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David entreats]


with the LORD there is mercy, and with him is plenteous redemption. 8 And he shall redeem Israel from all his iniquities. (P)


A Song of degrees of David. LORD, my heart is not haughty, nor mine eyes lofty: neither do I exercise myself in great matters, or in things too high for me.

2 Surely I have behaved and quieted myself, as a child that is weaned of his mother: my soul is even as a weaned child.

3 Let Israel hope in the LORD from henceforth and for ever. (Q)

PSALM CXXXII. A Song of degrees. LORD, remember David, and all

his afflictions:

2 How he sware unto the LORD,


[the divine favour.

and vowed unto the mighty God of Jacob;

3 Surely I will not come into the tabernacle of my house, nor go up into my bed;

4 I will not give sleep to mine eyes, or slumber to mine eyelids,

5 Until I find out a place for the LORD, an habitation for the mighty God of Jacob.

6 Lo, we heard of it at Ephratah: we found it in the fields of the wood.

7 We will go into his tabernacles: we will worship at his footstool.

8 Arise, O LORD, into thy rest; thou, and the ark of thy strength.

9 Let thy priests be clothed with righteousness; and let thy saints shout for joy.

10 For thy servant David's sake turn not away the face of thine anointed.

11 The LORD hath sworn in truth unto David; he will not turn from it;


(P) A penitent confession with prayer for pardon.-This very excellent penitential psalm was also perhaps written during the captivity; though some, as Bishop Patrick and others, ascribe it to the patriarch David. The writer had evidently a deep sense of his own guilt, of the necessity of pardon, and of the way in which it was to be obtained. "All true fear of God must be founded on his forgiving mercy; but for the hope of this we might, indeed we must, dread him; but could not filially and reverentially fear him."

The diligence of the priests or Levites, who, in the purlieus of the temple, watched for the rising day, that they might offer up their early sacrifices, is here used to represent the diligence and anxiety of a convinced sinner in imploring mercy.

"So waits my soul to see thy grace,
And, inure intent than they,

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(Q) A profession of humility, and subjection to Jehovah.-This psalm is ascribed to David, and may correctly describe his feelings and disposition, which, under the influences of divine grace, were controlled and subdued, as a child that is completely weaned from the breast. It is supposed to have been composed in answer to the charges brought against him, of attempting to supplant Saul, and wrest the kingdom from him. The psalm is applied to Christ by some divines, on his being charged, with equal falsehood, with being an enemy to Cæsar. (John xix. 12.) And it is true, that all the virtues which Jews or Christians have partially possessed, resided, in their maturity and full perfection, in our divine Lord.


PSALM CXXXI. Ver. 1. Neither do I exercise Heb," walk") in great matters. ... too high-Heb." wonderful."

Ver. 2. Myself-Heb. "My soul."

PSALM CXXXII. Ver. 3. Surely I will not come -Heb." If I enter," being the usual form of an oath, or vow, that he would not.Find out--That is, discover a proper situation.- —An habitation— Heh. "Habitations."

Ver. 6. Lo, we heard of it (that is, of the ark) at Ephratah-The city of Shiloh, in the country of Ephraim, where the ark and tabernacle long con

tinued, Judges xviii. 31.-xxi. 19; 1 Sam. i.3. therefore an Ephraimite is called an Ephrathite, Judges xii. 5. See Ainsworth.

Ibid. In the fields of the wood-That is, in the city of Kirjath-jearim, which significs, the city of the woods, where the ark was 20 years, after it came home from the Philistines. 1 Sam. vi. 21.-vii. 1, 2. See Ainsworth.

Ver. 7. At his footstool-Namely, before the ark. Ver. 8. Arise, O Lord.-Num. x.35; 2 Chron. vi. 41. Ver. 10. Turn not away the face of thine anointed-That is, "Deny not my request." See Note ou 1 Kings ii. 16.

Ver.11. The Lord hath sworn.-See 2 Sam. vii. 12;

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vision: I will satisfy her poor with bread.

