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the gospel to all. The Holy Ghost was with him in all that he said and did.
"This morning the Moodir calls upon us, and the Usbashi, or commander of the fortress, and a number of patients came for medicine. Then a Moslem sheik and the Usbashi, or major of the troops. Afterward the commissioners of the Pasha came in to smoke a chibouk and take coffee with us, and then Osman Bey, the Koordish chief, a very bold, fearless man in appearance, and having much of the fierce spirit of his native mountains. See also the woman, a widow, and her daughter, who had been stripped of all her possessions by a plundering Koordish chief, and listen to her tale of oppression and wrong. Saw also one Jew, a probable descendant of the ten captive tribes. He says there are 500 Jews in Amadia. They have been waiting 1800 years for (Christ) the Messiah, and He has not come yet.
66 TUESDAY, 25th. "Aalam Effendi Moodir, of Amadieh, a very kind, hospitable man.
"A cold, foggy, rainy morning. The snow is on the mountains. The Moodir, mounted on his Arab horse, with a band of his attendants and a band of music, escorted us out of the city, and then he gives us his salaams in parting. We ride over to the Nestorian village of Bibudi. The villagers all gather on the house-tops to welcome us; they are exceedingly friendly. It is a wedding day, and they are all dressed in their gay clothing. The church is a very neat stone building, with
a low door. They all come around, priests, deacons, men, women, and children, and we preach the gospel to them; tell them to believe the Bible, trust in God, have faith in Christ, and pray for the Holy Spirit to dwell in their hearts, and guide them to everlasting life. They heartily respond, and greatly desire a missionary to live among them, and teach them the way of eternal salvation; they wished that we should stay with them. The village is beautifully situated under the mountain range, and overlooking the valley. We then pursue our way. The fog rests on the mountain, and clears from the landscape before us. The sun shines out underneath the clouds upon the white waterfalls and snow-capped peaks, like a scene of resplendent glory, more beautiful in its effect than any I have ever before seen. Pass through two Chaldean Catholic Nestorian villages, and arrive at evening at Daoudich. The Moodir Achmed Effendi, a very pleasant gentleman, receives us with much hospitality, and gives us a cordial reception in his palace castle. The landscape to-day was most beautiful. The fields are cultivated with grain, rice, and olive trees. The mountain ranges rise on either hand, and the valley stretches before us in picturesque and varied beauty.
"Daoudich contains a population of eighty Catholic Nestorians. A small Nestorian village is about one hour distant. We have a very animated conversation in the evening with the Moodir, on the subject of religious liberty. He says there is the same God over Moslems, Christians, Jews, and Yesidees, and all should be brothers.
"WEDNESDAY, 26th. "A fine view from the castle fort, of the rugged snow
crowned mountains and beautiful fertile valley around. The Moodir with his attendants, on horseback, accompanies us a short distance on the way. We ride on three hours over a hilly country well cultivated, growing grain and grapes. Guards receive us on the road in military style. Then we come to the village of Baroski; 300, all Mussulmans, very neat. We lunch in a comfortable place. Nice dried grapes are brought to us.
We take a guard of five men, and travel over a similarly cultivated country, and arrive in two hours at the village of Nereshko for the night. There are sixty inhabitants, all Moslems; the women go unveiled. Our room is filled with wheat, rice, and barley, in sacks piled to the roof. The situation is elevated and beautiful. Fevers seem to prevail in all this region, resulting principally from irrigating the rice and tobacco fields.
"We ride over a hilly country planted with wheat, grain, and cotton, and in two and a half hours come to the Koordish village of Tel Akro, about fifty inhabitants, situated under the hillside. Then we pass across a branch of the Kabour, and beside the large river itself, flowing with a rapid current. The strong castle of a robber chief rises alone on the rugged mountains of Kala. We lunch in a rocky glen beside a little stream of pure water.
"Then we continue on our way and come to a Koordish encampment, cochers (robbers), in a little valley of black tents. Afterward we ride along the river Kabour, the ancient Chebar, and in two hours come in sight of Zakho. A large tower castle rises in front, and two bridges across the river; the first called Del Ali (pretty woman), so called
because a Koordish chief saw her there. We arrive at 4 P.M. at Zakho, and are received very respectfully at first by the Moodir, but a Catholic insists upon having us put in a shabby room. We send for the Moodir, and assert our rights with the Sultan's firman, and he then gives us the first place and good attention. The Moodir is Shemdin Agha, a fine-looking Koord, with a black beard. Zakho has a population of 2000; 1500 Jews, 500 Moslems, 40 Christians.
The Moodir very politely brings grapes, figs, pomegranates, &c., for our entertainment, and we spend a very pleasant evening, smoking chibouks and drinking coffee sociably together.
"FRIDAY, 28th. "We are now in the Pashalic of Diarbekir. After breakfast, the Moodir calls and brings his little son, a fine boy, with his sword girt on. Then go to visit the Jews; find them in the synagogue at their prayers; see the Rabbi, a venerable old man with a white beard; have been here 200 years; shew me their Hebrew books, and a copy of the law rolled up like a scroll. They gather around me with much interest; are pleased to know that I have been to Jerusalem; they come from all lands. A very interesting visit. The Moodir, mounted on a fine Arab mare, with his guard of honour, escorts us on the way. We cross the bridge of Del Ali, and one hour and a half along the plain come to the village of Durnoc, now Moslem, formerly Christian. There is here a deserted
Now we ford the deep
church, now used as a stable. river, and ride over the plain one hour, and lunch beside a running brook. We gallop on over the plain, see forty or fifty gazelles, and large birds like ostriches. Here the
great battle between Darius and Alexander was fought. In two hours we arrive at the village of Narhawur. 50 population, 25 Protestants and 25 Catholics. Stop at the house of Shemmas Paulo (Deacon Paul), a Protestant, who receives us with much rejoicing. The priest, a Protestant, calls in to visit us, and many of the villagers gather around. He is in the employ of the missionaries, and teaches school in his own house; is a pleasant-looking man with a black beard.
"The situation of the village is beautiful, on a little mound, near a stream of water, overlooking the plain. The sunset scene is lovely from the house-top, the deep golden light in the west, and the rosy tint resting on the snow-capped mountains, and the whole landscape stretching before me of unusual beauty. The river Kabour flows through, and here doubtless the prophet Ezekiel saw his sublime visions of Jehovah most high. In the evening, fifteen or sixteen of the Nestorians gather in the room of the Kahyah, seated on their knees in a circle, and we speak to them of Christ and the gospel of salvation. They listen with deep attention. They then tell us of the oppression of the Moslems. There are twenty-two men, and they pay one-tenth of their grain, 1332 piastres tax, and soldiers are quartered upon them, from two to twenty every night without pay, and as it is on the high road, it is a serious grievance. Every forty-four Christians must pay 5000 piastres for one soldier.
'Sleep in the same room with our horses, three apartments, harem, male sleeping-room, and stable. The sunrise view from the house-top is magnificent, over the