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27 For thou wilt save the afflicted people; but wilt bring down high looks. 28 For thou wilt light my candle: the LORD my God will enlighten my darkness.

29 For by thee I have run through a troop; and by my God have I leaped over a wall.

30 As for God, his way is perfect: the word of the LORD is tried: he is a buckler to all those that trust in him.

31 For who is God save the LORD? or who is a rock save our God?

32 It is God that girdeth me with strength, and maketh my way perfect. 33 He maketh my feet like hinds' feet, and setteth me upon my high places.

34 He teacheth my hands to war, so that a bow of steel is broken by mine arms.

35 Thou hast also given me the shield of thy salvation: and thy right hand hath holden me up, and thy gentleness hath made me great.

36 Thou hast enlarged my steps under me, that my feet did not slip.

37 I have pursued mine enemies,


and overtaken them: neither did I turn again till they were consumed.

38 I have wounded them that they were not able to rise: they are fallen under my feet.

39 For thou hast girded me with strength unto the battle: thou hast subdued under me those that rose up against me.

40 Thou hast also given me the necks of mine enemies; that I might destroy them that hate me.

41 They cried, but there was none to save them: even unto the LORD, but he answered them not.

42 Then did I beat them small as the dust before the wind: I did cast them out as the dirt in the streets.

43 Thou hast delivered me from the strivings of the people; and thou hast made me the head of the heathen: a people whom I have not known shall

serve me.

44 As soon as they hear of me, they shall obey me: the strangers shall submit themselves unto me.

45 The strangers shall fade away, and be afraid out of their close places. 46 The LORD liveth; and blessed


measure of it. Thus, under the new dispensation, salvation, as to its cause, is of grace alone, (Ephes. ii. 8.) yet will the rewards of grace be distributed to every man according to his works." (Matt. xvi. 27.)

It does not, therefore, appear to us necessary to exclude David's personal experience from this psalm: at the same time we have no objection to its application, in a

secondary view, to the Messiah: and, indeed, St. Peter seems to allude to the 4th verse, when he speaks of his resurrection from the dead, (Acts ii. 24.) and to him, certainly, some of the expressions apply more literally and fully, for he knew no siu, neither was guile found in his mouth." (1 Pet. ii. 22.) The last verse but one is also quoted by St. Paul, in reference to the calling of the Gentiles. (Rom. xv. 9.)


Ver. 26. Shew thyself froward-Marg. "wrestle;" i. e. contend. See Lev. xxvi. 27, 28.

Ver. 28. My candle-Marg. "Lamp." On this verse, the Chaldee paraphrast thus enlarges: "Because thou shalt enlighten the lamp of Israel, which is put out in the captivity, for thou art the Author of the light of Israel; the Lord my God shall lead me out of darkness into light, and shall make me see the consolation of the age which shall come to the just." Ver. 29. I have run (Marg. "broken") through a troop.

Ver. 33. Like hinds' feet.-Agility was a great qualification with the ancient warriors. 2 Sam. i. 23; í Chron. xii. 8. So among the Greeks Achilles was called "swift-footed," &c. See Orient. Customs, No. 935.

Ver. 34. Bon of steel-Ainsworth and Horsley, "Brass," or copper. See Note on Job xx. 24.

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be my rock; and let the God of my salvation be exalted.

47 It is God that avengeth me, and subdueth the people unto me.

48 He delivereth me from mine enemies: yea, thou liftest me up above those that rise up against me: thou hast delivered me from the violent man.

49 Therefore will I give thanks unto thee, O LORD, among the heathen, and sing praises unto thy name.

50 Great deliverance giveth he to his king, and showeth mercy to his anointed, to David, and to his seed for evermore. (T)

[in creation.


To the chief Musician. A Psalm of David. THE heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth his handywork.

2 Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge.

3 There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard.

4 Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them hath he set a tabernacle for the sun,


(T) Ver. 25-50. The equity of divine providence, and the merciful deliverance of those who trust in God.-These maxims evidently accord with those of our Lord in his sermon on the mount, (Matt. v. 3, &c.) "The merciful shall obtain mercy; the pure in heart shall see God." He will save the meek, the poor, and the distressed; but with the froward and perverse he will contend; and the high-spirited and proud he will bring down. The psalmist, however, expresses his confidence in God, who, as he had delivered, he trusted in him that he would still deliver: and in this part of the psalm some verses also occur which seem peculiarly appropriate to the Messiah. David might indeed say, when he became master of the surrounding nations, "Thou hast made me head of the heathen (nations); a people whom I have not known (that is, foreigners) shall submit themselves unto me:" but it appertains, in a far more exalted and extensive sense, to our divine Redeemer, to whom, as we have seen (Ps. ii. 8.) it was said, "Ask of me, and I will give thee the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for thy possession."