16 I will also clothe her priests with salvation: and her saints shall shout aloud for joy.

17 There will I make the horn of David to bud: I have ordained a lamp for mine anointed.

18 His enemies will I clothe with shame but upon himself shall his crown flourish. (R)


(R) David's anxiety to provide for the ark, and its removal.-There is some difference among commentators, as to the author of this psalm, and the occasion of its being written. If composed by David, it was probably on the second removal of the ark, from the house of Obed-edom, (1 Chron. xv. 4, &c.) and so Lightfoot places it if by Solomon, it must have been about the time of removing the ark into the temple, which he had built for it, (2 Chron. v. 2, &c.) on which occasion the 135th and 136th psalms are also supposed to have been written. Bishop Horne, who inclines to the former hypothesis, so clearly expresses and so beautifully improves it, that we cannot persuade ourselves to omit the following quotation:

"In all circumstances and situations, (says the Bishop) David was solicitous for the tabernacle and service of God. Of the oath and vow here mentioned, we have, indeed, no account in the sacred history; but we read (2 Sam. vii. 2.) of the uneasiness which he expressed to Nathan the prophet, at the thought of his dwelling in a palace of cedar, while the ark of God dwelt only within the curtains of a tent. Nay, we find (by 1 Chron. xvi. 43.) that he did not bless, and consequently did not inhabit his own house, until he had brought the ark to Zion, where the temple was afterwards erected. He could take neither pleasure nor rest, until a place was prepared for the residence of Jehovah, in the midst of his people; and from thenceforth he gave himself, with unwearied diligence, to lay in a plentiful store of the most costly materials, silver, gold, and precious stones, which were employed by his son and successor, Solomon, in constructing the magnificent and mystic edifice. Thus, in the. covenant of grace, did the Son of God en

NOTES-Psalm 1 Kings viii. 25; 2 Chron. vi. 16; Luke i. 69; Acts ji. 30.

Ver. 15. Abundantly bless-Heb. "Blessing I will bless."

Ver. 17. There (i. e. in Zion, or Jerusalem) will I make the horn of David to bud -That is, to spring forth. See Ezek. xxix. 21. A lamp for mine

gage not to take possession of his heavenly palace, nor to enter into his eternal rest, until he had prepared upon the earth a place for the residence of the Lord; a building framed of materials more precious than gold and silver, more bright and beautiful than rubies, emeralds, and diamonds. All this was planned and executed by one and the same person, who first suffered in meekness and patience, like David, then reigned in glory and peace, like Solomon. The believer should spare no pains, no time, no thought, to find out and prepare in his heart an habitation for the God of Jacob, since our Lord hath gra ciously vouchsafed to make this general promise to us all, If a man love me, my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him.'' John xiv. 23.

Several reasons, however, incline us to the opinion of those who consider Solomon as the author. Not only are several expressions in this psalm quoted, or alluded to in his dedication prayer, which, to be sure, a son might copy from his father; but the writer speaks of David in the third person, and pleads before God the labours and afflictions which he (David) had suffered on account of his attachment to the ark of the God of Israel; the oath and covenant which God had made with him, and the promises to be fulfilled in himself, (Solomon) as the budding of David's horn, and as a lamp to preserve his memory; but finally to be accomplished, to their utmost extent, in the Messiah himself, to whom the kingdom must be eventually surrendered, and in whom the promises must receive their ultimate accomplishment.

"The saints, unable to contain

Their inward joys, shall shout and sing:
The Son of David here shall reign,
And Zion triumph in her King."


CXXXII, Con. anointed-A successor, to perpetuate his memory. See 1 Kings XV 4. Kimchi, and other Rabbins, admit this verse to refer to the Messiah.

Ver. 18. Crown flourish.-This seems to allude to the materials of which crowns were perhaps originally made, as certain species of evergreens, the bay, laurel, &e. Pirie, vol. iii. p. 124,

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A Song of degrees of David. BEHOLD, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity!

2 It is like the precious ointment upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron's beard: that went down to the skirts of his garments;

3 As the dew of Hermon, and as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion: for there the LORD Commanded the blessing, even life for evermore. (S)


A Song of degrees.

BEHOLD, bless ye the LORD, all ye servants of the LORD, which



by night stand in the house of the LORD.

2 Lift up your hands in the sanctuary, and bless the LORD.

3 The LORD that made heaven and earth bless thee out of Zion. (T)


PRAISE ye the LORD. Praise ye

the name of the LORD; praise him, O ye servants of the LORD.

