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ness of their endeavours: give them after the work of their hands; render to them their desert.

5 Because they regard not the works of the LORD, nor the operation of his hands, he shall destroy them, and not build them up.

6 Blessed be the LORD, because he hath heard the voice of my supplications.

7 The LORD is my strength and my shield; my heart trusted in him, and I am helped therefore my heart greatly rejoiceth; and with my song will I praise him.

8 The LORD is their strength, and he is the saving strength of his anointed.

[for mercies received.

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2 Give unto the LORD the glory due the beauty of holiness. unto his name; worship the LORD in

3 The voice of the LORD is upon dereth: the LORD is upon many the waters: the God of glory thunwaters.

4 The voice of the LORD is power

EXPOSITION-Psalm XXVII. Continued.

this psalm, on which, as it has been thought very obscure, we shall venture a little to enlarge. The psalmist says, "Hear me, O Lord; and answer me." The divine oracle replies, "Seek ye my face;" and the heart of the petitioner replies, "Thy face, Lord, will I seek." So that these words are a sort of dialogue between the sacred oracle and the heart of the sincere worshipper, the object of which is to draw him into closer communion with his God"the God of Jacob." (Ps. xxiv. 6.)

In the conclusion, David again encourages himself in the Lord his God. The supplementary words, "I had fainted," ver. 13. (like those in ver. 8.) add to the perspicuity of the expression, but subtract something from its poetical beauty: "Unless I had believed," as if the psalmist had said, 'What then would have become of me?' But since I have believed, and triumphed over all my enemies, I am now able to encourage others. "Wait, I say, on the Lord."

"There (could I say, and mark the happy place)
'Twas there I did his glorious footsteps trace:
'Twas there (oh let me raise an altar there!)

I saw as much of heaven as mortal sense could

There from his eyes I met the heav'nly beam,
That kindled in my soul this deathless flame!"
Mrs. Rowe.


(F) A Psalm of David, praying for defrom God.-The psalmist prays that he liverance from his enemies, and support may not be involved in the judgments of the wicked, who were his enemies; but the genius of that dispensation did not lead him to pray for his enemies, as does Christianity. On the contrary, he implores upon them the just reward of their evil deeds, ver. 4. As, however, in the original of this promiscuously: Give them-render them passage, the imperative and future are used suggests, that if the verbs were "in all -thou wilt destroy them: Bishop Horne objection against the scripture imprecasuch cases rendered in the future, every tions would vanish."

Such passages express only the acquiescence of good men in the righteous judgments of the Almighty, and when we shall have done with sin we shall have done with sympathy for sinners. (See Rev. xviii. 6, 20; xix. 1-4.) The psalm, however, concludes with strong expressions of gratitude and faith. "The Lord is the strength of his people; the saving strength of his anointed,"-of David, and of his great antitype, the Messiah.


Ver. 8. Their strength-Marg. " Or his strength." The ancient versions and several MSS read, "Of his people."-The saving strength (Heb. "strength of salvations") of his anointed.-The meaning is, that Jehovah is the head of the Messiah and of his people; and that he who raised him from the grave, will also raise them to everlasting life.

Ver. 9. Feed-Marg. "Rule." The pastoral office here alluded to, implies both feeding and ruling.

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The voice of God]


[full of majesty.

ful; the voice of the LORD is full of the wilderness; the LORD shaketh the wilderness of Kadesh.


5 The voice of the LORD breaketh the cedars; yea, the LORD breaketh the cedars of Lebanon.

6 He maketh them also to skip like a'calf; Lebanon and Sirion like a young unicorn.

7 The voice of the LORD divideth the flames of fire.

9 The voice of the LORD maketh the hinds to calve, and discovereth the forests and in his temple doth every one speak of his glory


10 The LORD sitteth upon the flood; yea, the LORD sitteth King for ever. 11 The LORD will give strength unto his people; the LORD will bless

