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3 A prudent man foreseeth the evil, and hideth himself: but the simple pass on, and are punished.

4 By humility and the fear of the are riches, honour, and life.


5 Thorns and snares are in the way of the froward : he that doth keep his soul shall be far from them.

6 Train up a child in the way he should go: and when he is old, he will not depart from it.

7 The rich ruleth over the poor, and the borrower is servant to the lender.

8 He that soweth iniquity shall reap vanity and the rod of his anger shall fail.

9 lle that hath a bountiful eye shall be blessed; for he giveth of his bread to the poor.

10 Cast out the scorner, and contention shall go out; yea, strife and reproach shall cease.

11 He that loveth pureness of heart,


[on wisdom and prudence.

for the grace of his lips the king shall be his friend.

12 The eyes of the LORD preserve knowledge, and he overthroweth the words of the transgressor.

13 The slothful man saith, There is a lion without, I shall be slain in the streets.

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14 The mouth of strange women is a deep pit: he that is abhorred of the LORD shall fall therein.

15 Foolishness is bound in the heart of a child; but the rod of correction shall drive it far from him.

16 He that oppresseth the poor to increase his riches, and he that giveth to the rich, shall surely come to want. (Y)

17 ¶ Bow down thine ear, and hear the words of the wise, and apply thine heart unto my knowledge.

18 For it is a pleasant thing if thou keep them within thee; they shall withal be fitted in thy lips.


stand before the judgment seat of his Maker?

Another maxim of great importance, and perhaps more frequently quoted than any other in the book, relates to the great advantage of early education: "Train up a child in the way that he should go." The margin says, "Catechise;" but the true sense appears to be, initiate, or "train up" in the practice of his duty; and then there is great reason to hope he will form habits of religion and good morals, from which he will not be easily diverted. The word also siguifies to dedicate, (as Gesenius ob-serves) and the solemn dedication of children to God, is a probable means of deeply impressing them with their sense of duty; and furnishes them with an important plea in prayer-" Our fathers trusted in thee, and thou didst deliver them."

Ver. 1-16. Conclusion of the second part of this book.-The second maxim in this chapter contains the true doctrine of equality: "The rich and the poor meet together: the Lord is the Maker of them all." Creatures, as creatures, are all equal in his sight: and however unequal their character and circumstances in life may be, they are all equal in the grave, and shall stand upon the same principle of equality before his judgment bar: "for We must all appear before the judgment seat of Christ, that every one may receive the things done in his body, whether good or bad." (2 Cor. v. 10.) This doctrine cuts up the root of pride. What hath any man that he hath not received? Who shall dare to treat with cruelty and oppression the poor man, at whose side he may Ps. xxii. 4.


CHAP. XXII. Ver. 1. A good name character. Loving favour· that is, better than," &c. Marg. "Favour is


Ver.4 By humility-Marg. "The reward of humility," &c. So Mr. Holden and Dr. Boothroyd. Ver. 6. Train up a child-Heb. " Initiate upon the mouth" i. e. by the command, namely, of God.

la the way he should go-Hebrew, In his way. So that this clause might read literally, "Initiate a child by the command (of God) in fis



Ver.7. To the lender-Heb. "To the man that

Ver. 8. The rod of his anger shall fail-Marg. "Shall be consumed." So Holden. "The rod (or sceptre) of his anger," means his assumed authority, Ver. 9. He that hath a bountiful eye-Heb. " He that is good of eye."

Ver. II. For the grace of his lips-Marg. " (And bath) grace in his lips," &c.

Ver. 14. A deep pit. See chap. xxiii. 27.

Ver. 18. Within thee-Heb. In thy belly.". See Note on chap. xx. 30.

Ver. 29. Mean-Heb. " Obscure;" i. e. either, 1. Men in darkness themselves, ignorant and mean; or, 2. Men unknown, and undistinguished.

Farther miscellaneous]



BETTER is the poor that walketh in his integrity, than he that is perverse in his lips, and is a fool.

2 Also, that the soul be without knowledge, it is not good; and he that hasteth with his feet sinneth.

3 The foolishness of man perverteth his way: and his heart fretteth against the LORD.

4 Wealth maketh many friends; but the poor is separated from his neighbour.

5 A false witness shall not be unpunished, and he that speaketh lies shall not escape.

6 Many will intreat the favour of the prince and every man is a friend to him that giveth gifts.

7 All the brethren of the poor do hate him how much more do his friends go far from him? he pursueth them with words, yet they are wanting to him.

