirit acts upon the moral world" And the earth shall cast out the dead-Lowth renders this," But the earth shall cast forth (as an abortion) the deceased tyrants;" the word here used, is Rephaim, giants, tyrants, alluding to ver. 14; whose carcases are represented as "cast forth," but not resuscitated. See Note on Job xxvi. 5.
temporal and spiritual mercies are beautifully mingled, though the latter still predominate. This hymn, like the preceding, is beautifully diversified by the frequent change of speakers. It opens with a chorus of the church, celebrating the protection vouchsafed by God to his people, and the happiness of the righteous, whom he protects, contrasted with the misery of the wicked, whom he punishes. To this very naturally succeed their own pious resolutions of obedience, and trust and delighting in God. Here the prophet breaks in, in his own person, eagerly catching the last words of the chorus, which were perfectly in unison with his own feelings; these he beautifully repeats, as one musical instrument reverberates the sound of another in unison with it. He makes, likewise, a suitable response to what had been said on the judgments of God; and observes their different effects on good and bad men, improving the one, and hardening the other.
Ver. 12. is supposed to commence another chorus, in which the hand of God is acknowledged, all idol worship is abjured, and God is praised for increasing the nation, and enlarging its boundaries.
In verses 16 to 18, Israel is compared to a woman supposing herself pregnant, first pouring out her sorrows in secret, and afterwards more vehemently, in the agony of supposed labour, which, however, proves to be a mistake. They conceived and brought forth wind. They made great professions of reform, and in consequence of those professions, indulged hopes of deliverance; but their professions were hypocritical, and their hopes were disappointed. Still, however, they are encouraged to hope; and though their situation is compared to that of the dead, they are directed to look to him who is able to raise the dead, for a moral and political resurrection. From hence, says Bp. Louth, justly, "It appears that the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead was at that time a popular and common doctrine; for an image which is assumed in order to express or represent any thing in the way of allegory, or metaphor, whether poetical or prophetical, must be an image commonly known and understood; otherwise it will not answer the purpose for which it is assumed." The chapter closes with inviting God's people to fly to him in prayer, while he arises to punish sinners.
CHAP. XXVII. Ver. 1. Leviathan.-The name is used for any great monster, eitoer by sea or land, and especially for the crocodile; see Expos, of Job xli. Three sorts of monsters seem bere intended; if so, the vau rendered even in the first verse, should be rendered "and," as immediately after.
Ver. 2. Sing ye — Lowth, "Sing ye a responsive song," which the Hebrew certainly implies. (See Neh. xu. 31-40, with our Notes.) - A vineyard of red wine-Lowth, "The beloved vineyard," so a great number of MSS, some printed Editions, the LXX, and Chaldee. The Hebrew in no case has any remark to distinguish the speakers, as we have; but the learned Bishop just quoted distributes them thus:
Ver. 3. (Jehovah.)
It is I, Jehovah, that preserve her;
And by day I will keep guard over her.
Ver. 4. (Vineyard)
I have no wall for my defence:
O that I had a fence of the thorn and briar!
(Jehov.) Against them should I march in battle; I should burn them up together.
5. Ah! let her rather take hold of my protection.
(Viney.) Let him make peace with me!
Peace let him make with me. 6. (Jek.) They that come, &c.
This verse seems to end the dialogue.
To this version and distribution, Dr. Boothroyd adheres very nearly, except in the 6th verse. To render this intelligible, it may be proper to remark on ver. 4, that hedges of thorn and briar are often used instead of stone; but in these hot countries they are so combustible as easily to take fire, and are often employed for fuel.
In ver. 4, instead of Fury is not in me, Lowth
7 Hath he smitten him, as he smote those that smote him? or is he slain according to the slaughter of them that are slain by him?
8 In measure, when it shooteth forth, thou wilt debate with it: he stayeth his rough wind in the day of the east wind.
9 By this therefore shall the iniquity of Jacob be purged; and this is all the fruit to take away his sin; when he maketh all the stones of the altar as chalkstones that are beaten in sunder, the groves and images shall not stand up.
10 Yet the defenced city shall be desolate, and the habitation forsaken, and left like a wilderness: there shall the calf feed, and there shall he lie down, and consume the branches thereof.
[towards his church.
11 When the boughs thereof are withered, they shall be broken off: the women come, and set them on fire: for it is a people of no understanding: therefore he that made them will not have mercy on them, and he that formed them will shew them no favour.
12 And it shall come to pass in that day, that the LORD shall beat off from the channel of the river unto the stream of Egypt, and ye shall be gathered one by one, O ye children of Israel.
(C) God's conduct toward his church represented by the care of a Husbandman over his vineyard.-The first verse evidently belongs to the preceding chapter. God there announces his rising to execute judgment: here he states the objects of his vengeance. The straight serpent is plainly the crocodile-the crooked serpent, probably the Boa-constrictor, and the Sea-serpent, perhaps that enormous creature lately seen upon the American shores, though generally supposed to be the whale. These were undoubtedly designed to typify tyrannical powers of the first class, but which of them it is not easy, nor perhaps possible to ascertain.
Then comes in the beautiful parable of the Vineyard, which is doubtless designed to represent the nature of God's dealings with his people Israel, in a kind of Dialogue (called in the original "a responsive Song") between Jehovah, the great Hus
bandman (John xv. 1.), and the people of Israel, who are his vineyard. According to Bp. Lowth's view of this passage, "The church wishes for a wall, or a defence of thorns; human strength and protection : Jehovah replies that this would nought avail her, nor defend her against his wrath: he counsels her therefore to betake herself to his protection. On which she entreats him to make peace with her."-Such is the import of this "responsive song."
