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now begun to return a second time and prop up their houses, and build little wooden stalls for trading, and some are erecting new residences. The silk factories, most of which were but slightly injured, have commenced operation, and quite a new spirit of activity and enterprise is springing up in the city. Yet they all live in constant dread of another shock without a moment's warning.
“It was sad, indeed, as we wound through the streets, to see such marks of ruin and desolation on every hand. We arrived at the house of a Protestant Armenian, just as the sun was setting and flooding the sky with golden glory. How delightful it is to receive the cordial welcome of a friend in a strange land, and that too from the hand of a stranger, when a spirit of Christian love fills the heart!
"We came drenched with wet and exhausted by our journey. They at once provided us with dry clothing, a neat room, and a mangal of coals in the centre-sent a servant with a basin of warm water to wash and rub our feet, as is the oriental custom-gave us Armenian cloaks lined with fur, to prevent our taking cold by the exposure —prepared us an excellent supper from the well-cooked dishes of the country-brought pipes and tobacco for a soothing influence, and then sat down and talked, till a late hour in the evening, of the gospel and the love of Christ. I remarked
"This was far greater kindness than I ever expected from a stranger, far in the interior of Turkey.'
“Oh,' said they, 'when our benefactors from America come to visit us, we love to express to them the fulness of our gratitude for sending us the Bible and the gospel of salvation! We pray you to receive it all as coming from our heart.'
MOSQUE OF BAJAZID.
"I said to them, 'It seemed like Bunyan's Pilgrim at the palace called Beautiful, who was received and entertained simply because his name was Christian.'
We, too, slept in the Chamber of Peace,' and awoke to sing hymns of praise and thanksgiving to our Lord and Saviour.
"In the morning, after accomplishing my official business, I set out to explore the ruins of the city. First I visited several of the old khans or large public buildings, with an open court in the centre-let to merchants and travellers. These were all filled with ruins, so that it was quite impossible to occupy them. Then I came to the Mosque of Sultan Bajazid, the largest in the empire. Its principal walls are still standing. I readily obtained admission by giving a backshish to the keeper of the keys. The architectural effect of the immense columns, and the twenty-four domes supporting the roof, and the sense of vastness within, surpasses any of the mosques I have visited at Constantinople. It is adorned with inscriptions in golden letters from the Koran on the walls, and the high altar is elaborately wrought and gilded in the arabesque style. A fountain is still playing in the centre, though the domes are so much shattered and crushed, that it is not used for Moslem worship. Through some I could see the clouds passing, and the clear blue sky above. It seemed dangerous to remain long, as the least agitation would have precipitated the broken cornices and columns. upon us. I therefore hastened out, when an old Turk stepped up to me at the door, and asked, with an air of great satisfaction:
Well, chelibi, have you any such great buildings as this in your country, where you came from?'
MOSQUE OF ORKHAN.
"I said, 'Yes; this was very grand, but the Franks had cathedrals much more splendid.'
"At which he expressed much surprise, and said, 'Allah mashallah'-'God is merciful,' and walked away.
"I then with much difficulty gained permission to ascend one of the minarets and take a view of the city, perhaps the first time this was ever granted to a European. The Moslems guard their minarets with special care, and allow none but Muezzims, or criers to prayer, to climb them, and these are often selected from among the blind, lest they should see any of their women unveiled as they walk out into the private gardens. The panorama around was beautiful beyond description. Mount Olympus towered above in rugged grandeur; Broosa, with its khans and mosques, its fountains, factories, and palaces, partly in ruins, partly active with life, stretched along the mountain side; and beyond lay the lovely plain, planted with the mulberry, walnut, and oak, and cultivated with fruitful vineyards, and fields of corn and wheat, rejoicing in luxuriant beauty; while the whole, like an amphitheatre, was encircled by a chain of hills, which circumscribed and fixed limits to the view, that the mind might fully comprehend and enjoy the scene.
'Descending thence we took a cavass, and visited the mosque of the celebrated Sultan Orkhan, who conquered Broosa in 1326. It is splendidly built of white marble, and ornamented with much carving on the outside walls. The interior is decorated with Persian porcelain of variegated colours, and the Mirah curiously wrought in antique style. At a side altar are two large copies of the Koran in golden letters, executed with much artistic effect. We also entered the Salamlik, or Sultan's station for perform
ing prayers, apart from and above the rest.
This was richly finished with porcelain and gold, and beside it was another closely latticed, for the Sultana to join in her prayers at the same time; the first of the kind I have seen in any mosque. He must have had a higher regard for the sex than the Turks generally. The whole is so shattered by the earthquake as to be rendered unfit for use. The same is also true of all the three hundred and sixty-five mosques of the city; not one of them is entered by Mussulmans for prayer-a severe blow, indeed, to their religion. They regard their places of worship with most devout reverence, resorting to them five times a-day to repeat their prayers. And now the curse of Allah rests upon them.
"We then went to the tomb of the Sultan, a marble mausoleum, in which he and six of his family are buried. It is situated in a large court filled with shade and fruit trees, and built with much magnificence; but it is also tottering upon its base, and just ready to fall and bury them again deep in the ruins. The great conqueror has selected a lovely spot for his last resting-place, at the base of Mount Olympus, enshrined in sculptured marble, surrounded by wide-spreading shade trees, and overlooking the charming plain of Broosa. We then descended from this elevated point of table-land, and threading our way through the dilapidated streets, came to Daoud Monastery, once an ancient Greek church, but subsequently converted into a mosque. In proof of which we
saw a cross of coloured marble worked into one of the columns, and another carved with the chisel upon a capital. Here Osman, the founder of the Ottoman empire, lies buried. The whole is one mass of broken
ruins. The earthquake at this point seems to have spent its greatest force. Solid marbles and granites have been rent asunder by the shock, like cords of tow, and thrown together in confused heaps. Never before have I seen such broken fragments. Our cavass now gave us a description of its effect. Said he :
"There was first a deep, rumbling noise and a loud explosion upwards, and then the whole mountain and earth surged to and fro, and trembled as if shaken by the wind. The shocks continued all night. The buildings were falling on all sides, and the women and children shrieked, and fled in every direction for safety. It was a scene terrific beyond conception.'
"We then ascended to the Castle Hill, and took a last view of the city and country around. This point in front marks the track of the great rocks that were precipitated from the mountain side, and spread desolation in their path to the plain; there on the right the flames burst forth and laid waste a whole district of the city, and we saw marks of destruction on every hand, though much that was beautiful still rose above the ruins. On the left were several large silk factories, apparently quite uninjured, and we descended through the old castle gate to visit one of these establishments. I was much surprised to find it worked entirely by steam and machinery, attended by factory girls, well dressed, and exhibiting all the enterprise and activity of a Lowell or Lawrence mill. We learned there were twenty-four factories in the city, and only two or three were destroyed by the earthquake. The remainder are now in active operation. Indeed, these and the silk-growing business form the only dependence of the people.