2 Ye that stand in the house of the LORD, in the courts of the house of our God,

3 Praise the LORD; for the LORD is good sing praises unto his name: for it is pleasant.

4 For the LORD hath chosen Jacob


(S) The blessedness of unity and brotherly affection. This very beautiful, though very short psalm, is ascribed to David, and was probably written on the death of Ishbosheth, when Abner persuaded the other tribes to unite with Judah and Benjamin, under David's government. (2 Sam. v. 1, &c. The unity of brethren is illustrated by two fine poetic images. The first is borrowed from the anointing of the high priest with the precious consecrated ointment, which spread, not its oily substance, but the rich fragrancy of its perfume, en the collar of his robes. So Lowth quotes, from the elegant version of Buchanan : "Sweet as the odorous balsam pour'd On Aaron's cred head; Which o'er his beard, and down his breast A breathing fragrance shed."

The other image is from the dew, which gently distils upon the mountains. Dr. Pococke, however, who travelled the country, gives a more literal translation. Hermon he supposes the highest mountain in Judea, and that the clouds upon its summit, carried by the North winds, let fall their dews upon Zion, which lies southward.

Dr. Delany (in his life of David) supposes these images to represent a spirit of unity between the governor and people, the head and body of the nation; and if we admit the notion of Dr. Pococke, the

dews may, in the same way, represent the benefit conveyed by the highest orders to all around them. But the images may be more spiritually explained. Christ, who is God's anointed, bestows the anointing of the Spirit on all his people. (1 Johu ii. 27.) He also is "as the dew unto Israel," refreshing and comforting his people by divine grace. (Hosea xiv. 5.)

In the close of this psalm, we have a striking proof that the more pious Hebrews did not confine their views to the present life, but carried forward their hopes and views beyond the grave, even to "life evermore."


(T) An Evening Hymn.-Bishop Patrick thinks this short psalin (which is the last of the Songs of Degrees) was usually sung by the priests, on shutting up the gates of the temple in the evening, as the next psalm, on opening them in the morning. We read (1 Chron. ix. 33.) that some or other of the Levitical singers were constantly employed," day and night," in singing the praises of Jehovah; so we find, in the celestial world above, the redeemed are before the throne of God, aud serve him day and night in his temple:" (Rev. vii. 15.) but this must be taken figuratively, for a continued round of worship; for, strictly speaking, there is "no night there." (Rev. xxii. 5.)


PSALM CXXXIII. Ver. 2. The skirts - Heb. The mouth;" i. . the edge, or rather, the battonhole of the collar. (Exod. xxxix. 23.) which was under the beard. See Ainsworth.

Ver.3. As the dew of Hermon.... and of Zion. -Bp. Louth supplies the ellipsis as in our transiation and in Ainsworth.

PSALM CXXXIV. Ver. 1. Which by night stand -Namely, the priests, who stood to minister in the sanctuary; or, as some think, to keep watch. Exod. viii. 35.

PSALM CXXXV. In verses 1, 3, 4, &e the sacred names Jah and Jehovah are used interchangeably, and both rendered Loup, in capitals.

Thanksgiving for]


[national mercies. unto himself, and Israel for his pecu- silver and gold, the work of men's liar treasure. hands.

5 For I know that the LORD is great, and that our LORD is above all gods.

6 Whatsoever the LORD pleased, that did he in heaven, and in earth, in the seas, and all deep places.

7 He causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth; he maketh lightnings for the rain; he bringeth the wind out of his treasuries.

8 Who smote the firstborn of Egypt, both of man and beast.

9 Who sent tokens and wonders into the midst of thee, O Egypt, upon Pharaob, and upon all his servants.

10 Who sinote great nations, and slew mighty kings;

11 Sihon king of the Amorites, and Og king of Bashan, and all the kingdoms of Canaan :

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12 And gave their land for an heritage, an heritage unto Israel his people.

13 Thy naine, O LORD, endureth for ever; and thy memorial, O LORD, throughout all generations.

14 For the LORD will judge his people, and he will repent himself concerning his servants.

15 The idols of the heathen are

16 They have mouths, but they speak not; eyes have they, but they see not;

17 They have ears, but they hear not; neither is there any breath in their mouths.

18 They that make them are like unto them; so is every one that trusteth in them.

19 Bless the LORD, O house of Israel: bless the LORD, O house of Aaron:

20 Bless the LORD, O house of Levi; ye that fear the LORD, bless the LORD.

21 Blessed be the LORD out of Zion, which dwelleth at Jerusalem. Praise ye the LORD. (U)


GIVE thanks unto the LORD; for he is good for his mercy endureth for ever.