8 The voice of the LORD shaketh his people with peace. (G)



(G) A Psalm of David, celebrating the glory of Jehovah as displayed in the thunder storm.-It is not necessary to suppose, as some have done, that this psalm was composed during a thunder storm; but it is evident that the psalmist had such au event in view, or in recollection. Maimenides says, that this psalm was appointed to be sung on the first working day (i.e. not being a sabbath or holiday) of the feast of Tabernacles, and so it is marked in the Greek version. (See Ainsworth.) Here, then, we have a remarkable coincidence of circumstances; for it may be seen in our calendar at the end of Leviticus, that the feast of Tabernacles fell on the 15th day of the month Tisri, which was the last day of our September, or nearly so; at which time commenced, what the Hebrews called the early or former rain, for this was the first month of their civil year. Now, upon turning to Buhle's "Economical Calendar of Palestine," (which may be found translated into English in Taylor's Fragments, No. 454,) we shall find that lightnings, at this time, are very frequent, and often accompanied with rain and


About this time, therefore, we may believe that David composed this animated and beautiful Psalm, in which the sublime phenomena of nature are made to exhibit the glory and majesty of nature's God. This theme is particularly recommended to "the sons of the mighty" among mankind, "the gods of earth," who must "die like men:" (Psalm lxxxii. 6, 7.) they are invited to listen to his voice as it thunders

through the heavens, and then to come and worship" in his glorious sanctuary," every part of which, and every article of its sacred furniture, utters somewhat of his glory or his grace. (See on Psalm xxvii.)

Notwithstanding we now understand the theory of the thunder and the lightning, there is still something awful in the phenomena, even to a philosopher, especially when he recollects that the thunderbolts of the Almighty often convey his summous to mortals, to meet him at his judgment bar. We need not wonder then that the

tyrant Nero, or the infidel Voltaire, should seek to hide themselves in the dark.

"With what beauty and propriety, (says Dr. Boothroyd,) is the grand name of JEHOVAH, repeated in almost every verse, and in some [verses] several times! Every echo of the thunder, every blaze of the vivid lightning calls upon us to give glory to the Lord; for who hath an arm like God, or who can thunder with a voice like him?"

But where can meu hide themselves from

the voice of the Most High? Shall they flee to the desert of Kadesh, climb the heights of Lebanon, or embark upon the mighty ocean? Nature every where trembles at his presence and his voice. The sea roars, the mountains tremble, and the timorous bind is thrown into premature. labour. Man ouly, frail and mortal man only, is insensible to the voice of that Almighty Being, whose word with equal ease,

can create or can destroy.

"God of vengeance! from above,
While thine awful bolts are burl'd,
O remember, Thou art Love!
Spare, O spare, a guilty world!"


Ver. 6. A young unicorn-The one-horned rhinoferos. See Note on Num. xxiii. 22.

Ver.1. Divideth (Heb. " cutteth out") the flames of Are-That is, the lightning, which is often zigzag in its form.

Ver. 9. Hinds to calve-Marg, “To be in pain." And discovereth-Or," maketh bare the forest, by stripping it of its leaves;" for we have remarked above, that this is an autumnal scene. To make the images better harmonize, Bishop Lowth and others, by a slight variation, for "binds" read "oaks;"


"he shivereth the oaks :" but as we read before of breaking the cedars, &c. the late Mr. Taylor, by another variation, here reads, "And deprives the female ibices" (or rock-goats) [of their young]. But we see no necessity for either of these changes,

Ibid. Doth every one-Marg. "Every whit of it uttereth bis glory;" i. e. every part of the temple, (or tabernacle) and of its mystical furniture, reveals somewhat of his praise.

Ver. 10. The flood--That is, the vast ocean.

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shall never be moved.

[healing mercy.

made my mountain to stand strong: 7 LORD, by thy favour thou hast thou didst hide thy face, and I was


8 I cried to thee, O LORD; and unto the LORD I made supplication.

9 What profit is there in my blood, dust praise thee? shall it declare thý when I go down to the pit? Shall the truth?

10 Hear, O LORD, and have mercy upon me: LORD, be thou my helper.

11 Thou hast turned for me my
mourning into dancing: thou hast put
off my sackcloth, and girded me with

sing praise to thee, and not be silent.
12 To the end that my glory may
unto thee for ever. (H)
O LORD my God, I will give thanks


(H) A Psalm and Song at the dedication of the house of David.-This title, literally considered, is attended with no difficulty; it is, therefore, with some surprise, that we have seen learned men attempt a mystical explication, explaining this "house," of David's body, which had been sick, or of his "soul," which had fallen into sin; and, after all, applying it to the Messiah, whose body had never been sick, that we know of, and whose soul, we know, was never stained with sin. That David had a house of cedar," while as yet the ark dwelt in curtains, we have certain information. (2 Sam. vii. 2.) And as we know also, that it was customary with the Israelites to dedicate their houses to God when finished, (see Deut. xx. 5.) there can be no difficulty in supposing the patriarch David did so. Nor is it improbable (though not recorded) that at the time of dedicating this house, David might be but just recovering from a recent illness, and think this a proper opportunity for expressing his gratitade for such recovery.