8 He that getteth wisdom loveth his own soul: he that keepeth understanding shall find good.

9 A false witness shall not be unpunished, and he that speaketh lies shall perish.

10 Delight is not seemly for a fool; much less for a servant to have rule over princes.

11 The discretion of a man deferreth his anger; and it is his glory to pass over a transgression.


ing of a lion; but his favour is as dew upon the grass.

13 A foolish son is the calamity of his father: and the contentions of a wife are a continual dropping.

14 House and riches are the inheritance of fathers: and a prudent wife is from the LORD.

15 Slothfulness casteth into a deep sleep; and an idle soul shall suffer hunger.

16 He that keepeth the commandment keepeth his own soul; but he that despiseth his ways shall die.

17 He that hath pity upon the poor lendeth unto the LORD; and that which he hath given will he pay him again.

18 Chasten thy son while there is hope, and let not thy soul spare for his crying.

19 A man of great wrath shall suffer punishment: for if thou deliver him, yet thou must do it again.

20 Hear counsel, and receive instruction, that thou mayest be wise in the latter end.

21 There are many devices in a man's heart; nevertheless the counsel of the LORD, that shall stand.

22 The desire of a man is his kindness; and a poor man is better than a liar.

23 The fear of the LORD tendeth to life: and he that hath it shall abide satisfied; he shall not be visited with evil.

24 A slothful man hideth his hand in his bosom, and will not so much as

12 The king's wrath is as the roar- bring it to his mouth again.


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Ver. 6. To him that giveth gifts-Heb. "To a man of gifts."

Ver. 8. Getteth wisdom-Heb. "Getteth an heart." Ver. 10. Delight-Rather" delicacy." See Deut. xxviii. 54, 56.

Ver. 13. A continual dropping." The waters," by a continual dropping," wear away the stones;" so the perpetual contentions of a brawling woman wear away the peace and patience of her husband,

Ver. 16. He that keepeth the commandment, (viz of God) keepeth, &c.

Ver. 17. That which he hath given-Boothroyd, "His recompence will be rendered unto him.”

Ver. 18. Let not thy soul spare for his cryingMarg. "Spare to his destruction." Holden," And thy soul will not desire (Boothroyd, not lift up a wish for) his death."

Ver. 19. A man of great wrath.... If thou deliver.... thou must do it again.-That is, a vio lent and passionate man is always getting into broils, and incurring punishment.

Ver. 21. There are many devices, &c.-See chap. xvi. 1, 9.

Ver 22. The desire-Rather, "the desirable." Holden, "A desirable thing in man is his kindness," and (or "but ") a poor man who can do nothing, is better than a liar, who promises and will de


Various moral]


25 Smite a scorner, and the simple will beware: and reprove one that hath understanding, and he will understand knowledge.

26 He that wasteth his father, and chaseth away his mother, is a son that causeth shame, and bringeth reproach.

27 Cease, my son, to hear the instruction that causeth to err from the words of knowledge.

28 An ungodly witness scorneth judgment: and the mouth of the wicked devoureth iniquity.

29 Judgments are prepared for scorners, and stripes for the back of fools. (T)


WINE is a mocker, strong drink is raging and whosoever is deceived thereby is not wise.

2 The fear of a king is as the roaring of a lion: whoso provoketh him to anger sinneth against his own soul.

3 It is an honour for a man to


[precepts continued.

cease from strife: but every fool will be meddling.

4 The sluggard will not plow by reason of the cold; therefore shall he beg in harvest, and have nothing.

5 Counsel in the heart of man is like deep water; but a man of understanding will draw it out.

6 Most men will proclaim every one his own goodness? but a faithful man who can find?

7 The just man walketh in his integrity: his children are blessed after him.

8 A king that sitteth in the throne of judgment scattereth away all evil with his eyes.

9 Who can say, I have made my heart clean, I am pure from my sin?

10 Divers weights, and divers measures, both of them are alike abomination to the LORD.

11 Even a child is known by his doings, whether his work be pure, and whether it be right.

12 The hearing ear, and the seeing


(T) Farther miscellaneous apothegms.In several of the proverbs in the early part of this chapter, integrity, knowledge, and truth, are contrasted with riches and folly: and the poor man who is honest, intelligent, and pious, is preferred before the rich man who is ignorant, perverse, and fretful. Yet, such is the state of the world, that Wealth maketh many friends, while Poverty scatters them: stil!, in the sight of God and good men, wisdom is better than folly; and "he that getteth and keepeth understanding," shall find good in the issue.

