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and that the only way of safety and happiBess would lie in submission to him, and cadence in him." (Testimony to Meswal, voi. i. p. 213.)

The august title, "Son of God," is here anaoanced by a divine decree; which cer tainly, in its peculiarity, raises the Mesah above men and angels; “For unto which of the angels said he at any time, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten thee?" (Heb. i, 5.) But to him it is appied, 1. As the essential word and wisdoin of God; he was "set up from everlasting pon the throne of the divine glory: "Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever;" Heb.1.3-9.) and to this our great poet, Mateu, thus alludes.

Hear, all ye angels, progeay of light, Thrones, dominations, princedoms, virtues, powers, Hear my decree, which unrevok'd shall stand. This day I have begot whom I declare My only Son, and on this holy hill Hi have anointed, whom ye now behold At my right hand, your head I him appoint; And by myself have sworn, to him shall bow All hates in heaven, and confess him Lord."

(Par. Lost, bk. v. 1.600.)

2. This decree was repeated and confirmed at his incarnation; for "when he bringeth the first-begotten into the world, he saith, Let all the angels of God worship him." (Heb. i. 6.) And accordingly, "a multitude of the heavenly host attended,

and praised God." (Luke ii. 13.) And again, 3. When raised from the dead, he was "declared to be the Son of God with power, (i. e. most forcibly) by his resurrection from the dead." (Rom. i. 4.)

This may with great propriety be called a Missionary Psalm, since it relates especially to the conversion of the heathen. In verses 7 and 8, the Son of God himself is personally introduced, as announcing the decree by which he was declared to be "the Son of God," and the "Heir of all things." (Heb. i. 2.) And he is particularly encouraged to "ask" of his heavenly Father the heathen for his inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for his possession." In this petition it is certainly the duty of Christians to unite with their Redeemer, and the more so, as we already see the dawn of its accomplishment; for now "verily " hath "the sound" of salvation gone forth" into all the earth," and "the words" of the gospel "unto the ends of the world."

The psalmist concludes with advising all nations, with their chiefs and princes, to do homage to the Son of God and as this homage was generally rendered by kissing the hand; so they are required to kiss the Son, which implied not only submission, but adoration.


PSALM HII Ver.2,4,8. Selah.-No less than 12 different senses have been given to this word; but eleva. on seems the radical idea, from which many have inred that it signified an extraordinary elevation of the voice, but as this word generally occurs at the end #farerse, such an elevation seems most unnatural. We are not apt to speak confidently; but in this e we have no doubt, that the elevation was not That of the volce, but of the hand; a common and Try natural sign, inade by the leader of a choir, Then the performers are to hold a note beyond its Raper duration, or make a solemn pause. In the cer case, with us it often intimates permission for the principal vocal performer to introduce an ex

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An Evening]



LORD: thy blessing is upon thy people. LORD will hear when I call unto him. Selah. (C)


To the chief Musician on Neginoth. A Psalm of David.

HEAR me when I call, O God of

my righteousness: thou hast enlarged me when I was in distress; have mercy upon me, and hear my prayer.

2 O ye sons of men, how long will ye turn my glory into shame? how long will ye love vanity, and seek after leasing? Selah.

3 But know that the LORD hath set apart him that is godly for himself: the


4 Stand in awe, and sin not: commune with your own heart upon your bed, and be still. Selah.

5 Offer the sacrifices of righteousness, and put your trust in the LORD. 6 There be many that say, Who will shew us any good? LORD, lift thou up the light of thy countenance upon us.