Considering the psalm in this light, it may


afford much useful admonition to persons in similar circumstances; and some parts of it are peculiarly beautiful, particularly the fifth verse. "For his auger (is but) for a moment-in his favour is life: weeping may lodge for the evening, but shouting for joy (cometh) in the morning." Such is the predominancy of divine mercy, and of human happiness!

Affliction has its proper effect on us, when it sends us to a throne of grace. When his plea in this case was, "What profit is David was afflicted, then he prayed: and pit? Shall the dust praise thee? shall it there in my blood, when I go down to the declare thy truth?" So Hezekiah argued, Isaiah xxxviii. 18., and the sum of the plea is, "Lord, if I am spared, I will magnify thy name, and study to advance thy glory; but death will put a period to my labours, aud my voice shall be heard no more!"

The learned Mr. Hutchinson having adopted the plan of applying all the Psalms him as pleading the inefficacy of his blood indiscriminately to the Messiah, represents without a resurrection from the dead; aud we know that a like system was adopted


PSALM XXX. Title,-A Psalm and Song-Rather," A Psalmi, (being) a song at the dedication of the house of David."

Ver. 1. Lifted me up-Ainsworth, “Drawn me out." as from the mouth of a p.t or a well.

Ver. 4. At the remembrance-Marg. "Memorial." Ver. 5. For his anger, &c -Heb. For his anger (is but) a moment," &c. Ainsworth, Weeping may endure "In the evening lodgeth weeping; at t be morning shouting joy."

Ver. 7. Made my mountain to stand strong Heb. "Settled strength for my mountain ;” i. e. Mount Sion, where David resided: but, figuratively, it refers to the establishment of his kingdom. Ainsworth.

Ver. 12. To the end that my glory-The Margin explains the glory" here named, of the psalmist's tongue, or soul, and we prefer the former, as opposed to silence. See Ps. Ivii, 8.

Prayer and praise]



To the chief Musician. A Psalm of David. IN thee, O LORD, do I put my trust; let me never be ashamed: deliver me in thy righteousness.

2 Bow down thine ear to me; de liver me speedily be thou my strong rock, for an house of defence to

save me.

3 For thou art my rock and my fortress; therefore for thy name's sake lead me, and guide me.

4 Pull me out of the net that they have laid privily for me: for thou art my strength.

5 Into thine hand I commit my spirit: thou hast redeemed me, O LORD God of truth.

6 I have hated them that regard lying vanities: but I trust in the LORD. 7 I will be glad and rejoice in thy mercy: for thou hast considered. my; trouble; thou hast known my soul in adversities;

8 And hast not shut me up into the hand of the enemy: thou hast set my feet in a large room.

9 Have mercy upon me, O LORD, for I am in trouble: mine eye is consumed with grief, yea, my soul and my belly.

10 For my life is spent with grief, and my years with sighing: my strength faileth because of mine iniquity, and my bones are consumed.

[for deliverance.

11 I was a reproach among all mine enemies, but especially among my neighbours, and a fear to mine acquaintance: they that did see me without fled from me.

12 I am forgotten as a dead man out of mind: I am like a broken vessel.

13 For I have heard the slander of many: fear was on every side: while they took counsel together against me, they devised to take away my life.

14 But I trusted in thee, O LORD: I said, thou art my God.

15 My times are in thy hand: deliver me from the hand of mine enemies, and from them that persecute me.

16 Make thy face to shine upon thy servant: save me for thy mercies' sake. 17 Let me not be ashamed, O LORD; for I have called upon thee: let the wicked be ashamed, and let them be silent in the grave.

18 Let the lying lips be put to silence; which speak grievous things proudly and contemptuously against the righteous.

19 Oh how great is thy goodness, which thou hast laid up for them that fear thee; which thou hast wrought

for them that trust in thee before the sons of men!