Industry, charity, and parental discipline, are favourite topics with Solomon,

especially the latter, of which he appears to have seen and felt the great importance, and probably regretted his own neglect in the case of his son Rehoboam, who, in many respects, answered to the character of the fool which he so well describes. "Chasten," or "correct thy son while' there is hope," implies that parental discipline should begin early, to have its proper effect; for when habits of insubordination are formed, the task is almost hopeless. Of the latter clause, the margin seems to direct to the preferable interpretation: "Let not thy soul spare him to his own ruin," when perhaps even a parent's heart might rather wish to see him dead, than alive and criminal. (See Notes.)


Ver. A. Hideth his hand in his bosom.—T'salachat is never the bosom, but a pan, dish, or bowl, sach as the poor eat out of with their hands. 2 Kings XXL. 13; 2 Chron. xxxv. 13. See Oriental Customs, No. 201. The idle man dippeth his hand into the dish for soup, and will not so much as bring it to his mouth again.

Ver. 26. He that wasteth his father-Hodgson, "He that plundereth his father, or driveth away his mother, is," &c.

Ver. 27. The instruction.... to err-that is, to hear erroneous teachers. The supplementary words

seem unnecessary.

Ver. 2. An ungodly witness-Heb. “A witness of Belial." See 1 Kings xxi. 10.

CHAP. XX. Ver. 2. The fear-that is, his wrath, which excites fear. Comp. chap. xvi. 14.-xix. 12, Ver. 3. It is an honour for a man-Heb. Ish, a man of rank or eminence, as opposed to a fool. Ver.4. Cold-Marg. "Winter," which is more ac


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Ver. 6. Most (or many) men .... his own good- · ness, (Marg. "bounty") but a faithful man—à man who is all that he pretends to be-who, &c.

Ver. 10. Divers weights, &c.-Heb. "A stone and a stone." Measures- An ephah and an ephah," i. e. stones of different weight, and measures of different capacity.

Various moral]


eye, the LORD hath made even both of them.

13 Love not sleep, lest thou come to poverty; open thine eyes, and thou shalt be satisfied with bread.

14 It is naught, it is naught, saith the buyer but when he is gone his way, then he boasteth.

15 There is gold, and a multitude of rubies but the lips of knowledge are a precious jewel.

16 Take his garment that is surety for a stranger: and take a pledge of him for a strange woman.

17 Bread of deceit is sweet to a man; but afterwards his mouth shall be filled with gravel.

18 Every purpose is established by counsel and with good advice make


19 He that goeth about as a talebearer revealeth secrets: therefore meddle not with him that flattereth with his lips.

20 Whoso curseth his father or his mother, his lamp shall be put out in obscure darkness.

21 An inheritance may be gotten


[precepts continued.

hastily at the beginning; but the end thereof shall not be blessed.

22 Say not thou, I will recompense evil; but wait on the LORD, and he shall save thee.

23 Divers weights are an abomination unto the LORD; and a false balance is not good.

24 Man's goings are of the LORD; how can a man then understand his own way?

25 It is a snare to the man who devoureth that which is holy, and after vows to make enquiry.

26 A wise king scattereth the wicked, and bringeth the wheel over them.

27 The spirit of man is the candle of the LORD, searching all the inward parts of the belly.

28 Mercy and truth preserve the king and his throne is upholden by


29 The glory of young men is their strength and the beauty of old men is the grey head.

30 The blueness of a wound cleanseth away evil: so do stripes the inward parts of the belly. (U)


(U) Various-moral precepts continued.— "The first precept in this chapter is against drunkenness, as an enemy to wisdom, even in common things, much more in those of everlasting consequence for that it commonly expels out of men's minds all reverence, both to God and to others, inclining them to take the licence to say or do any thing, without restraint or discretion; and what unruly passions it ex

cites when the brain is disturbed with it, is known to all, and need not be here recited. The word (Homeh) which Solomon here uses, and which we render raging, or outrageous, includes them all; siguifying that discomposed, unquiet, and restless state of mind, which expresses itself in some wild motions or other, according as men are naturally inclined. But nothing worse can be said of it than this, that it makes men stupid sots, or profane


Ver. 13. Open thine eyes-that is, early in the morning, as the context shows.

Ver. 15. Rubies-" Gems." See Note on ch. iii. 15. Ver. 16. Take his garment, &c.-This is better rendered by Dr. Durell, Mr. Holden, and others;

Take his garment, when a stranger is surety:" but in the latter clause we prefer Dr. Boothroyd's version: "And his pledge for (the debts of) strangers." Ver. 17. Bread of deceit.-Marg. "Lying."Filled with gravel—that is, bread procured by fraud, will eat as if there were sand or gravel in it; which is said to be one way in which criminals were sometimes punished.