Christ being indeed the substance of the Old Testament as well as of the New, while we are warranted in believing that David, in most of his psalms, had respect to his own circumstances and experience, we are no less justified by apostolical authority in conceiving, that by the Spirit of inspiration be had frequent views of the future glory

of his great antitype; and this is the more natural, as it appears the Hebrews always felt a peculiar interest in the fate of their posterity, and no one more than the patriarch David, who, at the same time that he looked to the coming of Messiah as the consummation of all his wishes in futurity, looked to him also as the medium of his personal salvation.

The last verse, in which both appear included, is thus beautifully paraphrased by Bishop Horne: "Great deliverance giveth he unto his king," to king David, in saving him from Saul, and his other temporal encmies, and seating him on the earthly throne of Israel; to King Messiah, in rescuing him from death and the grave, and exalting him to an heavenly throne, as Head of the church: " and showeth mercy to his anointed;" i. e. outwardly, and in a figure, with oil (David); and to him who was anointed inwardly, and in truth, with the Holy Ghost and with power (Christ): "to David, and to his seed for evermore;' to the literal David, and to his royal progeny, "of whom, according to the flesh, Christ came;" and to Christ himself, the spiritual David, the beloved of God, with all those who through faith become his children, the sons of God, and heirs of eternal life.


PSALM XIX. Ver. 2. Day unto day--Or, "After day" so unto is used for after, Exod. xvi, 1.XX. 1. in Heb.

Ver. 3. Where their voice, &c.--Heb. "Withont their voice is heard." Bishop Horsley renders this verse," There is no speech, no words: no voice of them is heard: (yet) their sound goeth," &c.

Ver. 4. Their line-Marg. "Their rule or direc

"To David and his royal seed

Thy grace for ever shall extend; Thy love to saints, in Christ their head, Knows not a limit, nor an end." Watts.

tion." The allusion is to a measuring line, by which inheritances were divided. But the LXX render it sound, and so it is quoted by the apostle, (Rom. x. 18.) implying the intelligible nature of that instruction which the works of nature everywhere give to man, as to the being and perfections of his Creator.

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5 Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race.

6 His going forth is from the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of it: and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof.

7 The law of the LORD is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple.

8 The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes.

9 The fear of the LORD is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the LORD are true and righteous altogether.

10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb.


[of God's word.

11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.

12 Who can understand his errors? cleanse thou me from secret faults.

13 Keep back thy servant also from presumptuous sins; let them not have dominion over me: then shall I be upright, and I shall be innocent from the great transgression.

14 Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of my heart, be acceptable in thy sight, O LORD, my strength, and my redeemer. (U)


To the chief Musician. A Psalm of David. THE LORD hear thee in the day of

of trouble; the name of the God

of Jacob defend thee.

2 Send thee help from the sanctuary, and strengthen thee out of Zion.


(U) To the chief musician. A Psalm of David, on the works and word of God.-As the 8th psalm describes the beauties of a midnight scene, this celebrates the glories of an unclouded eastern day. "Day unto day, and night unto night," in perpetual succession, declare the glory of their Creator; and though their instructions are conveyed in silence, and no sound is heard, yet those instructions are universally understood, and equally intelligible in all nations. "Their line (or sound) is gone out through all the earth," &c. that is, the instructions they are intended to convey, as to the being and power, wisdom and goodness of the Creator, are seen without letters, and heard without sound, because they speak not to the eye or the ear only, but to the heart.

"In them," (says the Psalmist) that is, in the visible heavens, "hath he set a tabernacle for the sun," which is here compared to "a bridegroom" coming "out of his chamber" on the bridal morning; or to." a giant prepared to run a race.' Such is the diffusion of divine truth, and such the extent of its powerful influence, as displayed in the following verses. The


law of God here spoken of, though it always includes "the preceptive parts of Scripture, is seldom confined to them; includes "the doctrine," (as in the margin) and in short the whole of divine revelation, every part of which is occasionally em ployed by the Holy Spirit in the conversion of the soul of man, or in restoring it to God, from whom it has miserably departed.