2 O give thanks unto the God of gods: for his mercy endureth for ever. 30 give thanks to the LORD of lords; for his mercy endureth for ever. 4 To him who alone doeth great wonders for his mercy endureth for


5 To him that by wisdom made the


PSALM CXXXV. (U) This is evidently a dialogue psalm, between the priests and Levites; and Mr. Henley (in Lowth) supposes a third choir uttered the hallelujahs-" Praise ye Jah, praise ye Jehovah;" that is, praise ye the LORD. Ver. 4 is supposed to be a general chorus, in which the congregation joined, as also verses 12, 14, 18, 21. This, however, is in great measure conjectural. The chief topics of this psalm and of the following, and, indeed, of most of the Hebrew odes, are the deliverance from Egypt and the conquest of Canaan, with the preference of the true God before the idols of the heathen. These psalms admonish us,

that it is our duty to praise God for his
mercy to the church, and to the world at
large; but specially to record our national
mercies and deliverances, of which no na-
tion under heaven has so many to record
as ours. When the heart of man is in a
suitable frame for praise, it can never want
for topics, and all our temporal mercies
will insensibly lead a pious mind to the
blessings of redemption and eternal life.

"He for his people needful food provides,
Guards all their blessings, all their steps he guides;
Through snares and dangers safely leads them on
To endless bliss, and his own heavenly throne;
May praise perpetual to the God of heaven,
For his eternal grace and truth be given."
Simon Browne,


Ver. 7. He causeth the vapours to ascend from the ends of the earth-the extremities of the horison.

-He maketh lightnings for the rain-At Aleppo, a night seldom passes without lightning: when it appears in the West or S. West, it is a sure sign of approaching rain. Harmer, vol. i. p. 67. Compare

Job xxxviii. 22, &c. Jer. xiv. 22.

Ver. 15-18. These verses seem copied from Ps. exv. 4-5, 8.-only, instead of "Noses have they, but they smell not," we here read, "Neither is there any breath in their mouths;" i, e. they are lifeless,

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endureth for ever.

[endureth for ever.

16 To him which led his people through the wilderness: for his mercy. endureth for ever.

17 To him which smote great kings: for his mercy endureth for ever.

18 And slew famous kings: for his mercy endureth for ever:

19 Sihon king of the Amorites: for his mercy endureth for ever:

20 And Og the king of Bashan: for his mercy endureth for ever:

21 And gave their land for an heritage: for his mercy endureth for ever: 22 Even an heritage unto Israel his servant for his mercy endureth for


23 Who remembered us in our low estate for his mercy endureth for


24 And hath redeemed us from our enemies: for his mercy endureth for


25 Who giveth food to all flesh: for his mercy endureth for ever.

26 O give thanks unto the God of heaven for his mercy endureth for ever. (X)



(X) A general exhortation to praise God for his mercies. The words," for his mercy endureth for ever," which are repeated as the chorus to every verse of this psalm, were used by the Israelites in their daily worship; (1 Chron. xvi. 41.) by Solomon, at the dedication of the temple; 2 Chron. vii. 3, 6.) and by Jehoshaphat, on the advice of a prophet, when he went out to engage the combined armies of the Ammonites and Moabites, (2 Chron. xx. 21.) and by their descendants, on laying the foundation of the second temple. (Ezra viii. 11.) Praise is as necessary as prayer; and it is impertinent continually to supplicate the divine Being for new mercies, without thanking him for those which we already have received.

On this psalm, Mr. Henry will furnish us with two or three pertinent remarks. 1.God's mercies to his people are thus repeated and drawn out from the beginning to the end, with a progress and advance ad infinitum. 2. In every favour received, we ought to notice the mercy of God, as the same now that it always has been. 3. That the everlasting continuance of God's mercy is equally to his honour and to his saints' comfort. 4. We must give thanks to God, not only because he does good to us, but also because he is good in himself; the streams must be traced to the fountain; and be is the fountain of all mercy.

"Let us, with a joyful mind,
Praise the Lord, for he is kind:
For his mercies shall endure,
Ever faithiul, ever sure."



PSALM CXXXVI. Ver. 8. The sun to ruleHeb. "For ruling" Gen. i. 16.

Ver. 15. But overthrew - Heb. "Shaked off."

(Exod. xiv. 27, 28.—xv. 4.) The various events named in this psalm have been repeatedly referred


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