7 Thou hast put gladness in my heart, more than in the time that their corn and their wine increased.

8 I will both lay me down in peace, and sleep: for thou, LORD, only makest me dwell in safety. (D)


(C) A Psalm of David, for the morning. -This psalm is said to have been composed by David, when he fled from his son Absalom." Thus circumstanced, (says Bishop Horne) he expresses himself in terms well adapted to the parallel case of the Son of David, persecuted by rebellious Israel; as also to that of his church, suffering tribulation in the world." The psalmist "complains, in much anguish, of the multitude of his enemies, and of the reproaches cast upon him, as one forsaken by God," but declaring, notwithstanding, his sure trust in the divine promises, he derides the impotent malice of his ene mies, and ascribes his anticipated salvation to JEHOVAH. Thus is the same scripture made "profitable" to a variety of useful purposes. (2 Tim. iii. 16.) If we look back to the original occasion of the psalm, we cannot but grieve to hear the venerable monarch say of his own rebellious son, "Arise and flee, for we shall not else escape from Absalom: make speed to depart, lest he overtake us, and smite the city with the edge of the sword." (2 Sam. xv. 14.) If we look forward to David's Son and successor, we may mark the period when Jew and Gentile conspired against him, as stated in the preceding psalm. If we look within, we shall always find enemies ready to rise up against us: we may, however, here also encourage

ourselves, as both David and Messiah did, in the consideration that "salvation belongeth unto God," and he is “a shield unto all them that trust in him." Under these considerations, we may at night "lie down in peace," and in confidence of divine protection; and in the morning, arise and praise our great Deliverer.

"My God sustain'd me all the night;
Salvation doth to God belong :
He rais'd my head to see the light,
And make his praise my morning song." Watts.


(D) A Psalm of David, for the evening.

This, like many other psalms, is in the title directed to the chief musician on Neginoth," or, "the overseer of the performers on stringed instruments," including the harp, psaltery, and other instruments played with the hand: so the following psalm is dedicated "to the chief mu sician on Nehiloth," or "to the overseer of the performers on wind instruments," as the organ, and other pipes. The trumpets were performed on by the priests only; but these two classes of instruments, as already intimated, were properly used to accompany two choirs of singers, which performed alternately, and when they united in general chorus, the trumpets, horns, and cymbals, were probably joined with them. This was an evening psalm, and probably used at the time of the evening sacrifice. It is, however, equally


PSALM IV. TITI E,-To the Chief. "The original word (menatseach) signifies one that urgeth the continuance of any thing unto the end. 2 Chron. xxii. 18, and xxxiv. 12, 13..... There were Levites appointed to several duties; and some (lenatseach) to set forward, and be over the rest, I Chron. xv. 21. and there were such as excelled in the art of singing and playing upon instruments... Some Levites had no other charge." Ainsworth. The LXX render Lemnatseach, "to the end," (eis telos) which the critics have been much puzzled to account for; but

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To the chief Musician upon Nehiloth. A Psalm of David.

GIVE ear to my words, O LORD, consider my meditation.

2 Hearken unto the voice of my cry, my king, and my God: for unto thee will I pray.

3 My voice shalt thou hear in the morning, O LORD; in the morning will I direct my prayer unto thee, and will look up.

4 For thou art not a God that hath pleasure in wickedness: neither shall evil dwell with thee.

5 The foolish shall not stand in thy sight: thou hatest all workers of iniquity.

6 Thou shalt destroy them that speak leasing: the LORD will abhor the

bloody and deceitful man.


7 But as for me, I will come into thy house in the multitude of thy mercy and in thy fear will I worship toward thy holy temple.

8 Lead me, O LORD, in thy righteousness because of mine enemies; make thy way straight before my face. 9 For there is no faithfulness in their mouth; their inward part is very wickedness; their throat is an open sepulchre; they flatter with their tongue.

10 Destroy thou them, O God; let them fall by their own counsels; cast them out in the multitude of their transgressions, for they have rebelled against thee.

11 But let all those that put their trust in thee rejoice: let them ever


adapted to the use of Christians as of Jews. It is the language of one who, having received mercy in former time, now applies to the same source for assistance and deliverance. But the psalm is not all devototal; part of it is addressed to persons of a different character: "How long will ye turn my glory into shame?" that is, how long will you despise and ridicule my trust in Jehovah, which is my glory? and at the same time delight in vanity and falsehood; or, as those words mean in the lips of a pious Israelite, How long will you put your trust in idols, which are but lying vanities." (Acts xiv. 15.)