David follows his eulogy on the word of God with a prayer for renewing and restraining grace; the latter, as Bishop Horne expresses it," to keep him back from" presumptuous sins," or sins committed knowingly, deliberately, and with a high hand, against the convictions an remonstrances of conscience. "The Rabbin (as did Moses himself) distinguish a sins into those committed ignorantly presumptuously: "the former we consid here intended by "secret faults," as form ing a contrast to the latter. (See Levit. 2,3; Num. xv. 30.) And by the gr transgression, commentators understa either idolatry or apostacy, which, inde as respected the ancient Jews, was same thing; for whenever they apostati from Jehovah, they became idolaters. that would avoid great sins, must bew of little ones.

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Ver 13. Presumptuous sins sing; as pride, haughtiness, tyranny.

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3 Remember all thy offerings, and accept thy burnt sacrifice. Selah. 4 Grant thee according to thine own heart, and fulfil all thy counsel.

5 We will rejoice in thy salvation, and in the name of our God we will set up our banners: the LORD fulfil all thy petitions.

6 Now know I that the LORD saveth his anointed; he will hear him from his holy heaven with the saving strength of his right hand.

7 Some trust in chariots, and some in horses: but we will remember the name of the LORD our God.

8 They are brought down and fallen: but we are risen, and stand upright.

9 Save, LORD: let the king hear us when we call. (X)


To the chief Musician. A Psalm of David. THE king shall joy in thy strength, O LORD; and in thy salvation how greatly shall he rejoice!


[the king.

2 Thou hast given him his heart's desire, and hast not withholden the request of his lips. Selah.

3 For thou preventest him with the blessings of goodness: thou settest a crown of pure gold on his head.

4 He asked life of thee, and thou gavest it him, even length of days for ever and ever.

5 His glory is great in thy salvation: honour and majesty hast thou laid upon him.

6 For thou hast made him most blessed for ever: thou hast made him exceeding glad with thy countenance.

7 For the king trusteth in the LORD, and through the mercy of the most High he shall not be moved.

8 Thine hand shall find out all thine enemies: thy right hand shall find out those that hate thee.

9 Thou shalt make them as a fiery oven in the time of thine anger: the LORD shall swallow them up in his wrath, and the fire shall devour them. 10 Their fruit shalt thou destroy


(X) To the chief musician. A Psalm of David, after he became king, containing the prayer of the Hebrew church on his behalf. This is a loyal as well as a devotional psalm. It is evidently intended to express the attachment of Israel, and particularly of Judah, to David's government, and may very properly be applied to David's Son and Lord, the King of Zion, interpreting only Old Testament types according to the apostolical examples. The sixth verse seems to be the language of David himself, who, contemplating the pious petitions offered on his behalf, says, "Now know 1," seeing the Lord's people are stirred up to prayer for me, and for my Success"Now know I that the Lord saveth his anointed!" In the following

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verses, David and his subjects unite in the same petitions, and conclude with an hosanna, or prayer for salvation, which, as it was offered to our Saviour while on earth, peculiarly belongs to him. "Thus (says Bishop Hone) the psalm concludes with a general hosauna' of the church, praying for the prosperity and success of the then future Messiah, and for her own salvation in him, her king; who, from the grave and gate of death, was, for this end, to be exalted to the right hand of the Majesty in the heavens, that he might hear, and present to his Father, the prayers of his people, when they call upon him.'"


PSALM XX. Ver. 1. Defend thee-Heb. "Set thee on a high place ;" i. e. a place of defence. Ver. 3. Accept (Heb. "turn to ashes") thy burnt offerings.

Ver. 5. We will set up our banners.-" The sense is, We will take the field against our enemies, in full reliance upon God's assistance." Bishop Horsley.

Ver. 6. From his holy heaven, &c.-Heb. " From the heaven of his holiness, by the strength of the salvation of his right band."

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Ver. 7. Some trust, &c.-Bishop Lonth renders this verse,

"These in chariots, and those in horses; But we in the name of Jehovah our God will be strong."

PSALM XXI. Ver. 2. Selah. - See Ps. iii. 2. Ver. 6. Made him most blesse1-Heb. "Set him to be blessings.-Exceeding glad-Heb. "Gladdened him with joy."

Ver. 9. As a fiery oven.--Dr. Kennicott, on the


Messiah's] from the earth, and their seed from among the children of men.