20 Thou shalt hide them in the

secret of thy presence from the pride of man: thou shalt keep them secretly in a pavilion from the strife of tongues. 21 Blessed be the LORD: for he

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Ver. 10. Because of mine iniquity.That is, says Ainsworth, punishment due for iniquity." Gen. xi 15. But Dr. Boothroyd remarks, that the ancient versions read "affliction," which he follows. Ver. 9, 10. Consumed -- That is, wasted, as by

pining disease, to the appearance of a skeleton.

Ver. 12. A broken vessel-Heb. "A vessel that perisheth;" i. e. becomes useless, and of no value Ver. 17. Let them be silent, &c.-Marg. "Let them be cut off for the grave."

Ver. 18. Grievous things-Heb. "A hard thing." Ver. 20. Pride-Conspiracies." Parkhurst, Gesenius.

Ver. 21. A strong city-Marg. "A fenced city."

The blessedness]


[of forgiveness. hath shewed me his marvellous kind- waxed old through my roaring all the

ness in a strong city.

22 For I said in my haste, I am cut off from before thine eyes : nevertheless thou heard est the voice of my supplications when I cried unto thee.

23 O love the LORD, all ye his saints for the LORD preserveth the faithful, and plentifully rewardeth the proud doer.

24 Be of good courage, and he shall strengthen your heart, all ye that hope in the LORD. (I)


A Psalm of David. Maschil. BL LESSED is he whose transgression is forgiven, whose sin is


2 Blessed is the man unto whom the LORD imputeth not iniquity, and in whose spirit there is no guile,

3 When I kept silence, my bones


day long.

4 For day and night thy hand was heavy upon me: my moisture is turned into the drought of summer. Selah.

5 I acknowledged my sin unto thee, and mine iniquity have I not hid. I said, I will confess my transgressions unto the LORD; and thou forSelah. gavest the iniquity of my sin.

6 For this shall every one that is godly pray unto thee in a time when thou mayest be found: surely in the floods of great waters they shall not come nigh unto him.

7 Thou art my hiding place; thou shalt preserve me from trouble; thou shalt compass me about with songs of

deliverance. Selah.

8 I will instruct thee and teach thee in the way which thou shalt go: I will guide thee with mine eye.

9 Be ye not as the horse, or as the


(1) A Psalm of David, pleading for mercy. The occasion of this psalm is not mentioned, but Bishop Patrick, and most other commentators apply it to the period when Saul pursued him in the wilderness of Maon, but was diverted from that pursuit by being informed that the Philistines had invaded Judea. 1 Sam. xxiii. 24-29. Part of the fifth verse having been used by our Saviour upon the cross (Luke xxiii. 46.) many expositors make no hesitation in applying to him the whole psalm; but Mr. Scott judiciously remarks, that when our Saviour used this clause he omitted the following, "Thou hast redeemed me," &c. as more properly relating to the type than to the antitype. Besides which, it should be remembered that the martyr Stephen used the like expression, as did many saints and martyrs in various ages: but the quotation of a single phrase by no means warrants the application of the whole psalm: though it must be allowed that David was an eminent type of our

Redeemer, it by no means follows that he was se in all respects. David was a great sinner as well as a great saint, and looked for pardon to the same mercy as we do. (Verses 5, 7, 9, 10, 16.)

Sin, in no way, could be attached to our Saviour but by imputation. "He was wounded for our transgressions;" but in no degree polluted by them: nor did he become, in any proper sense, a transgressor, though among such he was numbered. (Isa. liii. 5, 12.) Many passages in this psalm certainly suit the circumstances of his mortal life; but as no types in all respects correspond to their antitype, so is it with respect to typical prophecies, which require the same caution and prudence in their application. As our Saviour was not the subject of sin, neither was he the proper object of mercy; for he paid the penalty of sin, and having satisfied the law on our behalf, justice had no further demands on him or us: 66 being delivered for our offences, he was raised again for our justification." (Rom. iv. 25.)


PSALM XXXII. Title, A Psalm giving Instruction. Heb. Maschil; an instructing, or didactic Psalm. Dr Hales and others consider this psalm (as well as the 51st) to have been composed on David's repentance for his sin "in the matter of Uriah."

Ver. 3. When I kept silence-That is, "before I confessed my sin." David might grieve heavily, but refused to confess the cause, until Nathan was sent to him, 2 Sam. xii.

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