Such are exhorted to stand in awe-to reflect to meditate by night upon their heds, and submit to the divine decree, as having reference to his establishment on the throne, from which he was probably Low driven; for Lightfoot, Calniet, and others, think this psalm, as well as the preceding, was written during Absalom's rebellion. Both, however, may have a far

ther reference to the Messiah himself, as King in Sion, and ver. 4. may be parallel with Ps. ii. 11. Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice with trembling."

The concluding verses of the psalm forcibly represent the writer's faith and confidence in God, in contradistinction from those who seek their happiness in worldly objects. There be many that say, "Who will shew us any good?"-many who inquire after honours, riches, and earthly pleasures; but what are these to us? Lord! lift thou up on us the light of thy countenance!" This shall kindle a light amidst the darkest adversity; this shall create a joy beyond that of the harvest or the vintage. (Isa. ix. 3.) With such anticipations, the good man may lay down to sleep with composure, and rest in the assurance of perfect safety.

"Thus with my thoughts composed to peace,
I lay me down to sleep:
Thy hand in safety keeps my days,
And will my slumbers keep."


PSALMV. Ver.3. Will I direct-Rather, arrange. Aissaorta," orderly address thee;" the words "my prayer" being supplementary. Bishop Horsley thinks it reters to the orderly arrangement made by the priests previous to the morning sacrifice. And vil look up - Ainsworth, “look out," literally, "watch" for an aaswer to his prayer.

Ver. 4. Wickedness.... evil.-Mr. Ainsworth remarks, that these words may be understood of Viled and evil persons, who ought not impenitently tors into the divine presence; and who will not be admitted into the courts above.

Te. The foolish, in Scripture, seldom or never persons deficient in capacity. The word here Bed is rendered by Ainsworth, "vain-glorious " i. c. sinners who glory in their sips,


Ver. 7. Toward thy holy temple-Heb. "The temple of thy holiness," See 1 Kings viii. 38, 44, 48. Before the erection of Solomon's temple, this applied to the tabernacle. I Sam. 1. 9.-iii. 3.

Ver. 8. Mine enemies-Heb. " My spies;" those that watch me.

Ver. 9. Faithfulness- Ainsworth, "certainty," i. e. their word cannot be depended on. Very wickedness - Heb, "wickednesses."——— Flatter:Horsley. "smooth over.”

Ver. 10. Destroy thou them-Marg. "Make them guilty." Bishop Horsley, "Convict them,” i. e. pronounce sentence against them as rebels; for those that rebelled against the Lord's anointed, rebelled against the Lord.

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2 Have mercy upon me, O LORD; for I am weak: O LORD, heal me; for my beces are vexed.

3 Ky soul is also sore vexed; but theu, O Loza, bow bog?

4 Return, O LORD, deliver my soul: Oh save me for thy mercies' sake.

5. For in death there is no remembrance of thee: in the grave who shall give thee thanks!

6 I am weary with my groaning; al the night make I my bed to swim; I water my couch with my tears


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grace. It is plain, therefore, that the description was designed for others, besides the enemies of the iteral David; and is off more general import reaching to the world of the ungodly, and to the enemies ef al rigidoostess, as manifested in the person of the Messiah and his church. The charge brought against these is, that

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truth and buc. ay "were ant to be found in their dealings with God or each other; that their~in wand parts "were very wickednext; their fit thoughts and imaginaticas were dedel, and the stream was puisonei at the Wuntain ; that their throat was an open seguicire, ciatmzalı emittog, in coscene and is anguage, the aisuane and infectious exhalations of a putrid beart, entombed in a body of sin; aid that, if ever they put on the appearance of godless, b fattered with their fa Magne" in order the more effectually to le deceive and destroy.”

Lagbjargment against his ene mies, the psalast as de considered as the Lord's sacrated; those who rebelled Los ba, rebelet against the Lord

self as sparticularly true, if, with B. Saces Harm and Horsien, we ancly the pan to the Messian, w2.se ime tent elemes are excluded in the here of Those, bewever, who live all tear him, have every reason

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7 Mine eye is consumed because of grief; it waxeth old because of all mine enemies.