11 For they intended evil against thee: they imagined a mischievous device, which they are not able to perform.

12 Therefore shalt thou make them turn their back, when thou shalt make ready thine arrows upon thy strings against the face of them.

13 Be thou exalted, LORD, in thine own strength: so will we sing and praise thy power. (Y)


To the chief Musician upon Aijeleth Shahar. A Psalm of David.

MY God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me? why art thou so


[prayer far from helping me, and from the words of my roaring?

2 O my God, I cry in the day time, but thou hearest not; and in the night season, and am not silent.

3 But thou art holy, O thou that inhabitest the praises of Israel. 4 Our fathers trusted in thee: they trusted, and thou didst deliver them. 5 They cried unto thee, and were delivered: they trusted in thee, and were not confounded.

6 But I am a worm, and no man; a reproach of men, and despised of the people.

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7 All they that see me, laugh me to scorn: they shoot out the lip, they shake the head, saying,

8 He trusted on the LORD that he


(Y) A Psalm of David.-Bishop Horsley divides this psalm into two parts. "The first part, consisting of the first seven verses, (he remarks) is addressed to a certain king. The second part, beginning with the eighth and ending with the twelfth verse, is addressed to that king, assuring him of success and triumph over his enemies, as the reward of his trust in God. The thirteenth verse closes the whole song with a prayer to God, to exert his power for the speedy destruction of his enemies." The king here referred to, the Bishop, in harmony with the Chaldee paraphrast, explains of the king Messiah. There seems no necessity, however, wholly to exclude the type. When God blessed

Abraham, he was made a blessing, and so David; and this, indeed, is God's method of blessing mankind. Israel were blessed for the fathers' sakes, and we are blessed for Christ's sake. (Rom. xi. 28; Ephes. iv. 32.)

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"The church concludes with a joyful acclamation to her Redeemer, wishing for his exaltation in his own strength as God, who was to be abased in much weakness as man. We still continue to wish and pray for his exaltation over sin, in the hearts of his people by grace, and finally over death, in their bodies, by his glorious power at the resurrection." Bishop Horne.


authority of three or four MSS, would read, "Thou shalt put them in a fiery furnace." But Bishop Horsley says, "The common reading seems preferable. It describes the smoke of the Messiah's enemies perishing by fire, ascending like the smoke of a furnace." See Rev. xiv. 11.

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Ver. 10. Their fruit―That is, their children. Ps. cxxvii. 3.

Ver. 12. Therefore shalt thou make them turn their backs-Marg "Thou shalt set them as a butt," So Ainsworth, Horsley, &c. See Job vii. 20.—xvi. 12; Lam. iii. 12.

PSALM XXII. Title,-To the chief Musician

upon Aijeleth Shahar, We have not the lenst idea that this psalm has reference to any musical instrument or tune, for in none of these titles is any known instrument mentioned, only the different bands of wind or stringed instruments. The Margin explains the Hebrew words Aijeleth Shahar to mean, "the hind of the morning," with which agree Ainsworth, Patrick, and many others, who compare the illustrious subject of this psalm to a hind hunted by dogs (see ver. 16, 20.) in the morn, the usual time for hunting. Some Rabbius,

"Let every nation, every age, In this delightful work engage; Old men and babes in Sion sing

The growing glories of her King,” Watts.

however, translate these words," the morning star;" and Bishop Chandler tells us that Ayelta is the name of Venus among the Arabs; and this name, "the morning star," is, we know, applied to our Saviour by St.John, in Rev. xxii. 16. But we prefer the former interpretation.

Such titles of poetical compositions are, we know, quite in the Eastern taste. One of the most celebrated Persian poems is called "the Bed of Roses; another," the Garden of Knowledge;" and certain celebrated Arabian works are called, "Fragrant Plants," Approved Butter," "Pure Gold,” “The Lion of the Forest," "The Bright Star," &c. &c. See Oriental Literat. No. 755. Rev. T. H. Horne's Introd. vol. ii. p. 165. (Very similar was the taste of authors in our own country, in the 16th century. See also the titles of the 45th, 6th, 60th, and 800 Psalms.

Ver. 1. From helping me-Heb. "From my sal vation."From my roaring.-The word is ap plied to the roaring of a lion, (Amos iii. 8, and else where) and we learn from St. Matthew, (ch. xxv) 46, 47.) that when Jesus uttered the precedin words, it was with a loud voice, and in great agon (Heb. v. 7.)

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