The prophet then compares the afflictions of Israel with the more terrible judgments against their enemies, and asks, "Hath he smitten him (Jacob) as he smote those that smote him?" i. e. their enemies. The answer is, No: his judgments on Israel are tempered with mercy (ver. 8.), and intended to purify and not destroy. And therefore when their enemies shall be utterly destroyed, as fuel for the fire, they shall be gathered, like fruit, from every country into which they have been scat
rads, "I have no wall;" which, however, does not differ widely in the original; for the Heb. word for fury, by the insertion of a vau becomes" a wall;" and in this change he is supported by the LXX and the Syriac.
Ver. 8 In measure when it skooteth forth-Marg. "When thou sendest it forth," that is, the rod of Correction, "thou wilt debate with it." This, though rejected by the Bp. and Dr. B. we think very beautiful; it is the portrait of a father chastising his child, and hesitating, or debating with the rod, that it be not too severe. Again he stayeth, holdeth hback (see Prov. xxx. 4.) the roughness of the wind in the day of tempest.
Ver. 9. And this is all the fruit-Boothroyd, "This shall be the whole fruit;" i.e. the ultimate consequence, even "the removal of his sin."When he maketh, &c.-that is, when he destroyeth all the vestiges of idolatry, and particularly the sun images," as the margin reads. (See chap. xvii. 8.)
Ver. 10. The defenced (or fortified) city Dr. B. refers this to Babylon, which, like a worthless vine, was to be broken down and burnt.
Ver. 12. The Lord shall beat off, &c.-Boothroyd, "Shall gather his fruit, from the flood of the river unto," &c. This was done by beating the fruit from the trees,
4 And the glorious beauty, which is on the head of the fat valley, shall be a fading flower, and as the hasty fruit before the summer: which when he that looketh upon it seeth, while it is yet in his hand he eateth it up.
5 In that day shall the LORD of hosts be for a crown of glory, and for a diadem of beauty, unto the residue of his people,
6 And for a spirit of judgment to him that sitteth in judgment, and for strength to them that turn the battle to the gate.
7 But they also have erred through wine, and through strong drink are out
[against Judah and Israel, of the way; the priest and the prophet have erred through strong drink, they are swallowed up of wine, they are out of the way through strong drink: they err in vision, they stumble in judgment.
8 For all tables are full of vomit and filthiness, so that there is no place clean.
9 Whom shall he teach knowledge? and whom shall he make to understand doctrine? Them that are weaned from the milk, and drawn from the breasts.
10 For precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little:
11 For with stammering lips and another tongue will he speak to this people.
12 To whom he said, This is the rest wherewith ye may cause the weary to rest: and this is the refreshing: yet they would not hear.
13 But the word of the LORD was unto them precept upon precept, precept upon precept; line upon line, line upon line; here a little, and there a little; that they might go, and fall backward, and be broken, and snared, and taken.
CHAP. XXVIII. Ver. 1. The crown of prideBp. Lowth considers the city of Samaria situated upon a hill of oval form, surrounded with a rich valley, and then with other hills, as suggesting the idea of a chaplet; such as was worn in banquets, not only by the Greeks, but the luxurious Israelites, as appears in ver. 1,3, 4; and from the apocryphal book of Wisdom, chap. ii. 7, 8. This to drunkards was the "crown of pride," though composed but of fading flowers."
Ver. 2. A mighty and strong one.-This evidently refers to Shalmanezer, king of Assyria, as related 2 Kings xviii. 9—12. —With the-Lowth, "His" hand.
Ver. 4. It seeth--Houbigant, by the transposition of only a letter, reads, He plucketh it,' which avoids tautology, and is followed both by Lowth and Boothroyd. Eateth it up-Heb. "Swalloweth it." Compare Hosea ix. 10.
Ver. 6. That turn the battle to the gate-that is, according to Lowth, "That repel the war" (to the gate of the enemy). See the fulfilment of this in 2 Kings xviii. 8.
Ver. 7. The priest and the prophet.-It is much to be feared, that being destitute both of the spirit of prophecy and the fervour of devotion, these might seek inspiration from their liquor, and in that state did they "err in vision," by substituting the dreams of intemperance for prophetic visions, and mock the true prophets of the Lord.
14 Wherefore hear the word of the
Ver. 9. Whom shall he teach?—i. e. does the prophet think we are but babes? So Lowth, who reads the whole of this verse in the interrogative.
Ver. 10, Precept must be-Lowth, "is," but there is no verb in the original. Lowth considers this verse also as the language of these drunken prophets.
Boothroyd takes a different view of the passage, which we subjoin. He considers ver. 9 as the language of the prophet, who represents these Jewish priests, &c. as utterly incompetent to be teachers;
Whom can such teach knowledge? and adds, "They are like children weaned from the milk,' &c. And what is said, ver. 10, "Precept upon precept," &c. he considers as referring to their imperfect method of instruction, by bits and scraps, and in stammering accents.
Ver. 11. For with stammering lips, and another (i. e. a foreign) tongue will ke speak-Marg. “He bath spoken.'
Both interpretations consider this and the following verses as the language of the prophet Isaiah. The substance of the Bishop's Exposition is given in ours; and Dr. B. does not here materially differ. Ver. 12. This is the rest-that is, the true rest: namely, trust in God's word.
Ver. 13. But the word of the Lord was — Lowtby "Shall be." So Boothroyd.
Ver. 14. That rule this people-Lowth, " Ye people that utter sententious speeches," or parables; such as here fellow.