8 Depart from me, all ye workers of iniquity; for the LORD hath heard the voice of my weeping.

9 The LORD hath heard my supplication; the LORD will receive my prayer. 10 Let all mine enemies be ashamed and sore vexed: let them return and be ashamed suddenly. (F)


Sheggion of David, which he sang unto the LORD, concerning the words of Cush the Benjamite.

LORD my God, in thee do I put my trust: save me from all them that persecute me, and deliver me:


2 Lest he tear my soul like a lion, rending it in pieces, while there is none to deliver.

3 O LORD my God, if I have done this; if there be iniquity in my hands;

4 If I have rewarded evil unto him that was at peace with me; (yea, I have delivered him that without cause is mine enemy :)

5 Let the enemy persecute my soul, and take it; yea, let him tread down my life upon the earth, and lay mine honour in the dust. Selah.

6 Arise, O LORD, in thine anger, lift up thyself because of the rage of mine enemies and awake for me to the judgment that thou hast commanded.



4 Psalm of David, in time of sick Ress and great affliction.—This psalm is addressed to the chief musician, on Negiat upon Sheminith-that is, probably on Shiged instruments (tuned) an octave above the usual pitch, as more plaintive, and therefore a more suitable accompaniBent to a penitential psalm like this. Bishop Horsley here remarks, "The supplicatory Psalms may be generally divided to two classes, according to the prayer; which, in some, regards the public, and in ethers the individual. In those of the latter class, which is the most numerous, the supplicant is always in distress. His distress arises chiefly from the persecution of his enemies. His enemies are always the enemies of God and goodness. Their en mity to the supplicant is unprovoked. If it has any cause, it is only that he is the faithful servant of JEHOVAH, whose worship they oppose. They are numerous and powerful, and use all means, both of force and stratagem, for the supplicant's destruction; an object, in the pursuit of which they are incessantly employed. The supplicant

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is alone, without friends, poor, and destitute of all support, but God's providential protection. The supplicant, on the other hand, often miraculously relieved, is yet never out of danger, though he looks forward with confidence to a period of final deliverance. If at any time he is under apprehension of death, it is by the visitation of God in sickness. And at those seasons, the persecution of his enemies always makes a considerable part of the affliction.

But why, (it may be asked,) is David so distressed at the thought of dying? Did he suppose that he should perish, or be annihilated? or that the state on which he was entering was one of total insensibility? This can refer only to the state of the body. The grave is the land of forgetfulness and of silence, where the voice of praise is never heard. (Palm lxxxviii.12; cxv. 17; Isa. xxxviii. 18, 19.) Recovery from sickness is the restoration of joy and gladness, and while our joy arises from a principle of gratitude, our gladness will be expressed in praise; and that praise will not rest privately in our own bosoms, but we shall be glad to unite with the congregation of all those who fear God.


PSALM VII. Title-Shiggaion.-This is a very cuit word, and of doubtful derivation. Ains Werth calls it "an artificial song" (or wandering); Genecks, "a lamentation;" and Boothroyd, (still leer an elegy." See Hab. iii. 1-Cush, the Rule. -The late Mr. C. Taylor has taken

the father, for Saul his son. Others think Cnsh may here be used in a moral sense for Shimei, (who also was a Benjamite) as in such sense a black man; that is, a man of black, malignant character. Such was Shimei, as we find in his history (2 Sam. xvi. 5, &c.) The Cushites, if not absolutely black, were of very dark complexions.

Ver. 2. None to deliver-Heb. "Not a deliverer." Ver.3. If I have done this-Namely, what he was accused of, 2 Sam. xvi. 7, 8.—If there be (such)

pains to show that the Hebrews (like other fatalists) indulged sometimes in a play of words. (Inquents, No. 187, 188.) Something of the kind be observed here. Some suppose the name Char Kush, used for kisk, and the name Kish, iniquity, &c,

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