Ver. 19. He that, &c.-See ch. xi. 13.

Ver. 20. His lamp shall be put out-that is, his posterity shall be cut off. See 1 Kings xv. 4. and N. Ver. 25. And after vows beginneth, &c.—The general sense is, that men do wrong first, and begin

to inquire whether they have done so, when it is too late. But the old divines apply it to sacrilege, thus: A man robs God of his due, and then vows to make amends. See Bp. Patrick.

Ver. 26. And bringeth the wheel over them-that is, crushes them by the weight of his authority, as corn was threshed with the cart wheels. See Isa. xxviii. 27, 28,

Ver. 27. The spirit of man— Heb. Nishemath, the breath, Gen. fi.7.

Ver. 30. The blueness of a wound.-This is very difficult to translate. Dr. Boothroyd's version seems most intelligible: "As the suppuration of a wound cleanseth the evil, so (do) stripes," &c. The phrase "the inward parts of the belly," among the Hebrews, answers to our phrase "the inside," which is often used for the inner man-the mind. See ch, xviij. 8. -xxvi, 22.

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More miscellaneous]




HE king's heart is in the hand of the LORD, as the rivers of water he turneth it whithersoever he will.

2 Every way of a man is right in his own eyes: but the LORD pondereth the hearts.

3 To do justice and judgment is more acceptable to the LORD than sacrifice.

4 An high look, and a proud heart, and the plowing of the wicked, is sin. 5 The thoughts of the diligent tend only to plenteousness; but of every one that is hasty only to want.

6 The getting of treasures by a lying tongue is a vanity tossed to and fro of them that seek death.

7 The robbery of the wicked shall destroy them; because they refuse to do judgment.


strange: but as for the pure, his work is right.

9 It is better to dwell in a corner of the housetop, than with a brawling woman in a wide house.

10 The soul of the wicked desireth evil: his neighbour findeth no favour in his eyes.

11 When the scorner is punished, the simple is made wise; and when the wise is instructed, he receiveth knowledge.

12 The righteous man wisely considereth the house of the wicked: but God overthroweth the wicked for their wickedness.

13 Whoso stoppeth his ears at the cry of the poor, he also shall cry himself, but shall not be heard.

14 A gift in secret pacifieth anger : and a reward in the bosom strong wrath.

15 It is joy to the just to do judgment: but destruction shall be to the

8 The way of man is froward and workers of iniquity.


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"Counsel in the heart of man," that is, his plans and designs, (says Solomon) "is like deep water" in a well; "but a man of understanding" and penetration, "will draw," or wind" it out" of him. Lord Bacon, who was a second Solomon, gives six rules, whereby the secrets of public men may be discovered; namely, their countenances, words, (rather accidental than deliberate) actions, dispositions, the ends or objects they are known to have in view, and the relations of other


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as the folly of pretending to perfection in the present life; a doctrine which we shall find Solomon inculcating with equal decision in other places. (See 1 Kings viii. 46; 2 Chron. vi. 36; Eccles. vii. 20.)

The maxim (ver. 27.) that "the spirit of man is the candle (or lamp) of the Lord,” is more disputed. The word here rendered "spirit," is the same as is used for the breath of life, which constituted man a living animal; but it seems here to refer particularly to the conscience, which as the lamp of God in the temple, (the sacred chandelier) illuminated the holy place, and showed all the sacred furniture; so the conscience of man, when not put out by sin, discovers all the secret recesses of the human heart. (See Note on ver. 30, and compare 1 Cor. ii. 11.)


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-Mr. Parkhurst thinks the

word means unsteady, alluding to an overloaded beast; but may it not rather allude to a drunken man, reeling and staggering as he goes?

Ver. 9. A corner of the house top. It was com mon to form little closets, like arbours, in a corner of the flat roofs, where persons sometimes slept, in the summer time.-Than with a brawling woman, &c.-Heb. " A woman of contentions in a house of society," i. e. a large house, in which several families reside. Orient. Cust. No. 203. Orient. Lit. No. 839.

Ver. 12. The righteous wisely considereth the house of the wicked—that is, investigates their conduct. But God overthroweth the wicked.-The words" but Ged," seem an unnecessary supplement : the Heb. literally reads, "overthrowing the wicked," &c. See Bp. Patrick,

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